Abstract.We study the computational capacity of self-verifying cellularautomata with an em- phasis on one-way information flow (SVOCA). A self-verifying device is a nondeterministic device whose nondeterminism is symmetric in the following sense. Each computation path can give one of the answers yes, no, or do not know. For every input word, at least one computation path must give either the answer yes or no, and the answers given must not be contradictory. We show that realtime SVOCA are strictly more powerful than realtime deterministic one-waycellularautomata, since they can accept non-semilinear unary languages. It turns out that SVOCA can strongly be sped-up from lineartime to realtime. They are even capable to simulate any lineartime computa- tion of deterministic two-waycellularautomata. Closure properties and decidability problems are considered as well.
Abstract. We investigate cellularautomata whose internal inter-cell communication is bounded. The communication is quantitatively measured by the number of uses of the links between cells. Bounds on the sum of all communications of a computation as well as bounds on the maximal number of communications that may appear between each two cells are considered. It is shown that even the weakest non-trivial device in question, that is, one-waycellularautomata where each two neighboring cells may communicate constantly often only, accept rather complicated languages. We investigate the computational capacity of the devices in question and prove an infinite strict hierarchy depending on the bound on the total number of communications during a computation. Despite their sparse communi- cation even for the weakest devices, by reduction of Hilbert’s tenth problem undecidability of several problems is derived. Finally, the question whether a given real-time one-way cel- lular automaton belongs to the weakest class is shown to be undecidable. This result can be adapted to answer an open question posed in [Vollmar, R.: Zur Zustands¨anderungskom- plexit¨at von Zellularautomaten. In: Beitr¨age zur Theorie der Polyautomaten—zweite Folge, Braunschweig (1982) 139–151 (in German)].
In general, two-way waterway is usually composed by inbound lane, outbound lane and separation zone (or separation line). For the safety of navigation, Rules 9 and Rules 10 of Convention on the International Regulations for the Preventing Collisions at sea, 1972 (COLREGs), in fact divides the two-way waterway into two isolated and independent navigable lanes. However ship traffic is always in disequilibrium, and there exist “heavy traffic direction” and “light traffic direction” (Tingting, Qin & Chaojian, 2013) in the waterway. The performance of “traffic disequilibrium” is that, ship traffic is dense in one lane (or some sections of the lane), but sparse in the other (or the others of the lane). As a result, traffic jam incurs in one lane (or some sections of the lane), but in the other lane ship traffic is disengaged. Therefore, we can make full use of the disengaged lane (or some sections of the lane) to promote the capacity of overall waterway.
As far as stochastic CellularAutomata are concerned, we might compare this kind of systems with another one: chess matches, which can be structured in the same way. First, let us analyze what aspects are in common:
• cells in Cellular Automaton space are the same as chess on a chessboard; the state of every piece is its position. Even if it would seem more natural comparing cells with chessboard squares, these ones do not change, they only host different pieces without being involved in any kind of changing. On the contrary pieces, moving on the chessboard, change their state.
A one-dimensional CellularAutomata (CA) model for acoustic wave’s propagation and absorption in impedance tube with and without porous metals is studied to explore acoustic absorbing properties of porous metal in multiple physical fields. In cellular space, wave motion equation for small amplitude travelling waves at room temperatures and normal sound pressure levels is reconstructed by using finite differential method; accordingly, local evolutionary rules of each cell are deduced out. Provided that a specific sound source is definitely given, the sound pressure distribution inside impedance tube can be obtained by solving this CA model. Based on above CA theory and classical acoustic models of porous materials, the evolutionary rules of cell for the case that porous material is placed at the end of impedance tube are formulated. And sound absorption coefficient of porous materials may be calculated as well. Finally, the effects of temperature and sound pressure level on nonlinear propagation properties of acoustic travelling waves with finite amplitude are analysed by rewriting Westervelt wave motion equation in the form of finite differential. In this way, one may predict sound absorption of porous material at different temperatures and sound pressure levels. The results from CA model agree well with experimental data.
Here we continue our study of CD-systems of stateless deterministic restart- ing automata that have a read/write window of size 1. The restarting automata of this type have a severely restricted expressive power. However, by combining several such automata into a CD-system we obtain a device that is suprizingly expressive. In fact, in mode = 1 these systems accept all rational trace lan- guages . Further, the class of languages that are accepted by mode = 1 computations of CD-systems of stateless deterministic restarting automata with window size 1 is closed under union, product, Kleene star, commutative closure, and disjoint shuffle, but it is not closed under intersection with regular lan- guages, complementation, or ε-free morphisms. In addition, it has been shown that for these CD-systems the emptiness problem and the finiteness problem are easily solvable, while the regularity problem, the inclusion problem, and the equivalence problem are undecidable in general .
left lane even when the right lane is completely empty. On multilane freeways, American drivers often do not use the rightmost lane in order to avoid the repeated disturbances due to slow vehicles coming from on-ramps. That is, when these drivers encounter one slow vehicle from an on-ramp, they switch to the left lane and stay there until they run into a slower vehicle in that lane or until they want to get off the freeway. This implies that symmetric rules may be more use- ful to describe actual American driving behavior than the asymmetric ‘‘Hypothetical American criterion I’’ above @Eq. 2 #. For that reason, TRANSIMS @24,25#, in its current mi- crosimulation, uses a totally symmetric lane changing rule set. This paper will concentrate on asymmetric lane changing rules; see Refs. @26–28# for symmetric lane changing rules.
3.4 The CA application for urban growth
While CellularAutomata had their origins in the fifties in an attempt to compute the relationship of computing machines and human nervous sys- tems , they later developed into a more complex attempt of understanding spatial interactions between agents such as Conway’s ‘Game of Life’ . De- velopment of planning, and the integration of spatial explicit dynamics [?], were a further background to understand the growth of cities with Cellu- lar Automata . A new era for CellularAutomata had emerged, taking advantage of geo-information as tools for regional decision support systems  and offering an insight on the discrete future dynamics of cities . The discrete functions are mostly carried out through five dimension with which the cellularautomata interacts [?]: (i) lattice of cells (agglomeration of indi- vidual cell neighborhood), (ii) state of cells (e.g. urban or non-urban), (iii) time interval (spatiotemporal datasets of urban measurement), (iv) transi- tion rules (defining the capacity of a cell to change from one state to another given a set of rules) and (v) neighborhood.
The reasons for disregarding PA -patterns are twofold. Linguists special- ized in grammar and syntax tend to consider paraphrases as secondary solutions or underlying structures that may be genetically relevant. The very term paraphrase mirrors the conception of replacing a primary item. Thus, the main reason for neglecting PX -patterns is word-class obstinacy. In line with this, I have criticized the exclusion of prepositional phrases from Type C in typological approaches (Section 2). At school, standard questions ask if slow in to drive slow is an adjective or an adverb, that is, we become used to analyzing such phrases in terms of word-class and not of simple syntactic polyfunctionality. Discourse markers are often considered strange units, normally excluded by traditional grammars, or a class apart because they do not permit answering questions for word-class member- ship, while their function in syntax and discourse can easily be identified. The second reason for their being disregarded is that PX -patterns are perceived as lexicalized locutions, that is, units of the lexicon to be stud- ied by phraseology, not by syntax or morphology. PA adverbials such as Sp. a las buenas are generally analyzed as lexicalized adverbials. Lexicolo- gists use terms such as locuciones adverbiales in Spanish (García-Page 2008: 120–126, with additional bibliography). Consequently, these locutions are well documented in the DLE , the dictionary of the Spanish Academy (Real Academia Española 2014). From this point of view, the PA -pattern could be considered almost unproductive today except for the productive »in an ADJ way / manner«-patterns (see, among others, García-Page 2008: 120–129; 2014; Penadés 2005, 2012; bibliography in Aguilar 2010). This may be justified from a present-day perspective, but not when consider- ing the formation period up until the 17th century. Even for present-day Spanish, García-Page (2008: 120, 126) points out that it is almost impos- sible to provide a complete inventory of adverbial locutions because some patterns are still productive.
In accordance with the General Administrative Regulati- ons on the Road Traffic Regulations (VwV-StVO), cycling roads can be established where cycling is the predomi- nant form of transport or is expected to be soon. The vo- lume of motor traffic on cycling roads must be low. Cycling roads are designated by means of traffic signs 244.1 and 244.2 of the StVO (Figure 1). Any other traffic than cycling traffic may only exceptionally be permitted provided relevant additional signs are in place (permit- ting residents’ vehicles only, for example). The speed limit on cycling roads is 30 km/h. Cycling traffic on cycling roads must not be put in danger or hindered by other kinds of traffic. Motor vehicles must reduce their speed further wherever necessary. It is permitted for cyclists to cycle side by side. The stipulations regarding right of way at the intersections of cycling roads in the guidelines on the design of roads in built-up areas (RASt 2006) and in the recommendations for cycling facilities (ERA 2010) are different. Whereas RASt 2006 stipulates that cycling roads should have right of way over other local access roads, in ERA 2010 it is recommended that this should de- pend on the local situation.
Dem Spieler sowie den Protagonisten ist zu Spielbeginn das düstere Schicksal der Menschheit unbekannt, doch mit der Entwicklung der Figurenbeziehungen und dem Aufdecken der Hintergründe offenbart sich schnell, dass auch die Hand- lung von NieR: Automata vor der actionreichen Fassade von schweren Grund- tönen und moralisch-existenzialistischen Fragestellungen getragen wird. So dre- hen sich in NieR die Fragen noch überwiegend darum, welches (menschliche) Leben im Vergleich zum künstlich geschaffenen ein Anrecht auf Existenz14 hat und welches nicht, während in NieR: Automata eben jenes schon lange nicht mehr existiert und die Spielwelt ausschließlich von anorganischen Akteuren in Form von Androiden und Maschinen besiedelt ist. Dabei ist trotzdem augenscheinlich, wie „lebendig“ beide Parteien auftreten: Vor allem die Darstellung der Androiden ist kaum von menschlichen Protagonisten anderer Spiele zu unterscheiden. Auf- grund ihres humanoiden Aussehens und Verhaltens wird der Spieler die künst- liche Herkunft der Spielfiguren in vielen Situationen und Dialogen beinahe ver- gessen, sodass sich hier folgende Fragen stellen: Was ist menschlich ? Wodurch wird das „Menschsein“ definiert ? Offensichtlich werden vom Entwickler ganz be- wusst die Grenzen verwischt.
7.2. The urbanization rate of land consumption is relevant
Conventionally, urbanization rates of population are used to describe the urban conditions of nations. It has become an international standard to make comparison among regions and countries. The United Nations World Urbanization Prospects, for example, is one of the commonly referred sources of rankings for urbanization of population. The advantages of such a measure include: ﬁrst, population, by treating people as commodities, is universal. It is unlike ‘household’ or any other unit, which may vary by culture and ethnicity. Second, through census collection that occurs regularly in many country and sub-country level entities, the available data are relatively reliable. However, the limitation of using population to evaluate urbanization discounts the urbanized land itself, which provides most of the resources supporting urbanization. The advantages of evaluating urbanization rate using land resources include: ﬁrst, ﬂexibility. The size of land parcels can be large or small, depending on the research goal and methodology applied. Second is consistency. The administrative boundaries may vary by size, but the land parcel can be divided to equal sized rectangular shapes for accounting purposes. Third, and maybe the most important, is ‘spatiality’. Unlike the urbanization rate of population, which is largely constrained to the administrative boundaries, the urbanization rate of land consumption can be measured to the size of speciﬁc land parcels and reveal the spatial distribution at a much ﬁner scale. Parameters that could relate to urbanization rate of land resources include but are not limited to Gross Domestic Product, road length, and other infrastructure.
In this scenario, this paper targets to extensively study the convergence property and convergence time of ECA under asynchronous update. We study the rate of growth of convergence time with respect to the size of automaton. The work concentrates on all the 256 ECA rules. Like [3, 5], we have also considered that in each discrete time step, only one arbitrary cell is updated. Hereafter, by ACA we shall refer ECA under asynchronous update (that is, one arbitrary cell is updated in a single step). We have designed one theorem for the characterization of ACA. From the theorem we identify 146 ACA (out of 256 ACA) rules that converge to some fixed- point attractors during their dynamic evolution. For the experimental study of convergence time, we have used the empirical curve bounding method and guess the rate of growth of convergence time of the characterized ACA . An algorithm is designed to setup the environment for experimentation and find the average convergence time of the characterized ACA. We have identified six different convergence time with respect to the size of ACA and
Then we restate the deﬁnition of CD-systems of restarting automata, and turn to our main topic, the CD-systems of stateless deterministic R(1)-automata. We compare the class of languages that are accepted by these systems through mode = 1 computations to other well-known language classes. In particular, we show that in mode = 1 these systems only accept languages with semi-linear Parikh image, including all regular languages, but that they also accept some languages that are not even context-free. In fact, these systems accept all ratio- nal trace languages. Accordingly they can also be interpreted as a reﬁnement of the so-called multiset ﬁnite automata of , which accept all regular macrosets, that is, the commutative closures of all regular languages. In addition, we present a syntactic restriction for CD-systems of stateless deterministic R-automata of window size 1 such that the corresponding systems characterize the class of rational trace languages. These systems actually yield an eﬀective calculus for rational trace languages in that from systems of this form for rational trace languages S 1 and S 2 we can eﬀectively construct systems for the rational trace
this means that we treat all missing as being parents who died prior to 1961. If we study survival until age 65 for instance, we can be sure that no parent that would be deceased by 1961 could have been more than 65 at the time of death. For a child born in the earliest cohort in our data, 1943, we can assume that a mother would have been at at most 45 years of age when having her last child. A mother in our sample could then at earliest been born in 1898, which means that she must have deceased at age 63 at the latest (since the mortality register starts in 1961). For later parent cohorts, they must have been even younger at the moment of death. When we include the missing parents in our sample, results do not change (results available on request). This provides us with the second piece of evidence that the small fraction of children with missing parents do not impact on our results in any important way.
In order to assess potential network effects at firm performance level, we define a set of indicators that are likely to translate several aspects of firm performance: innovative, economic, financial, and human resources.
The methodological procedure undertaken here is of comparing Simoldes performance before and after its entrance in ACECIA network. More specifically, we seek to evaluate whether the entrance in ACECIA produced visible outcomes in terms of Simoldes technological competencies and economic results and also whether existing and ongoing performance outcomes of Simoldes conditioned and influenced ACECIA’s progress. In short, to investigate whether regional networks evolution is one critical factor influencing firm performance or whether the causality may be on both ways, that is, firm performance leveraging out the evolution of regional networks imposing a kind of cumulative development path at regional level.
The NN SOM, a powerful tool of classification, have been developed mainly by Kohonen (1995) between 1979 and 1982. As said before SOM are AutoPoietic NN, where the target is not predefined, but dynamically built up during the learning phase. Their architecture comprises two layers: an input one, acting simply as a buffer, that doesn’t modify the data, and an output one, known as Kohonen layer (or matrix), which is formed by units regularly organized in the space and which evolves during the training following a spatial organization process of the data characteristics, named Feature Mapping (Fig. 1a). The construction of these maps allow a close examination of the relationships between the items in the training set.
In free-space optical links, the atmospheric index-of- refraction turbulence (IRT) distorts the wavefront, which causes intensity scintillation and phase distortions at the receiver side [ 6 ]. The remaining phase piston error will substantially decrease the stability of the received fre- quency reference. This piston error value will vary over time due to the optical path length variations caused by IRT [ 7 , 8 ]. This effect generates signal-phase fluctuations with bandwidth of up to kilohertz order [ 9 ]. From the re- ceiver point-of-view, variations of the phase are detected as changes of the reference frequency. A two-way link concept could also be used with mobile optical free- space links to alleviate this problem, but they require high technological effort and also have very limited ap- plicability in space-ground links, where the point-ahead angle prevents them from crossing the same volume of atmosphere for up- and downlink.