out-of-field teaching

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Teaching ‘out of field’ in STEM subjects in Australia: Evidence from PISA 2015

Teaching ‘out of field’ in STEM subjects in Australia: Evidence from PISA 2015

With adequate funding schools can operate with a degree of slack in their staffing, which then gives them flexibility to meet short-term demand fluctuation from within the existing staff rather than having to rely on the external labour market. Short-term demand can eventuate from teachers going on sick leave or teachers temporarily doing non-teaching duties such as professional development or school sport. Meeting the short-term demand from existing staff carries less risk of teachers being assigned to out-of-field classes than meeting the demand from the riskier external labour market of casual teachers. Tight budgets mean schools are forced in using casual teachers to address short-term shortfalls in staffing. Casual teachers are frequently not qualified to teach the subjects they are assigned to teach. Funding affects the type of employment contracts and professional development that schools can offer teachers. Employment contracts have a role in the type of teachers that will be attracted to a school as well as on teacher retention. With better funding schools can offer permanent contracts to teachers, which are associated with less out-of-field teaching. Professional development can be a strategy that schools can use to equip teachers with the skills and knowledge to teach additional subjects and thus reduce out-of-field teaching. Digital technologies have the potential to deliver professional development to a wide group of teachers, including those in remote locations and small schools. There is an obvious role for universities, teacher training organisations and subject associations to develop appropriate professional development activities that allow teachers to acquire subject qualifications.
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Teaching ‘out of field’ in STEM subjects in Australia: Evidence from PISA 2015

Teaching ‘out of field’ in STEM subjects in Australia: Evidence from PISA 2015

With adequate funding schools can operate with a degree of slack in their staffing, which then gives them flexibility to meet short-term demand fluctuation from within the existing staff rather than having to rely on the external labour market. Short-term demand can eventuate from teachers going on sick leave or teachers temporarily doing non-teaching duties such as professional development or school sport. Meeting the short-term demand from existing staff carries less risk of teachers being assigned to out-of-field classes than meeting the demand from the riskier external labour market of casual teachers. Tight budgets mean schools are forced in using casual teachers to address short-term shortfalls in staffing. Casual teachers are frequently not qualified to teach the subjects they are assigned to teach. Funding affects the type of employment contracts and professional development that schools can offer teachers. Employment contracts have a role in the type of teachers that will be attracted to a school as well as on teacher retention. With better funding schools can offer permanent contracts to teachers, which are associated with less out-of-field teaching. Professional development can be a strategy that schools can use to equip teachers with the skills and knowledge to teach additional subjects and thus reduce out-of-field teaching. Digital technologies have the potential to deliver professional development to a wide group of teachers, including those in remote locations and small schools. There is an obvious role for universities, teacher training organisations and subject associations to develop appropriate professional development activities that allow teachers to acquire subject qualifications.
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Teaching boys in neoliberal and postfeminist times: Feminization and the question of re-masculinization in the education system and policy field

Teaching boys in neoliberal and postfeminist times: Feminization and the question of re-masculinization in the education system and policy field

In this paper I focus on teaching boys in response to postfeminist and neolib- eral concerns about ‚failing boys‘ and celebratory discourses about ‚success- ful girls‘. What does it mean to teach boys in these times of insecurity, inten- sified backlash and panic about changing economic and social conditions? How do the gendered and embodied dimensions of teaching get constituted in response to concerns regarding data-driven claims about ‚failing boys‘ in the education system? In attempting to engage with these questions regarding the gendered dimensions and specifically calls for the re-masculinization of teaching and the curriculum, I draw attention to how educational panic about boys‘ underachievement in schools gets linked to questions of increasing feminization, which, as Skelton (2002) points out, relates to three interrelated phenomena: (i) the increasing number of female teachers in schools relative to their male counterparts; (ii) the cultural context or environment of school which is considered to be more ‚girl friendly‘; (iii) a backlash politics fuelled by global capitalism, which has had an impact on traditional patterns of em- ployment, relationships etc. (see Seidler 2006). This question of feminization has resulted, and continues to result, in the call for more male teachers as role models and for a fundamental re-masculinization of public education as a basis for addressing the problem of ‚failing boys‘ in schools. Such policy and media generated narratives are evident, not only in North America, Australia and the United Kingdom, but also in Europe, Malaysia and the Caribbean (Driessen 2007; Figueroa 2006; Hoque/Razak/Zohora/Islam2010; Neuge- bauer/Helbig/Landmann 2011; Pech 2011; Scambor/Seidler 2013; Timmer- man, 2011).
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Personal and emotional factors in the labour integration of university graduates in the  field of education. Implications for university teaching

Personal and emotional factors in the labour integration of university graduates in the field of education. Implications for university teaching

educational context for developing the professional activity of teach- ers, very few syllabi actually focus on teacher training. Numerous re- searchers have pointed out the need for even basic teacher training to include the development of emotional intelligence as part of the ge- neric competencies proposed by the European Higher Education Area (Bisquerra, 2005; Bueno, Teruel & Valero, 2005; Extremera & Fernán- dez-Berrocal, 2004; Pesquero, Sánchez, González & Martín, 2008; Ter- uel, 2000). Despite clear evidence, in some cases, that training novice teachers in emotional competencies has proven to be effective not only in increasing their own emotional competencies but also for predict- ing a smooth transition from their role as a student to that of a profes- sional teacher (Byron, 2001), specific proposals are still needed as to how to include these competencies in teacher education. Pug’s (2008) study conducted in a primary school concludes that higher education programmes and partner schools would benefit from time, curriculum provision and government agency support to recognise, reflect upon and develop emotional intelligence in teaching.
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Gender in the teaching profession: university students’ views of teaching as a career

Gender in the teaching profession: university students’ views of teaching as a career

• The purpose of our research is to gain a better insight into what encour- ages young adults, in particular young women, to enter the teaching pro- fession. The empirical part of the article is based on a pilot study including 132 students, with data collection being based on a survey approach using a questionnaire. The research attempts to address the context from which the desired characteristics of pre-service teachers with regard to their fu- ture employment arise. We have therefore tried to single out factors in- fluencing the choice of teaching as a career, and to examine pre-service teachers’ attitudes towards the reputation of female and male teachers. The data obtained confirm the thesis that the predominance of women in the teaching profession(s) is an effect of the harmonisation of the fe- male respondents’ habitus and their perception of the field they are enter- ing. The perception of the teaching profession as a vocation (calling) that can be linked to the concepts of caring, giving and helping also proves to be very important. The data also confirms the thesis that the orientation towards life and work balance is important to our respondents of both genders.
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Teaching World History

Teaching World History

The third paper of this session turned the focus away from the United States and Germany. Marnie Hughes-Warrington discussed the status of global education and world history at Australian universities and sec- ondary schools in her talk, “World Histor(iograph)y Education: An Aus- tralian Perspective.” She emphasized the uniquely Australian aspect of world history curricula compared to the German and the U.S. cases: that is, the turn toward historiography already in high school education, es- pecially in New South Wales. Taking Macquarie University as an ex- ample, she argued that the establishment of a world history teaching and research program beyond the first-year survey was possible through this historiographical turn. Since 2002, Macquarie has offered a world history program at all levels based on the questions of what world history is, what purposes it serves, what its historiographical traditions are, and how it might be taught and researched. This program replaced the pre- vious tradition of world history initiated by David Christian’s “big his- tory” course at Macquarie. The new focus on historiography, designed by Hughes-Warrington and outlined in her talk, is justified because it pro- vides a basis for discussing ethical issues, and because historiographical reflections expose the patterns of privilege and exclusion in historical practice. In addition, it fosters an appreciation of the local, regional, na- tional, and international contexts of world history writing and helps clarify the contents and purpose of world history. Most importantly, Hughes-Warrington concluded, historiographical studies address the problem of the purpose and audience of history in general. In his talk “An Emerging Field: World Environmental History,” John Richards argued that environmental history provides a good structure for teaching world history, also offering one of his own classes, on world environmental history at Duke University, as an example. The concerns of environmen- tal history are necessarily global, as environmental changes are not lim- ited by national or regional boundaries. In addition, Richards pointed out, other themes, such as the history of science, technology, and medi- cine, gender history, labor history, and the history of migration, also lend themselves well to world history approaches in the classroom.
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Gutenberg Open Science: Electric field-induced strain control of magnetism in in-plane and out-of-plane magnetized thin films

Gutenberg Open Science: Electric field-induced strain control of magnetism in in-plane and out-of-plane magnetized thin films

We followed the same procedure to estimate the fractional areas of the black domains in the images obtained by micromagnetic simulations for selected values of the ME anisotropy, −4 kJ m −3 , 0 kJ m −3 , 3 kJ m −3 . The results are presented in Fig. 3.5 (b) by blue square mark- ers. Note that positive KME corresponds to the easy axis along the x direction, i.e. favoring the black/white domains over the gray ones. Negative K ME induces an easy axis along the y direc- tion, thus favoring the magnetization alignment in the y direction. We then analogously fit the data with a linear function to obtain the dependence of the domain fractional area on the in- duced ME anisotropy. This enables us to determine which values of ME anisotropy lead to the relative changes in the domain structure observed in the experiment. For example, when the applied electric field is changed from 250 kV m −1 to 500 kV m −1 , the black/white domain frac- tional area is increased by ca. 11 %. From the fit in Fig. 3.5 (b), we find that in order to obtain the 11 % black/white domain growth, a ME anisotropy of 3.8 kJ m −3 is required. Similarly, we obtain that the ME anisotropies of −3.5 kJ m −3 and −5.2 kJ m −3 for 10 % and 15 % decrease in the fractional area of the black/white domain, respectively. The resulting required values of the ME anisotropy are shown in Fig. 3.5 (b) and one to one conversion of the applied electric field to the induced ME anisotropy is shown in Fig. 3.5 (c).
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Eritrea - paths out of isolation

Eritrea - paths out of isolation

In 2014, according to the UN High Commis- sioner for Refugees, 360,000 refugees left Eritrea, 37,000 of whom came to Europe. Altogether, more than 6 percent of the population have fled the country, despite Eritrea suffering neither famine nor war nor terrorism. It would therefore appear that emigration is driven by other motives. The main cause is in fact the potentially unlimited military service that was intro- duced in 2002. Both men and women are obliged to complete this “national service”, which must officially be completed be- tween the ages of eighteen and fifty. While the duration is supposed to be limited to eighteen months, it can in reality last ten years or more. Apart from national defence, citizens may be ordered to work in agri- culture, roadbuilding or mining. For the Eritrean government in Asmara, national
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Kondo effect out of equilibrium

Kondo effect out of equilibrium

• In the first chapter, a brief introduction to Kondo physics is given. It is a rather short review of some concepts and results required later and is by no means exhaustive. • The second chapter provides a self-contained introduction to the real time formalism. The Keldysh approach used to describe non-equilibrium phenomena is introduced. The real time diagrammatic language is de- rived, which allows a systematic calculation of transport properties in terms of a perturbation expansion in the tunnel couplings. Superoper- ators acting simultaneously on the forward and backward propagator of the Keldysh contour are introduced to simplify notations. Some ad- ditional information is provided in the appendices A, B and C, which introduce useful matrix notations for the superoperators, the Wick the- orem and the calculation of the current to second order, which is used for comparision to the RG results later.
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Oil prices out of control?

Oil prices out of control?

Terms of use: Documents in EconStor may be saved and copied for your personal and scholarly purposes. You are not to copy documents for public or commercial purposes, to exhibit the documents publicly, to make them publicly available on the internet, or to distribute or otherwise use the documents in public.

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Matching donations without crowding out? Some theoretical considerations, a field, and a lab experiment

Matching donations without crowding out? Some theoretical considerations, a field, and a lab experiment

2 1 Introduction Matched fundraising, in which a large donor tops up individual donations according to some scheme, is popular among charitable organizations. Recent studies based on lab or field experiments (see, for example, Eckel and Grossman 2003, Karlan and List 2007, or Huck and Rasul 2011) demonstrate, however, that matched fundraising has a downside: it generates substantial crowding out and appears inferior to solicitation schemes that simply announce a lead gift (Huck, Rasul, and Shephard 2015). One reason why fundraisers might be forced to use matched fundraising nevertheless is competition. Holding everything else constant, donors will always prefer to give money to fundraising drives that offer more matching rather than less (simply notice that with matching a donor’s budget set rotates outward.) Hence, the question arises, whether it is possible to design an alternative matching scheme that is attractive to donors and avoids crowding out or perhaps even generates some crowding in. In this paper, we present some simple theoretical considerations that suggest that a matching scheme in which the matched money is allocated to a different project should outperform standard matching for the same project. The model also suggests that the effect of matching improves when the two projects become less substitutable. We test these predictions in the field and in the lab.
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Kick Polio out of Africa

Kick Polio out of Africa

1998 galten noch 52 Länder als Po- lio-Endemiegebiete, die meisten davon auf dem afrikanischen Kontinent. Von der WHO wurde deshalb in Zusammen- arbeit mit den Centers for Disease Con- trol and Prevention (CDC) in Atlan- ta/USA ein Programm initiiert, das die- se Länder bei ihren Anstrengungen in der Endphase der Polioeradikation un- terstützen soll. Epidemiologen der CDC und anderer nationaler Gesundheitsin- stitute werden für jeweils drei Monate in Polioendemiegebiete gesandt, um beim Aufbau und der Verbesserung der AFP- Surveillance und der Organisation und Durchführung von Impfkampagnen zu helfen. Die ersten dieser Teams – STOP- Teams (Stop Transmission of Polio) ge- nannt – wurden von Januar bis April 1999 eingesetzt, die zweiten Teams von Mai bis August 1999. Zwei Infektionsepi- demiologinnen des Robert Koch-Insti- tuts (RKI), Berlin, nahmen an diesem zweiten Einsatz teil und arbeiteten je- weils drei Monate in der Republik Tschad und in Burkina Faso.
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Out of sight, out of mind? On the risk of sub-custodian structures

Out of sight, out of mind? On the risk of sub-custodian structures

ments lost in custody, regardless of whether the loss has been due to the custodian’s fault or negligence (so-called ”strict liability”). 9 We analyse the structure of sub-custodian chains using a unique data set from a survey, which was conducted by the Deutsche Bundesbank in July 2011. In this survey, German custodian banks were asked to report detailed quantitative and qualitative data with re- gard to all securities belonging to German UCITS funds that were held in safe custody abroad. The main question which we address with our analysis is whether there is evidence for moral hazard in sub-custodian structures. We approach this question by analysing the length and risk of sub-custodian chains relating these variables to the information custodian banks had on their sub-custodian chains and presence of a CSD in the chain. Our hypothesis is that not all custodians adequately managed and monitored the risks in their sub-custodian chains given that they were not liable for any losses. We identify custodians that insufficiently monitored via their ability to provide adequate information during the survey. However, some custodians delegated the safe-keeping directly to CSDs, which may have taken over the monitoring of the sub-custodian chains. As result, the presence of a CSD as a first sub-custodian could potentially mitigate risks due to inade- quate monitoring by the custodian.
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"Deepe things out of darkenesse"

"Deepe things out of darkenesse"

There is a divide obvious in the conception of authorship and the approach to texts between professional and non-professional Shakespeare scholars. It is espe- cially problematic that most non-professionals base their contemplations on an already-mentioned tautology. In trying to decode what the author meant with his text, they want to find hints to his identity, which they then use for a better under- standing of the text. Because the distribution of academics and non-professionals is very uneven within the camps of Orthodoxy and Heresy (Schruijer 135; Rubinstein 41-42), power relations are asymmetric. Taylor drastically subsumes: “The Baco- nians were all amateurs writing for amateurs against specialists.” (220) Even if this condensation was exaggerated, the high proportion of non-professional scholars defending alternative candidates reinforces their perception of having to deal with a conspiracy. They run against the wall of academics who they perceive make up the established system which tries to choke off all dissident thinking out of self- protection (Rubinstein 44-45) “Non-Stratfordians can be seen as heretics as they challenge the establishment and the establishment feels threatened”, concludes Schruijer (138). Tom Hunter – one of the contributors to Detobel’s Will – Wunsch und Wirklichkeit − compares doubts about “Shakespeare” with Galilei’s doubts about the sun circling the earth. In the same way as Galilei encountered the mas- sive and impenetrable resistance of the Church that made him repeal his claims, Anti-Stratfordians encounter the massive and impenetrable resistance of the estab- lished circle of Shakespeare academics occupying the respective professorships (303). Accordingly, like-minded Oxfordians are often encouraged to not repeal their claims. 28
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Matching donations without crowding out? Some theoretical considerations, a field, and a lab experiment

Matching donations without crowding out? Some theoretical considerations, a field, and a lab experiment

In order to avoid the possibility of spillovers from previous fundraising campaigns, we decided to conduct our experiment with an institution that had a clean slate, that is, that had previously not engaged in any (“small money”) fundraising activities. This led to the choice of the municipal opera house of Frankfurt/Main. In April 2014, the opera house sent out 25,000 solicitation letters to opera visitors, asking them to support one or two social youth projects organized by the opera house. Both projects are part of the “JETZT! OPER FÜR DICH” [“NOW! OPERA FOR YOU”] program, which enhances cultural education and social integration. The first project (“Aramsamsam”) benefits small children aged 2–4 and gives children their first contact with classical music regardless of their social background. The second project (“Opera Bus”) runs an opera bus that visits schools, pediatric wards in hospitals, and social enterprises for the disabled. Those two projects are likely to be perceived as substitutes given that they benefit different recipients in a similar way. But there are also marked differences between the projects thus we do not expect them to be perceived as perfect substitutes. Consequently, condition (1) has a chance to hold
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Teaching by chat

Teaching by chat

It is even possible to use a chat effectively for a course such as an introduction to programming exercise section. In order for this to work, the students must publish their exercises on the Internet before class. As you go through the exercises, you explicitly ask a particular student for the URL for their solution, and you instruct all of the students to point their browsers to this URL and discuss the solution found there. You can then ask if someone else has a different solution, and the group can thus compare the answers. This is very effective when there are more than one correct answer to a question, it provides an excellent situation for discussing the pros and cons of a certain way of solving a problem.
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Competencies in science teaching

Competencies in science teaching

As mentioned in the previous chapter, in the second round of the Aus- trian topical program the teachers had the explicit task of setting up an extensive problem, i.e. an exercise within their project. Not all of them took up this idea, but the ones who did produced exceptionally creative and interesting examples, and included new elements usually not found in exercises: additional and (for the stu- dents) new information, experimental data, promotion of actions, encouragement for discussions among the students, requirement of their opinion and reasons for it. One example is presented in the appendix, centring on judging a chemical com- mercial product. Collecting the best examples, ordered along the different dimen- sions of competences, and publishing them electronically is planned.
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Best practices in teaching

Best practices in teaching

Due to the rotating circle of economic crises, universities – and especially business schools – have come under pressure to reconsider their concepts of management education. In broader terms, this critique suggests that business schools do more harm than good (Goshal, 2005) and that they ignore the human dimension of business and their responsibility towards the social and ecological environments (Navarro, 2008). Being confronted with such harsh critique is, at the same time, an opportunity for business schools to undertake a critical self-refl ection and self-examination of their educa- tional practices or – as Starkey and Tempest – have stated: “We need to consider a broader defi nition of the role of the business school as a force for achieving the good of business and society” (2009, p. 577).
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The future of teaching international law

The future of teaching international law

there is normally no shortage of topics. There are so many substantive issues that one aspect that impacts every legal career often gets lost: teaching. It is thus to be welcomed all the more that the ILA devoted an entire afternoon session to the issue of teaching international law at its recent joint

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Using research in the teaching of management

Using research in the teaching of management

Suggested Citation: Orpen, C. (1986) : Using research in the teaching of management, South African Journal of Business Management, ISSN 2078-5976, African Online Scientific Information Systems (AOSIS), Cape Town, Vol. 17, Iss. 4, pp. 225-229, http://dx.doi.org/10.4102/sajbm.v17i4.1062

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