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Investigation of the negative and positive effect of natural aging on artificial aging response in Al-Mg-Si alloys

Investigation of the negative and positive effect of natural aging on artificial aging response in Al-Mg-Si alloys

For alloy 4-4, due to the lower solute concentration, clustering is slower than in alloy 6-8, which means that a much small number of clusters form with a much slower decrease of solute supersaturation in the matrix. This explains that a weak cluster peak is detected in DSC (Fig. 4.1). After short NA, e.g., 2 min and 5 min, a few small clusters are formed which is responsible for the very slow increase of NA hardness (Fig. 4.2). In this case, these clusters will dissolve during AA (region 1). Therefore, the AA strength response is slightly reduced during underaged stage (Figure 4.9). With increasing NA time, e.g., 300 min, it is noted that there is very small increase in NA hardness (Fig. 4.2). It can be deduced that although some clusters become larger the number density of clusters is still small, which means that the solute supersaturaturation in the matrix keeps a high level. Therefore, besides dissolution of small clusters, some larger clusters will be in region 2 which the help of high solute supersaturaturation will grow during AA, resulting in a continuous hardness increase. When NA for long time, many more clusters will form and solute supersaturation become much lower. The effect of the dissolution of NA clusters becomes larger and a decrease stage of AA hardness in the initial period is observed. Since solute supersaturation will be increased through cluster dissolution and it is beneficial for the growth of larger clusters, the AA hardness of NA sample is still higher than that of the as-quenched condition (NA 1d and NA 1w in Fig. 4.9).
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Positive and negative effects of social status on longevity: Evidence from two literary prizes in Japan

Positive and negative effects of social status on longevity: Evidence from two literary prizes in Japan

To solve this puzzle, we return to the three mechanisms introduced earlier. We suggest that a rise in social status need not boost longevity. First, a positive effect through improved economic conditions can be strengthened when candidates have not obtained stable social status, and this effect weakens as their social status stabilizes. Mirowsky and Hu (1996) empirically show that the size of the effect of higher income on improved physical conditions is larger for lower income levels, and its magnitude diminishes as income rises. In addition, the positive effect of absolute income on utility is larger for lower incomes, and its magnitude diminishes as income rises (Easterlin, 2004; Ohtake et al., 2010). Second, the negative effect of heightened stress can strengthen in some occupations as social status rises. For example, receiving prizes compounds the workloads of novelists, screenwriters, and songwriters, and they struggle to meet diverse needs and deadlines without rest. Redelmeier and Singh (2001b) indicate that a rise in social status shortens
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Consequences of customer engagement behavior: when negative Facebook posts have positive effects

Consequences of customer engagement behavior: when negative Facebook posts have positive effects

Concluding, we want to indicate some managerial implica- tions of our study. The main conclusion is that not all types of negative information that are circulating in social media must per se be detrimental for the image of the brand or the com- pany. As the results show, it depends on the circumstances. OSNs are a highly personalized environment and the same piece of negative information posted by different friends or contacts might have different consequences that can even re- sult in an opposite positive effect for the mentioned product or company. The current research suggests that companies can actually profit from occasional negatively valenced comments on social networking sites when their brand is well-known and popular. As highlighted by Ein-Gar et al. ( 2012 ), even though information acquisition can no longer be controlled by the companies, there remain plenty of possibilities in an online social media environment for the companies to present them- selves, staying in control of the information and being actively involved in this process. In addition, the results highlight that Facebook is a suitable means to spread information about unknown products (e.g., by applying seeding strategies and viral marketing), since positive posts about unknown products positively affect product evaluation. As pointed out by Wang and Chang ( 2013 ), marketers can approach appropriate cus- tomers to recommend a product to their Facebook friends, expecting that those recommendations would have a positive impact on purchase intentions.
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The impact of hippocampal impairment on task-positive and task-negative language networks in temporal lobe epilepsy

The impact of hippocampal impairment on task-positive and task-negative language networks in temporal lobe epilepsy

There is evidence that the hippocampus itself is crucial for lan- guage processing ( Piai et al., 2016 ) and it seems to have a key role for widespread cognitive network changes in TLE possibly due to its distributed connections including entorhinal input, fornix out- put but also the integration in the default mode network (DMN) ( Haneef et al., 2014; Englot et al., 2017 ). Furthermore, resting state fMRI studies have shown that the default mode network includes regions associated with language function particularly in the tem- poral and frontal lobes ( Yeo et al., 2011; Gordon et al., 2018 ) and there is increasing evidence that for successful cognitive task per- formance successful deactivation of task-negative regions is neces- sary ( Stretton et al., 2012 ). The relationship to both, task-positive regions associated with general cognitive task performance and task-negative networks as part of the DMN, has been discussed to be functionally dissociated along the hippocampal axis, with anterior regions being stronger connected to regions of the DMN and posterior regions being stronger connected to the task- positive network in healthy controls ( Chase et al., 2015 ). Besides this functional differentiation along the anterior-posterior hip- pocampal axis, recent studies additionally revealed a functional lateralization effect where only the left hippocampus was attribu- ted to word and language processing, while the right hippocampus was more involved in emotion processing in healthy controls ( Plachti et al., 2019 ).
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Propagation effects in the application of weather radar - Positive and negative impact

Propagation effects in the application of weather radar - Positive and negative impact

If there is a relative motion between the radar and the target, the frequency of the received wave is changed by the Doppler Effect. Weather radar typically measures the phase difference between two consecutive pulses and estimate Doppler frequency which is then related to the radial motion of the precipitation particles. In general it is assumed that precipitation particles follow with the wind and have a known terminal fall velocity. Thus it is possible to estimate the wind field using measurements of Doppler velocity. Phase measurements, i.e. Doppler velocity are basically immune to propagation effects.
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To brace or not to brace? : positive and negative effects of knee braces

To brace or not to brace? : positive and negative effects of knee braces

The investigation of joint kinematics is a wide field in bio- mechanical testing. For the knee joint, a lot of studies exist to investigate for example the outcome of surgical procedures, the influence of muscle forces and ligaments or the effect of various loading conditions on the joint's motion. Such studies measure the complex kinematics of the knee joint, that has three rotational and three translational degrees of freedom (DOF). Since all DOF are coupled to flexion, knee kinematics can be seen as a function of the flexion angle ( Wilson et al., 2000 ). Towards the end of the rotation of the tibia from flexion to extension the tibia performs an external rotation, also known as “final rotation” or “screw-home mechanism” ( Piazza and Cavanagh, 2000 ). The magnitude of this external rotation is an indication for instability or injury of the knee and is also effected by the shape of the femoral condyles and tibial plateau ( Kärrholm et al., 1988 ; Sharma et al., 2012 ). Typically, studies compare the influence of loading conditions, injuries, repair strategies etc. on tibial rotation in comparison to a reference measurement of an unloaded or healthy knee respectively. So, the influence of the specific research question can be compared to a neutral condition. This raises the question if these already mea- sured references can be used for new studies by other research
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Positive alpha and negative beta (a strategy for counteracting systematic risk)

Positive alpha and negative beta (a strategy for counteracting systematic risk)

= ∙ (1) where P is risk-neutral probability; is subjective probability; and R is risk aversion adjustment. Jackwerth [6] explained that the risk neutral probability (P) is the price that the investor would pay to receive one dollar, taking into account the risk free rate of return at a specified point in time. The subjective probability ( ) is the investor’s biased evaluation of likelihood of occurrence, and the risk aversion adjustment (R) relates directly to the individual risk profile of the investor. Further, he noted the differences in the risk-neutral distributions before and after the crash in 1987. Finding that implied risk aversion functions were dramatically altered to an extent where investors were exhibiting greater risk aversion after this crash. In Figure 1, we see a similar dynamic risk averse pattern emerge in the form of the demand for protection in market declines. This is reflected by an almost twofold increase in implied volatility (VIX) in market declines vs. the decrease in market inclines. What we put forth is that P has a large effect on option pricing due to, (1) the reliance on variables that are highly dependent on the subjective interpretation of the relative frequency of past events; (2) their projection as a predictor of future probabilities; and (3) the degree of loss aversion that the investor is displaying. If we examine the variables that comprise this risk-neutral probability ( ∙ ), it becomes apparent that their interplay (when determining the risk-neutral probability in changing market environments) can bring about interpretational biases specifically with regards to the pricing of risks. Further, it was noted that initial losses tend to increase the temerity with which we can say that people become increasingly risk-averse [8], which reflects the relationship we see between volatility and the market. We argue that this could become even more apparent in economies of high leverage, due to a forced demand of protective hedging in order to meet debt obligations, which is especially likely if sell-offs threaten the livelihoods of investors. This is in line with Shiller’s thoughts from his book Irrational Exuberance, in which he states, “More and more electronic markets are being created every year, trading a wider and wider range of risks, and more and more people, in both advanced and emerging countries, are being drawn in to participate in these markets. People will increasingly fear that their livelihoods really depend on their wealth, wealth that is highly unstable because of market changes. People increasingly believe that they must defend their private property and doubt that they can depend on social institutions if things turn out badly” [9].
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The Effect of Positive Mood on Cooperation in Repeated Interaction

The Effect of Positive Mood on Cooperation in Repeated Interaction

This interpretation of the data is corroborated by an analysis of the text of the pre- play communication using a text analysis tool called Linguistic Inquiry and Word Count (Pennebaker, Francis, and Booth, 2001) created to study the emotional, cognitive and structural components present in subject’s written speech samples. This has been used widely in psychology and linguistics research to correlate individual’s mental and physical state with the words they use. For example, to measure emotional expression (Kahn, Tobin, Massey, and Anderson, 2007); to reveal political sentiment (Tumasjan, Sprenger, Sandner, and Welpe, 2010); in assessing the response to disaster (Kryvasheyeu, Chen, Obradovich, Moro, Van Hentenryck, Fowler, and Cebrian, 2016) and in measuring “The- ory of Mind” (Kidd and Castano, 2013). To the best of our knowledge we are the first to systematically analyze the text used in pre-pay communication between subjects in a laboratory experiment in this way. We find that, consistent with their behavior in the game, subjects in the positive mood treatment use language representing more negative and less positive emotion. Perhaps even more telling, we find that subjects in a positive mood treatment more often use the first person singular, usually considered as evidence of inward orientation.
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Possible magnetic-polaron-switched positive and negative magnetoresistance in the GdSi single crystals

Possible magnetic-polaron-switched positive and negative magnetoresistance in the GdSi single crystals

Figure 2 | Temperature variations of resistivity and MR effect. (a) Resistivity measurements with current I along the a and c axes under applied magnetic fields of 0, 1 and 8 T. T 1 5 100 K labels the temperature where one structural anomaly occurs as shown in Fig. 1 . The dashed lines are fits between 10 K and 40 K (details in text), and extrapolated to higher temperatures. (b) Corresponding MR values versus temperature. The MR effect along the a axis has a similar trend to that of the c axis albeit with a lower value. The positive MR values decrease sharply with increasing temperature below ,20 K, then gradually transfer into negative around T N ,
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Positive and negative impact of increased tertiary attainment

Positive and negative impact of increased tertiary attainment

The correlation among these indicators is presented in Table 2. Data is extracted from several international databases (Eurostat, OECD Education at a Glance database, the web sites of academic rankings) and serve as a base for constructing the panel data for the period of the years - 2003, 2005, 2007 and 2009 - for EU27 countries in addition to Switzerland, Norway, the United States and Japan. We decided to use the panel data analysis in order to obtain more reliable results by analyzing observations on multiple phenomena observed over multiple times in multiple countries. In this work, only correlation (R) of above 0.5 is determined to be an indicator of a strong correlation between the indicators: if a correlation of above 0.5 is found (whether positive or negative), it indicates that there is a strong relationship between selected knowledge economy indicators and tertiary educational indicators. The advantage of the correlation analysis is that, unlike the regression analysis, it shows how those variables affect each other regardless of the direction. On the other hand, it does not suffice in determining whether there is a cause-and-effect link between the variables (it would instead be determined by regression analysis at the later stage of this paper). At this stage, the correlation analysis suffices as we are interested in testing whether there is a correlation of any kind in between selected two variables and if so, how strong.
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Possible magnetic-polaron-switched positive and negative magnetoresistance in the GdSi single crystals

Possible magnetic-polaron-switched positive and negative magnetoresistance in the GdSi single crystals

kT w , shown as dashed lines. This produces w c,0T 5 1.51(2), w c,8T 5 1.56(4), w a,0T 5 1.43(2) and w a,8T 5 1.51(1). All w values are much smaller than 5 20 indicative of anisotropic magnetic interactions. Anisotropic MR effect and positive MR value (PMRV) to NMRV transition. The most intriguing results from resistivity measure- ments are the anisotropic MR effect (Figs 2b, 3 and 4) and the existence of both positive and negative MR values, up to ,415% (comparable to the CMR value in manganites 1,6 and one to two orders of magnitude larger than that of the RE-metals 21 ) and down to ,210.5% along the c axis at 8 T and 3 K and 52.8 K, respectively. The MR anisotropy in the ac and bc plans is shown in Fig. 3. They display a twofold symmetry at 7K (Figs 3a and 3d). We notice that applied magnetic field of 8 T does not suppress (produce) the (a) hump along the c and a axes, respectively, near T N , and the MR
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Varieties of contested multilateralism: positive and negative consequences for the constitutionalisation of multilateral institutions

Varieties of contested multilateralism: positive and negative consequences for the constitutionalisation of multilateral institutions

The contestation of the United Nations Security Council (UNSC)’s regime of targeted sanctions against terror suspects may serve as an example. By establishing a blacklist for terror suspects that obliged all states to freeze the bank accounts of the listed individuals without providing them with any form of legal remedy, the UNSC infringed on basic due process rights of the targeted persons. Affected individuals, supported by a transnational coalition of civil-society actors, were dissatisfi ed with the Council’s unconstrained exercise of authority. Yet, as the discretionary character of the UNSC did not grant them access, they were precluded from internally claiming their rights let alone advocating more legal constraints on the Council’s authority. They had to turn to more constitutionalised institutions to which they had access: the Council of Europe (CoE), the UN Human Rights Committee (HRC), and, most importantly, the European Court of Justice (ECJ). While the former two publicly criticised the Council’s practice, it was the latter with its famous Kadi rulings that brought the desired effect. The ECJ found the EU regulation implementing the UNSC resolution to violate the plaintiff’s right to a fair process and thus made the implementation of the UNSC resolution in the EU conditional on the introduction of legal remedies for the listed individuals. In response, the Council felt compelled to institutionalise effective complaint procedures, increasing its level of constitutionalisation (Heupel 2013 ).
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Behandlungserwartungen im Kontext pharmakologischer und psychologischer Interventionen - Einfluss auf positive und negative Behandlungsergebnisse

Behandlungserwartungen im Kontext pharmakologischer und psychologischer Interventionen - Einfluss auf positive und negative Behandlungsergebnisse

One explanation for the nocebo phenomenon is patients’ expectations about possible side effects in general (Nestoriuc et al. 2010), which might be triggered by the information provided in the informed consent or by verbal suggestion (Mondaini et al. 2007; Cohen 2014). Another factor potentially contributing to the occurrence of side effects is prior experience or learning (Amanzio 2015). One such example is cancer patients experiencing nausea as a side effect after undergoing chemotherapy. It is assumed that initially, neutral stimuli such as the room in which the therapy is administered are associated with the occurrence of nausea: therefore, just entering the room can cause anticipatory nausea after a while (Matteson et al. 2002). Such conditioning effects can be generated if an originally neutral stimulus (NS; e.g., the room) is combined with an active stimulus (unconditioned stimulus = UCS; e.g., chemotherapy) that leads to certain reactions (e.g., nausea). After several pairings of NS and UCS (acquisition phase), the NS becomes a conditioned stimulus (CS). This means that the CS alone can evoke the reaction that was originally generated by the UCS (evocation; Pavlov 2010). Although some authors differentiate between expectations and conditioning as different mechanisms involved in placebo and nocebo responses (Enck et al. 2013), it is not always possible to clearly distinguish them since learning also leads to certain expectations (Stewart-Williams and Podd 2004). Therefore, in this article, we do not differentiate between expectation and conditioning per se but rather between “expectation through verbal suggestion” and “learning/conditioning”.
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Positive Spillovers from Negative Campaigning

Positive Spillovers from Negative Campaigning

Apparently, political strategists have been convincing in advising candidates to vilify their opponents. Yet, the academic debate on the effectiveness of negative ads in persuading voters is still open. Indeed, despite its popularity among practitioners, the empirical evidence on whether negative ads are more or less effective than positive ones is ambiguous (Lau et al., 2007). Negativity seems to reduce the voters’ evaluation of the targeted politician (Kahn and Kenney, 2004). However, this effect may not be sufficient to lower political support for the target of the negative ads, as political choices are hard to change (Lau et al., 2007). Moreover, negativity may also have a backlash effect, by worsening the evaluation of the attacker (Carraro and Castelli, 2010; Lau and Rovner, 2009) and may therefore reduce his support (Kahn and Kenney, 2004; Lau and Rovner, 2009). Going negative is thus a strategic choice that a candidate makes, by weighting the benefit from driving down the positives of the opponents (i.e., the target effect ) against the risk of being perceived negatively (i.e., the backlash effect ). Several aspects of this strategic decision have been analyzed in the literature, such as the closeness of the race, the existence of an incumbent, differences in the amount of funding or in the polls (Dowling and Krupnikov, 2016; Mattes and Redlawsk, 2014), or the heterogeneous response of voters by gender (Galasso and Nannicini, 2016).
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The positive and negative syndrome scale for schizophrenia

The positive and negative syndrome scale for schizophrenia

Even though the scale is widely used and is the measure of choice in many clinical trials, its psychometric properties are still the reason for serious confusion. In many research papers, one important fact about the PANSS is overlooked: it is an interval scale and, therefore, straightforward calculations of proportions are not appropriate. In other words, calculating simple percentage changes is incorrect and a prior scale correction is required. These kinds of calculations often appear in conjunction with responder analyses, as the definition of response is usually based on a predefined cut-off in terms of percent scale change. Two of the presented papers of this thesis are dealing with this urgent problem: using real data as well as simulated data sets, it is shown that ignoring the scale level of the PANSS can, in many cases, even lead to false test decisions concerning an examined treatment effect. Furthermore, an analysis of the problem’s urgency with regard to academic discussions, performed by way of a systematic study of literature in the highest-ranked journals dealing with schizophrenia, showed that incorrect calculations are widespread in the literature and that there is a strong need for a general clarification.
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Positive results, no negative consequences : no-harm options for article 6

Positive results, no negative consequences : no-harm options for article 6

In that sense, safeguard approaches are a nec- essary enabler of sustainable development - even if the existence of safeguards against neg- ative effects in a project activity in itself does not guarantee that the activity will positively contribute to a country's sustainable develop- ment. Safeguards thus constitute a minimal standard that project activities would have to fulfil in order to heed the call to connect Art. 6 activities to a country's sustainable develop- ment. The objective of this paper is to analyse and make recommendations on how such a minimal standard for Article 6 could look like. Within the international negotiations on carbon markets, the term "safeguards" is often used in connotation with concerns of environmental integrity and the avoidance of double counting. We see this as an extremely important "climate safeguard" that absolutely should be observed in order to ensure the primary functions of mit- igation mechanisms, to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. This paper, however, focuses at all do no harm issues except the climate aspects, i.e. social and other environmental aspects as well as economic effects, because the climate- related safeguard issues have been dealt with elsewhere (cp., p. ex., Schneider et al. 2017, Spalding-Fecher et al. 2017).
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Time Discretization of the SST-generalized Navier-Stokes Equations: Positive and Negative Results

Time Discretization of the SST-generalized Navier-Stokes Equations: Positive and Negative Results

SST spaces on Z\ {0} from Lemma 37 in sec. 5.3.2. The principal relevance of these non-Navier-Stokes SST spaces is that they serve as counterexamples to disprove uniqueness and stability conjectures which are open questions in the special case of the Navier-Stokes equations. Each time such a counterexample is invoked in the present thesis, it proves that the corresponding statement does not hold in SST spaces in general. Of course in each such situation the corresponding statement might nevertheless be true for the special case of the Navier-Stokes equations which is why the counterexample doesn’t answer the open question. But it shows that it is impossible to prove the corresponding statement for the Navier-Stokes equations when using only the tools available in SST spaces. These tools are not as weak as one might believe: The above-mentioned basic known uniqueness and stability results, as well as several uniqueness results in sec. 5.3.1 which are to our knowledge new, are proven for general SST spaces.
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Wie wirkt soziale Unterstützung bei chronischen Arbeitsbelastungen? Positive und negative Gesundheitseffekte in verschiedenen Statusgruppen

Wie wirkt soziale Unterstützung bei chronischen Arbeitsbelastungen? Positive und negative Gesundheitseffekte in verschiedenen Statusgruppen

Erstens ist das zentrale theoretische Konzept der sozialen Unterstützung in weiten Bereichen der bisherigen Forschungspraxis allzu umfassend, äußerst unkonventionell und oftmals rein pragmatisch verwendet worden: Explizite Ver­ suche zur begrifflichen Präzisierung des Konzepts sind selten, ein definitorischer Konsens unter den beteiligten Forschem schon gar nicht absehbar (Barrera 1986, Lin 1986a). Angesichts dieser konzeptionellen Defizite ist in den einzelnen Stu­ dien oft nur schwer feststellbar, ob der untersuchte Sachverhalt der sozialen Unterstützung (a) sich auf strukturelle Parameter wie Größe, Dichte und Kontakt­ intensität sozialer Netzwerke bezieht; (b) als spezielle Leistung unterschiedlicher Gruppen potentieller Interaktionspartner aus Partnerschaft, Familie, Freizeit oder Beruf konzeptualisiert wird; (c) verschiedene "funktionale" Formen oder Typen der Hilfe (wie z.B. Information, Trost, Tatkraft, Geld oder Kontaktpflege) um­ faßt; (d) in bezug auf Quantität und Qualität aus der Sicht des Gebers, Nehmers oder neutralen Support-Beobachters erfaßt wird; (e) als allgemeine Lebens-Res- source oder nur als stress- und krisenbezogenes Phänomen gilt; und (f) gemäß der positiven Begriffs-Konnotation per definitionem nur positive Auswirkungen auf das Wohlbefinden der Adressaten hat oder auch gesundheitlich dysfunktional sein kann.
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OPUS Würzburg | Einfluss von Osteopontin auf Foxp3-negative konventionelle und Foxp3-positive regulatorische CD4-positive T-Zellen der Maus

OPUS Würzburg | Einfluss von Osteopontin auf Foxp3-negative konventionelle und Foxp3-positive regulatorische CD4-positive T-Zellen der Maus

SLAYGLR in Mäusen mittels Spaltung durch Thrombin freigelegt (Abb. 8,13 Die meisten Zellen binden OPN über Integrine. Dabei scheint der Vibronectinrezeptor αvβ3-Integrin der Haupt[r]

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The Importance of Positive and Negative Affectivity and Mental Health Activities for Positive Mental Health and Work-related Behavior and Experiences

The Importance of Positive and Negative Affectivity and Mental Health Activities for Positive Mental Health and Work-related Behavior and Experiences

emotions (Bandura, 1993; Fredrickson, 2004; Fredrickson & Joiner, 2002; King, Hicks, Krull, & Del Gaiso, 2006). Activity No. 6 (“I have a mental list of strategies that have worked in the past for depressive moods and use them.”) can facilitate positive behavior due to positive outcome expectations and ultimately increase self-efficacy (Bandura, 1989). Likewise connected with well-being are a regular exercise (activity No. 1 “I am physically active or engaged in exercise”; Diener, 1984; McMahon et al., 2017), a healthy diet (activity No. 14 “I eat a healthy and balanced diet”; Khalid, Williams, & Reynolds, 2016) as well as sufficient and good sleep (activities No. 2 “I practice a good sleep hygiene” and No, 3 “I maintain a regular sleep schedule”; Ong, Kim, Young, & Steptoe, 2017; Pressman & Cohen, 2005). Engaging in social activities and facilitating social support (activities No. 8 “I have a trusted friend or relative, with whom I get out and do some activities”, No. 9 “I leave the house daily”, No. 12 “I talk over problems or feelings with someone who is supportive and caring”, and No. 13 “I let my family and friends know how I am feeling and what I am going
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