The term science-policyinterface (SPI) has often been used to describe the space in which scientific knowledge, policy making and other groups of stakeholders interact, discuss, debate and at times come to compromises or agreements (Engels, 2005; van den Hove, 2007; Koetz et al., 2012; Bremer & Glavovic, 2013). SPIs have been described inter alia as “a socially constructed and negotiated ‘boundary’ between two social groups; the scientific and policy communities” (Bremer & Glavovic, 2013, p.45) and as “ social processes which encompass relations between scientists and other actors in the policy process, and which allow for exchanges, co-evolution, and joint construction of knowledge with the aim of enriching decision-making” (van den Hove, 2007, p.815). This thesis emphasizes in particular the inclusion of a broader group of stakeholders on the policy side, in line with what one would ideally expect from inclusive, democratic governance structures (Goodin, 2008; M. B. Brown, 2009a; Edenhofer & Kowarsch, 2015). One example can be found in the analysis of ‘stakeholder democracy’ at the 2002 World Summit for Sustainable Development, where stakeholders were engaged in deliberations on global environmental governance to significant, if not ideal, effect (Bäckstrand, 2006). In this thesis, SPIs are conceptualized in line with the work of Anita Engels, namely “as a recursive relation between tightly coupled spheres that mutually inform and influence one another” (Engels, 2005, p.13), where each of these spheres is comprised of a multitude of diverse actors. This emphasis reflects the recognition that a much higher diversity of relevant viewpoints exist beyond science and policy which can and, in certain contexts, should be engaged with when making decisions on issues which affect the lives of so many.
For rising powers, we have an additional, second element to consider: their global footprint. When discussing rising powers, we discuss a social category, which usually is vaguely defined as an ability and willingness to engage globally (Grimm, 2016) and thereby to play an active role in global governance. This, the authors of this text would argue, includes the ability to engage in research and science, which can be understood as an end in itself; knowledge cooperation is one element in international relations. It can and should, however, also be understood as more instrumental: as able to engage with joint problem identification and joint solution seeking – and as able to provide backing for interpretations of the above within the global governance framework. This reasoning would make a functional and able research system one of the conditions for maintaining – if not already acceding – to the status of a rising power. South Africa clearly regards itself as a rising power within Africa and, not least since having joined the BRICS club (Brazil, Russia, India, China and South Africa), also pursues global ambitions. It certainly is the leading country on the African continent in terms of the quantity and quality of research and its national science capacities. South Africa comes with its own history and legacy – in the context of the research setting, most importantly, the internal challenges with regard to the long-term effects of the racist Apartheid regime. Academic positions need to be filled based on academic achievements, but even if merit-based selection is applied rigorously in the university system, the systematic disadvantages and stifling of academic ambitions of large parts of the population leads to a racially determined pre-selection, and the system is fundamentally flawed. This historical legacy is not one for a quick fix, as education and the training of educators takes time. The legacy is thus still very present in the academic system, 24 years after the first democratic elections. Widespread student unrest in 2017, initially about student fees, but subsequently also about the “decolonisation” of the curriculum, illustrated this point. This fault line in academia can be expected to have repercussions for the science–policyinterface, as an interaction always means inter-personal relations. Both the global ambitions of South Africa as a country and individual transnational linkages in academic communities are the background to the following research, which investigates the interface between researchers within South African institutions and national policy-makers.
applied in specalist medical research institutes at universities, like the Dana-Farber Cancer Institute at Harvard, or the New England Enzyme Centre at Tufts University, Boston. Research in other key fields noted earlier (cancer, cardiovascular, AIDS, diabetes, and respiratory diseases) will be conducted in other independent research institutes and university research centres like Harvard Medical School’s pre-clinical research in Biochemical & Molecular Pharmacology, Cell Biology, Genetics, Microbial & Molecular Genetics, and Neurobiology, or affiliates like the Joslin Diabetes Centre. Second, such research institutes and centres both attract and train Life Sciences talent, giving critical mass to interactive research activity. This, in turn, strongly influences growth in funding through competitive bidding to National Institutes of Health and National Science Foundation programmes. Third, such ‘megacentres’ interact with the large hospitals, in which clinical research as well as patient treatment occurs along with training of physicians. Massachusetts General Hospital and the Brigham & Women’s Hospital in Boston are thus important large- scale patient-bases for clinical trialling. There is, accordingly a suitable milieu also for academic entrepreneurship, which, combined with Boston’s status as a top-three location for venture capital and ‘knowledgeable attorneys’ (Suchman, 2000), makes it a highly nurturing ‘economic business environment’ for exploitation as well as
The local microstructure and chemical composition has been therefore characterized in details by HR-TEM, EELS and EDX. These analyses showed perfectly epitaxial thin films, free from grain boundaries, with homogeneous composition throughout the thickness in both directions parallel and perpendicular to the interface. The large compressive strain on the thin film due to the mismatch with the substrate naturally brings to the formation of a high density of misfit dislocations, which decreases after annealing at 700 °C. Similarly, the enhancement of the ionic conductivity near the interface also decreased upon annealing.
• The analyzes carried out so far indicate a growing movement towards the institutionalization of STI policy evaluation practices in Latin America, in line with the growing importance of these policies and the perception of their contribution to countries' economic and social development.
Wie viele Individualsoftware ist auch die untersuchte Applikation organisch gewachsen. Ursprünglich war die Software zur Aufnahme, Verfolgung und Dokumentation von Änderungsanforderungen an Softwareprodukten (Requests) konzipiert, ebenso wie zur Aufnahme von Fehlermeldungen im Rahmen der Wartung und Pflege von Software. Unterstützt wird auch die Vorbereitung der Ab- rechnung von Requests. Nach kurzer Zeit der Nutzung in diesem Kontext gab es, ungeplant für den Anwender, einen neuen Einsatzkontext, für den die Software grundsätzlich ebenfalls geeignet schien: Die Nutzung als „Ticket-System“ im Rahmen eines Call-Centers, in dem von Kunden gemeldete IT- Service-Prozesse betreffende Anfragen dokumentiert, verfolgt und damit abrechenbar werden. In beiden Kontexten erfolgt die eigentliche Dienstleistung unabhängig von der Software – in einem Fall die Programmierung, im zweiten die Fehlerbehebung – in Form von telefonischer Anleitung. Inzwischen wird die Applikation von mehreren Nutzergruppen für weitere ähnliche Zwecke genutzt. Inhalt der Anwendung sind aus Sicht der Nutzer die zu dokumentierenden Anfragen bzw. deren Abarbeitung. Die Ordnungsstruktur dieser Objekte wird in den verschiedenen Nutzungskontexten durch unterschiedliche Status und durch Prioritäten bestimmt. Die Nutzerbefragung hat ergeben, dass die Nutzer keine stark beeinträchtigenden Nutzungsprobleme haben. Da die gesamte Dialogführung sich auf drei Eingabe- und eine Übersichtsmaske 61 beschränkt, ist eine schnelle Einarbeitung möglich. Auffällig ist allerdings, dass je nach Nutzergruppe unterschiedliches Vokabular beim Sprechen über ihre Tätigkeit mit der Software verwendet wird, die Benennungen im Interface jedoch nur dem Vokabular einer Nutzergruppe entsprechen. Die Verwendung der Bezeichnung Request im User Inter- face für das zentrale Arbeitsobjekt entspricht nicht dem Vokabular der Hauptnutzergruppe (siehe Anhang), die das Objekt „Ticket“ nennt.
Obwohl derartige Systeme bislang für die Aufgabenbewältigung in realen Umgebungen entwickelt worden sind, weisen auch komplexe Software-Umgeb- ungen die wichtigsten Merkmale auf, die die Verwendung einer hybriden, einge- schränkt autonomen Systemarchitektur für Interface-Agenten nahelegt (Maes
In order to generate impulse response functions, the shocks are identified via sign and zero restrictions, following the method proposed by Arias et al. (2014) (see Dieppe et al., 2016). The non-standard monetary policy shock is the only identified shock in the model and specified according to table 2.1. The first six variables define the non-standard monetary policy shock and its effects on the euro area, while the remaining variables apply to the respective SEE country’s output and price level. An expansionary non-standard monetary policy shock increases the Eurosystem balance sheet assets on impact and in the first month following the shock, while both the CISS-indicator as well as the spread between the EONIA and the MRO decrease immediately (on impact) and in the first month after the shock. These identifying assumptions are taken to distinguish demand-driven from exogenous balance sheet shocks, following Boeckx et al. (2017) and Burriel and Galesi (2018). More specifically, in periods of financial stress or other shocks, increased demand for liquidity expands the balance sheet, implying that the CISS indicator as well as EONIA increase (see Boeckx et al., 2017). Vice versa, a balance sheet expansion that is caused by an ECB monetary policy measure should not increase but decrease both financial stress and the demand for liquidity, which is reflected in the sign restrictions for the shock identification. Finally, the zero restriction of the MRO rate ensures that the balance sheet increase is orthogonal to a conventional monetary policy shock. For the response of output and prices, I follow the standard approach of defining conventional monetary policy shocks by imposing zero restrictions to disentangle it from other shocks. Similarly, zero restrictions are placed on output and price responses of the SEE country, in order to disentangle the potential spillover from domestic real economy disturbances. 11 The acceptance rates (i.e. the percentage of draws from the Gibbs sampling algorithm satisfying the sign and zero restrictions) of the baseline models are depicted in table 2.2, suggesting that the chosen shock identification is reasonable.
The quality of a transferred film is subject to several parameters such as compres- sion speed, deposition speed, transfer pressure, nature of monolayer and substrate, as well as nature of the subphase. Preconditions for transfer of high quality films are a clean and dust free environment of the trough, the use of ultrapure water as basis for subphase solutions as well as clean and properly functionalized substrates. The determination of the ideal parameters for a film transfer is rather empirical . Nevertheless, some general guidelines can be given: (i) The compression speed of the monomolecular film must be chosen slow enough to avoid local surface overpressure. This will be the case if the molecules have enough time to rearrange upon compres- sion at the air/water interface. Upon too fast film compression, it can start to form ridges and can even collapse and form multilayers [40, 41]. (ii) Molecules must be in a close-packed state in order to transfer a film quantitatively onto a substrate. This state can be obtained at high surface pressures and the integrity of the transferred film is directly related to this transfer pressure . If it is chosen too high, the film will start to collapse or to form small crystalline aggregates. If the transfer pressure is chosen too low, the film will not be continuous, covering the substrate incompletely. As a guideline, a transfer pressure of 80% of the collapse pressure is usually taken as starting point for further investigations. (iii) The transfer speed is usually cho- sen slow because the transfer requires strong interaction between the molecules and the substrate . These interactions may involve a modification of the molecular packing . It can therefore not generally be assumed, that the structure observed in a transferred film is similar to the structure at the air/water interface . In order to draw reasonable conclusions on this topic, films have usually either been fabricated employing more than one transfer technique for comparison or the films at the air/water interface were directly investigated with complementary techniques like Brewster angle microscopy.
The ﬁrst problem is that in all 44 software systems the intended extension interface (i.e., what the software provider really means to offer as extensible) is much smaller than the potential extension interface (i.e., what can be technically extended). On average, less than 1% of the classes were meant for extensibility whereas 90.4% are potentially overridable and accessible by extensions. The ﬁrst, third, and sixth problems presented in Section 2.2 show that Java lacks the appropriate means for explicitly expressing extension interfaces and deﬁning ﬁne-grained access rights. Moreover, enforcing an extension interface will cause the code intended to support extensibility to mix with the functional code of the software system. Due to these problems, it was very hard in the study to estimate the number of methods and attributes that are intended to support extension development. To count the number of methods and attributes, a manual analysis of the source code of the software systems will be required.
Neben der Abbildung von SERCOS III auf TT, die im OMNeT++ Simulationsmodell implementiert wurde, wäre als nächstes eine Abbildung auf AVB und RC zu untersuchen. Dazu müsste das Simulationsmodell entsprechend erweitert werden. Da die Bibliothek CoRE4INET bereits die dafür nötigen Komponenten auf dem OSI-Layer 2 zur Verfü- gung stellt (z.B. AVB- und RC-Buffer), müssen diese nicht implementiert, sondern nur eingebaut werden. Die nächsten Schritte wären also die Erweiterung des Simulations- modells um AVB und RC Komponenten auf dem TSN-Interface Layer (Siehe: Kapitel 5, Absatz 5.2), mit denen sich die Abbildungen realisieren lassen. Die Komponenten des Application Layer (Siehe: Kapitel 5, Absatz 5.2) - SERCOS III Anwendungen und UC- Anwendungen - können ohne Anpassung weiter verwendet werden, da die Komponenten auf dem TSN-Interface Layer austauschbar sind, weil die Architektur des Simulations- modells den Einsatz von verschiedenen Modulen zum Zugriff auf unterschiedliche OSI Layer 2 Protokolle vorsieht.
Evans & Osada are right, then nothing needs to be added to my conclusion drawn above: Approaches which describe lexical entries as the interface between the syntactic and semantic categories of words are more plausible than approaches which consider this interface to be either syntactic structures or linking rules. And this then holds cross-linguistically. If Peterson and Hengeveld & Rijkhoff (and others) are right, then different solutions are necessary for flexible and for ‘rigid’ languages like the Indo-European ones, because the latter, according to Hengeveld (1992) and Hengeveld & Rijkhoff (2005: 406 f.), are unlike Mundari and other languages and do lexically specify items for syntactic properties. This is a view shared by Himmelmann (2008), who classifies languages on the ba- sis of whether they specify lexical as well as syntactic categories in the lexicon, claiming that Indo-European languages do but languages like Tagalog do not (cf. ibid.: 264). According to him, the latter languages specify syntactic categories only in the syntax. In this second case then, the conclusion above holds only for Indo-European languages and others that behave like them, whereas for Mundari, Tagalog and other languages it is more appropriate for syntactic structures or linking rules to provide the interface between the syntactic and semantic cate- gories of words. It has to be noted though that in contrast to the RRG approach but like N-CxG, Hengeveld & Rijkhoff claim that no semantic distinction between lexical verbs and lexical nouns is justified. In the lexicon there is just one vague meaning shared by forms that can be used either verbally or nominally.
Patten and Ishii (2000) discovered that people are employing more versatile strategies for spatial distribution when using a tangible user interface (TUI) as opposed to a graphics user interface (GUI) (Patten & Ishii, 2000). Besides, the generated information outputs of conventional two-dimensional interacting screens are currently almost entirely addressing the visual and acoustic senses but lacking in other sensory stimuli - such as haptic, body equilibrium and sense of gravity. With the experiment described here, the multi-dimensionality of both the input on the interface and the output of the human interaction will be challenged. This paper aims to introduce a method to a real world versatile three-dimensional interface actuating a simulated spatial environment that substantiates the more unconventional sensory perception mentioned above. A physical prototype using an Arduino will be assembled to test the feasibility of the structure.
It should allow an agent to act through a set of his associated entities provided as an array. If the array is empty all associated entities should perform the action. Here you need to throw an ActException if the action fails, that is when one or more of the entities failed to execute the action or of one or several of the provided entities are not associated. And you need to throw an NoEnvironmentException of the environment-interface is not connected to an environment. Note that the return-value is also interesting. The method can also be used to facilitate active-sensing. Some actions might just return something simple like a "success"-Percept or something very sophisticated. Finally you should make sure to indicate the origin-entity of each percept via the setSource-method of Percept.
Beim User Interface wurde darauf geachtet, das es intuitiv und schlank gehalten wurde. Es kann dank der Auslagerung der Darstellung in eigene CSS Files jedoch einfach an Kundenwünsche angepasst werden. Es wurde mittels aktuellen Technologien aufgebaut und bietet die Möglichkeit, per Drag & Drop an jede gewünschte Stelle innerhalb der Webseite verschoben zu werden. Zudem kann es auch in einem eigenen Fenster geönet werden. Neue Nachrichten des Agent werden per AJAX geladen, somit wird nur das WebChatControl neu geladen und ein Refresh der ganzen Webseite vermieden.
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In this work, we study the influence of interface intermixing on DW dynamics in W-CoFeB (0.6nm)-MgO films that exhibit high PMA and large DMI value. Such system shows great potential not only for SOT based memory devices 15 , but also for spin Hall nano-oscillators and spin Hall generation of propagating spin waves owing to its high PMA and large spin Hall angle 16,17 . We show that opposite to the Ta-CoFeB-MgO system 14,18 , a weak intermixing of the bottom W-CoFeB interface leads to a strong reduction of DW pinning and an increase of DW velocity in the creep regime, whereas the DMI value is only slightly reduced. The reduction of DMI is also found to be correlated to the reduction of interface anisotropy.
The paper is structured In the following way: after a brief review of the socialist S&T systems (section 2), we analyse the restructuring of these systems in the post-socialist con text (section 3). With the monetisation of the economy, the socialist production network collapsed, leaving behind a fragmented S&T system. Human and physical capital was devalued, entire production networks torn apart, and inter national competition introduced. A gradual change of the S&T system is impossible, thus S&T policies aimed at a gradual adaptation are inadequate. We propose an alter native policy option: a demand-oriented S&T policy (sec tion 4). We apply the concept to analyse enterprise restruc turing in three different sectors: software, shipbuilding, and computers (section 5). It turns out that the S&T policy con clusions are specific to each sector; no generalisation of a