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Should School-Level Results of National Assessments Be Made Public?

Should School-Level Results of National Assessments Be Made Public?

none of results of the schools managed by the municipalities, and (2) primary schools rarely dis- close their own results voluntarily. 18 This means that, after the reform year of 2014, school-level 17 To explain, the data is an administrative data, only available upon the official request to (and agreement by) the Ministry of Education on a project-by-project basis. Before our application for the use of the data was approved in January 2019, the Ministry had contacted all the municipal education boards in Japan to ask if they agreed to let data from their jurisdiction be used for research. Across Japan, about 70 percent of municipal boards did not agree as long as the municipality names were attached to the data. This means that for those municipalities, it was not possible to match the data with the treatment status of the disclosure of NAAA results. However, the majority of municipal education boards in Saitama prefecture agreed with us using the student-level data. Specifically, focusing on cities, but excluding Saitama city due to its special status in education policy making as a government designated city (which is not influenced by policies implemented by the prefectural education board), 32 out of the 39 city education boards (i.e., 82 percent) agreed, facilitating this research.
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Anzeige von CONTENT AND LANGUAGE INTEGRATED LEARNING AT PRIMARY SCHOOL LEVEL

Anzeige von CONTENT AND LANGUAGE INTEGRATED LEARNING AT PRIMARY SCHOOL LEVEL

3. Beispiel aus der Praxis: Die Lehrveranstaltung „Content and Language Integrated Learning at Primary School Level“ an der Kirchlichen Pädagogischen Hochschule Graz 2 In der Ausbildung an der KPH Graz (Bachelor Lehramt Primarstufe) wurden Studie- rende in einem 1-ECTS-Kurs (Übung) im dritten Semester an das inhaltsorientierte Sachfachlernen durch die Fremdsprache (Englisch) herangeführt. Somit erhielten alle Studierenden verpflichtend in sechs Einheiten à 90 Minuten, in Fachdidaktik/Fachwis- senschaften Englisch, einen Einblick in das CLIL-Konzept auf Primarebene. Dabei zielte der Kurs darauf ab, Studierenden ein Basiswissen von CLIL und seiner Bedeu- tung für den Fremdsprachenunterricht zu vermitteln, um zu einem eigenem Bild eines viel verwendeten und kontrovers diskutierten Ansatzes auf Primarebene zu gelangen und bewusst über den Einsatz von Aktivitäten, Unterstützungen und Materialien basie- rend auf theoretischem Vorwissen entscheiden zu können. Studierende sollten in den vorgesehenen Einheiten sowohl theoretisches Hintergrundwissen des Konzeptes als auch praktische Beispiele kennenlernen, um am Ende der Lehrveranstaltung eine eige- ne CLIL-Einheit zu einem selbst gewählten Thema aus dem Jahreskreis mit einem für diese Lehrveranstaltung angefertigten Lesson Plan Template (siehe Abb. 1 auf S. 114) zu erstellen. Dabei sollte der Verlauf der Stunde mit adäquatem Material unterstützt und dieses sowie theoretisches CLIL-Wissen in Bezug zu ihrem gewählten Thema innerhalb einer öffentlichen Posterpräsentation vorgestellt werden. Durch dieses Pro- zedere sollte den Studierenden ein Setting des Ausprobierens ermöglicht werden, in- dem sie die Fremdsprache trainieren, ihre Planung, Material und Wissen bezogen auf CLIL offerieren und diskutieren und ihre Präsentationskompetenz erweitern können.
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Perceived learning environments and metacognitive strategy knowledge at the upper secondary school level

Perceived learning environments and metacognitive strategy knowledge at the upper secondary school level

nitive strategy knowledge (MSK) begins at a very early age and continues over the entire life span (Alexander, Fabricius, Fleming, Zwahr, & Brown, 2003; Schneider, Kron-Sperl, & Hünnerkopf, 2009). Research has indicated that MSK of adolescents develops mainly through constant learning experiences and education and not so much due to improvement with age (Schneider, 2015). In line with this, studies found that teachers who focused on metacognitive instruction enabled students to gain greater insights into MSK for succeeding at academic challenges (Bransford, Brown, & Cocking, 2003; Hartmann, 2001). For one, MSK can be promoted direct- ly through specifi c training programs or explicit instruction. Researcher-designed instructional interventions and training programs were found to be eff ective in sev- eral studies and meta-analyses (Dignath & Büttner, 2008; Hattie, Biggs, & Purdie, 1996). For another, teachers can promote MSK indirectly through the design of the learning environment (De Corte, Verschaff el, & Masui, 2004; Kistner et al., 2010). However, there is a lack of studies examining the eff ect of diff erent characteris- tics of a learning environment in a regular classroom context at the upper second- ary school level. Therefore, the aim of this study is to analyze the relationships be- tween perceived learning environments and students’ MSK.
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Parents and Peers: Parental Neighbourhood- and School-Level Variation in Individual Neighbourhood Outcomes over Time

Parents and Peers: Parental Neighbourhood- and School-Level Variation in Individual Neighbourhood Outcomes over Time

neighbourhood outcomes after leaving the parental home. This finding reconfirms previous results in the Netherlands, and demonstrates once more the importance of parental neighbourhood deprivation in explaining individual neighbourhood outcomes, even after controlling for personal characteristics and parental income. This result thus re-emphasises the importance of exposure to neighbourhood deprivation over time, even spanning across generations, on personal outcomes. Within this model, the combined effect of the included estimates now explains 88% (-.88 = (.022-.189) / .189) of parental neighbourhood variance in individual neighbourhood outcomes over time, compared to null model 1. The school-level variance also moderately decreases in comparison to model 2 after adding the neighbourhood level predictor variables, from, .060 to .052. In other words, some of the variance in individual neighbourhood outcomes attributed to the level of the secondary school can in fact be explained by the concentration of low incomes in the parental neighbourhood. Since there is a substantial percentage of parental neighbourhoods in which children attend one particular school, as shown in table II and its accompanying discussion above, the decrease of the school-level variance in model 3 is likely due to this overlap. We did not find a significant result for the share of ethnic minorities in the parental neighbourhood.
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Forms of cooperative learning in language teaching in Slovenian language classes at the primary school level

Forms of cooperative learning in language teaching in Slovenian language classes at the primary school level

With regard to learning in pairs and groups in the urban and rural school setting, the study has uncovered no significant differences. Rural schools per- formed better in the initial phase of classes, while urban schools did better in the intermediate and concluding phases. There was a 9% difference in performance. The school environment, be it urban or rural, seems to have no significant ef- fect on how frequently a teacher applies a certain teaching method; the choice seems to be primarily a matter of personal preference. Teachers with more years of professional experience applied fewer types of teaching methods. The study showed that the method of working in pairs and groups was most often chosen by teachers with 2–10 years of professional experience during all phases of the lesson. There may be several reasons behind this choice. It may be driven by the content taught in the lesson; however, the age of the pupils and the motivation for implementing cooperative teaching methods seem to be more common causes, as preparation for cooperative learning tends to be more challenging and time consuming than preparation for direct instruction or individual work.
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School Choice in The Netherlands

School Choice in The Netherlands

oriented in a particular way. Thus, freedom of edu- cation was originally based on principles of freedom of religion. The school system combines centralized education policy with decentralized administration and man- agement of schools. Policy is determined centrally in the Dutch education system, but the administration and management of schools is decentralized to the school level. The central government exercises ulti- mate control over both public and private schools and sets national standards for all schools. Never- theless, how to teach is left up to schools to deter- mine. In fact, school discretion is limited only by em- ployment laws; teacher qualifications, pay and condi- tions; and building standards. Funding mechanisms are designed to control national expenditures. Poor schools try to cut costs by improving efficiency, such as using more extensive methods of teaching. Central control is exercised over both public and pri- vate schools. The system is characterized by a large central staff; many school advisory services and coor- dination bodies; a strong Education Inspectorate; and stringent regulations. The central government, through the Minister of Education, Culture and Science, con- trols education by means of legislation, taking ac- count of the provisions of the Constitution. Its prime responsibilities with regard to education relate to the structuring and funding of the system, the manage- ment of public-authority institutions, inspection, ex- aminations and student support. Control may be exer- cised by imposing qualitative or quantitative stand- ards relating to the educational process in schools and attainment results, by means of arrangements for the allocation of financial and other resources, and by im- posing conditions to be met by schools. The central government decides what types of school may exist; the length of courses in each type of school; standards for teaching staff; number of teaching periods; sal- aries; examinations; and the norms for the establish- ment and closure of schools.
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School management in Serbia: Key aspects of its relation to school success

School management in Serbia: Key aspects of its relation to school success

188 JEEMS 02/2012 Education system governance in Serbia can hardly be identified with any of these models; it is predominantly centralistic, clearly hierarchical on each of its four levels – the national, regional, municipal and school level. However, the key competences are kept on the first three levels. The Ministry of Education has its highest competences and empowerments as regards planning and monitoring the development of education; determination and delivery of funding and other resources (also administering the teachers’ payrolls); planning, co-ordination and organization of educators’ continual professional development; control of fulfilment of the aims and tasks set; issuing teacher and other educator certificates. On the regional, i.e. provincial level, it is the responsibility of the Provincial Secretariat for Education and Culture to define the school network, establish new secondary schools; adopt the curriculum and certify the schoolbooks/textbooks in ethnic minority languages; set up the school calendar; administratively control (secondary level) and govern school performance related to professional development, provision of quality education, data base maintenance, participation in preparing of education and upbringing development plan for the given area, and monitoring and reviewing progress.
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School Choice in The Netherlands

School Choice in The Netherlands

The school system combines centralized education policy with decentralized administration and man- agement of schools. Policy is determined centrally in the Dutch education system, but the administration and management of schools is decentralized to the school level. The central government exercises ulti- mate control over both public and private schools and sets national standards for all schools. Never- theless, how to teach is left up to schools to deter- mine. In fact, school discretion is limited only by em- ployment laws; teacher qualifications, pay and condi- tions; and building standards. Funding mechanisms are designed to control national expenditures. Poor schools try to cut costs by improving efficiency, such as using more extensive methods of teaching. Central control is exercised over both public and pri- vate schools. The system is characterized by a large central staff; many school advisory services and coor- dination bodies; a strong Education Inspectorate; and stringent regulations. The central government, through the Minister of Education, Culture and Science, con- trols education by means of legislation, taking ac- count of the provisions of the Constitution. Its prime responsibilities with regard to education relate to the structuring and funding of the system, the manage- ment of public-authority institutions, inspection, ex- aminations and student support. Control may be exer- cised by imposing qualitative or quantitative stand- ards relating to the educational process in schools and attainment results, by means of arrangements for the allocation of financial and other resources, and by im- posing conditions to be met by schools. The central government decides what types of school may exist; the length of courses in each type of school; standards for teaching staff; number of teaching periods; sal- aries; examinations; and the norms for the establish- ment and closure of schools.
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School closures in Chile: Access to quality alternatives in a school choice system

School closures in Chile: Access to quality alternatives in a school choice system

Key words: Accountability, School choice, Education policy, School closure. JEL Classification: I24, I28. Resumen Para analizar las opciones que tendrían las familias frente al cierre de su escuela este artículo identifica, caracteriza y georreferencia a los establecimientos cla- sificados como de bajo desempeño por la Ley SEP y a sus alternativas cercanas. Los resultados indican que un porcentaje importante de las familias no tiene alternativas de calidad, principalmente aquellas que viven en sectores rurales y/o que pertenecen a escuelas vulnerables. Adicionalmente, al incorporar las barreras de entrada de las escuelas y las preferencias de las familias, dichas opciones se reducen considerablemente, al igual que al utilizar una definición más exigente de calidad.
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Anzeige von Fab Lab @ School

Anzeige von Fab Lab @ School

Das Projekt "Fab Lab @ School" im Happylab Wien (www.happylab.at) soll digitale Design- und Fertigungstechnologien eines Fab Labs nachhaltig in die vorschulische und schulische Ausbildung integrieren. Gemeinsam mit den Projektpartnern wurden Workshops für PädagogInnen und SchülerInnen ausgearbeitet und in einer Pilotphase in ausgewählten Bildungseinrichtungen durchgeführt. Im Projekt sind alle Altersstufen vom Kindergarten bis zur Matura vertreten.

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Child, Preschool, Primary School

Child, Preschool, Primary School

The appropriate primary school in your vicinity is the so-called catchment school. Register your child at the secretary‘s office of this school. You are guaranteed a place at your catchment school if you wish to register your child there. However, you also have the right to name two other schools in Berlin as preferred schools. In addition to the registration form, you will receive another application for this purpose. You can also state the reasons for your preference in writing here. The Schools Authority then assigns the children to the various schools. This takes several months. If there are more applications than available places at your preferred school, your child may be assigned to a different school. In addition to the learning concept and the type of school, special focuses such as music, sport or language are important for your decision.
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Anzeige von Kann eine Professional School innovieren?

Anzeige von Kann eine Professional School innovieren?

Die Weiterbildungsaufgabe wurde bis dahin von den Ein- richtungen, Institut für Weiterbildung und dem An-Verein Akademie für wissenschaftliche Weiterbildung an der Päd- agogischen Hochschule Heidelberg auf vielfältigen Feldern repräsentiert. Im Laufe des Reformprozesses haben diese bei- den Einrichtungen von der Hochschulleitung den Auftrag erhalten, die bestehenden und zukünftigen Weiterbildungs- aktivitäten in einer Professional School zu bündeln, um auch auf diese Weise dem Konzept des „lebenslangen Lernens“ einen zukunftsweisenden und strukturellen Rahmen inner- halb der Hochschule zu geben. Insofern fungiert die Profes- sional School als zentrale Einrichtung und verantwortet nun die gesetzlich verankerte Weiterbildungsarbeit der Hoch- schule. Zielsetzung und Auftrag sind, das lebenslange Lernen für verschiedene Akteure zu befördern und damit Menschen
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Assessment of school image

Assessment of school image

• Visual aspects and physical location of the school are good – bad • Equipment of the school is modern – old • Study programme is difficult – easy • Innovation of the study programme is fast – slow • Range of extracurricular activities is large – poor • School climate is friendly – unfriendly • Children’s behaviour is appropriate – inappropriate • Success of graduates is high – low • Quality of the teaching staff is high – low • Management of the school is efficient – inefficient • Parental involvement is active – passive • Co-operation with the local community and employers is strong – weak • Partners’ relations and international relations are powerful – weak • Promotion of the school is well known – unknown To interpret and report the survey, creating a graphic presentation of the results of the questionnaire, in which each group of respondents is represented by its own line, is recommended. Results can be presented as a picture in which the average scores of each group of respondents are connected into one line. Each school image (view of a selected group of respondents) is represented by a vertical ‘line of means’ that summarises the average perception of the school. The result of each item depends not only on the means; it is necessary to ana- lyse the frequency of the respondent’s answers in each item of the partial scale. The frequency distribution is very important. ‘Because each image profile is a line of means, it does not reveal how variable the image is’ (Kotler, 2003, p. 567) Extreme values may mean that the image is highly specific or highly diffused.
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Demand for secondary school characteristics: Evidence from school choice data in Hungary

Demand for secondary school characteristics: Evidence from school choice data in Hungary

13 characteristics will not be in the model. We therefore add non-ranked but realistic schooling options, giving rise to a feasible choice set for every student. This feasible choice set consists of all schools within 90 minutes of travel time. We delete schools ranked by the student that are outside this radius, because these students might not live at the town indicated in our data. We consider alternative choice set specifications, where the travel time radius demarcating the choice set is individual-specific (see Appendix 8.1). This gives rise to qualitatively similar results. Another issue is whether the rank ordered school lists submitted by the students correspond to their true preferences over schools. As mentioned in section 3, the school assignment mechanism is strategy-proof. It cannot be manipulated by anyone to obtain a better match.
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The impacts of school autonomy on school organization: a grounded theory study in a public secondary school in Vietnam

The impacts of school autonomy on school organization: a grounded theory study in a public secondary school in Vietnam

However, enjoying higher autonomy does not mean that principals are entirely free to make decisions as their work is constrained by many barriers and actors (Chubb & Moe, 1990; Bush, 2016; Glatter, Mulford, & Shuttleworth, 2003; Higham & Earley, 2013; Weiner & Woulfin, 2017). The term ‘constrained autonomy’ (Bush, 2016, p. 4) refers to the situation when the principal is still under much control and constraints from national requirements, local authority, and school accountability. For example, a recent phenomenological study of Cetinkaya (2016) reports that principals of small charter schools in the US have limited autonomy since most main spending must get approval from the school committee. Moreover, all school finance activities like expenditure, revenues, checks, and balances, are kept under the surveillance of the school committee (Cetinkaya, 2016). Adamowski et al. (2007) admitted that principals must face a real ‘autonomy gap,’ which derives from policy frameworks and collective bargaining agreements. Similarly, principals in Finland, despite enjoying extensive freedom in school management, feel restricted by local economic guidelines (Saarivirta & Kumpulainen, 2016). In the case of Austria, although there has been a shift toward school-based innovation and more decentralization, principal autonomy is limited by many regulations in most areas (Schley & Schratz, 2011).
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School choice in German primary schools. How binding are school districts?

School choice in German primary schools. How binding are school districts?

The results are qualitatively similar to the results in Table 2. However, the im- migration variables are smaller in magnitude and signi f cance. Distance to the as- signed school is still signi f cant, but the coef f cient is only about a third of the ma- gnitude of the coef f cient estimated in Table 2. Interestingly, distance to Catholic schools has a very strong effect. If the distance to a Catholic school rises by 100 m, the likelihood of a student choosing a Catholic school decreases by 1.5 %. Thus the location of Catholic schools is an important predictor of choice. To test whether it is also religious belief that leads parents to choose a denominational school, the percentage of German and non-German Catholics in the city block are included in column (2). Both variables yield a positive and signi f cant coeff cient, and the coef- f cients for the other variables are left unchanged. Hence, religious beliefs can exp- lain the choice of Catholic schools. This is con f rmed when including the students’ denomination in model (3). Being Catholic increases the likelihood of attending a Catholic school. The percentage of Turks in the school district is not signi f cantly related to the decision to attend a Catholic school, and the academic track transfer rate – our quality indicator – decreases in signi f cance.
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School and Refugees in Europe

School and Refugees in Europe

The multi-modal biographical approach can have the tendency to facilitate the deconstruction of pre-established categories, such as the idea of languages as countable, defined and close-off entities or dichotomies such as those that exist between origin- and target language, or first- and integration languages (cf. Busch 2013, p. 39). The concept of the language portraits according to Krumm has the basic function of being a means of promoting language awareness in multilingual primary school classes (cf. Busch 2013, p. 35). Krumm’s concept, especially the condition of getting to know worldly language diversity, seems to treat languages as entities that are based on certain nationalities and should be associated with specific countries. Through this, all language forms in the sense of linguistic repertoire, for example code-switching, or dialects remain unaccounted for. This way the initial concept of the language portrait is more linked to cultural diversity instead of trans-cultural hybridisation. In regards to the work of the research group language experience of the University of Vienna, Busch further developed the concept to become an instrument of research. The participants are invited to contemplate linguistic resources, different means of expression and communication that play a role in their lives and put them into relation to a given physical silhouette using coloured markers – coloured according to their importance (cf. Busch 2013, p. 36). On one hand, research should give insight on the linguistic repertoire, and on the other hand it should showcase how individuals experience and define multilingualism.
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Vokabelliste: At School – kapiert.de

Vokabelliste: At School – kapiert.de

timetable Stundenplan uniform Uniform desk (Schreib)tisch chair Stuhl In Class Im Unterricht teacher Lehrer/in pupil Schüler/in class (Schul)klasse classmate Klassenkamerad/ in; Mitschül[r]

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Education for School Librarians

Education for School Librarians

Presentations at Florida State University, the International Association of School Librarians conference... School Libraries Worldwide – Germany[r]

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Vulcano Summer School 2019

Vulcano Summer School 2019

Overall, the summer school successfully exposed junior researchers and students to a broad background on planetary and terrestrial field studies. To this end, various experiments and sampling campaigns were carried out on the island and in the coastal waters around Vulcano.

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