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Qualitative analysis and documentary method in international educational research

Qualitative analysis and documentary method in international educational research

According to the interviewees the boys have an established opinion concern- ing the girls' interest for the hip hop movement, which represents a barrier for any girl who would be interested in participating in this juvenile culture. In other words, it must be shown to 'the dudes' that the aim is not to find a space in the movement for the purpose of flirtation or of showing off the latest trends. Such a judgment is found not only among male groups within a same district, but also in the media itself. The very means of communication – in this case, radio show hosts – take on the role of reinforcing the latent sexism not only in the universe of hip hop culture, as they broadcast new female groups. In the statement "it's good to have women in the hip hop movement but you can't be rolling around the group" the idea that only women circulate and "go with everyone" is implicit. In the male and sexist imagery this circulation takes place in only one way, that is, it is women who "roll" from one partner to the next, while men remain static and, in this posi- tion, immune to any sort of disesteem. Actually though, this notion is also shared by the female interviewees. These youths have already internalized values and expectations attributed to the female in their society, in which thorough preservation of the image and reputation is assumed. In this sense, the women themselves, in the hip hop movement contribute to the preserva- tion of these values imposed by the sexist society by undertaking the com- mitment of controlling and adverting other female companions: "when it's about a friend you just come up and say, you know, you say that you can't just go with everybody 'cause people will be lookin' down on you." In the interviewees' viewpoint, this undertaking is necessary because what is at stake is not only the image and reputation of a girl directly involved in a situation, but rather of all of those who participate in the movement. Dis- crimination becomes collective because the 'talk' regarding the consequences of one specific fact will affect all of the women, collectively.
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Qualitative longitudinal research: Application, potentials and challenges in the context of migration research

Qualitative longitudinal research: Application, potentials and challenges in the context of migration research

The interview as a research method carries many potentials resulting from the social interaction that takes places between the researcher and the research participant which has been widely acknowledged in sociology as “the science of the interview” (Benney, Hughes 1956). The developing relationship between the researcher and the interviewees provides a rich context for analyzing changes in narrative as well as mutual interpretations and understandings. This adds important value to the research outcome, but on the other hand creates ethical concerns about sustaining participants’ consent as the research develops and constantly providing them with the option to withdraw (Taylor 2015, see also Hemmerman 2010). The ongoing relationship can influence both data collection and its analysis by the researcher who becomes more familiar and engaged with the affairs of his interviewees, while interviewees may also want to elaborate on stories important to them and not necessarily related to the interview scenario (Thomson, Holland 2003). Moreover, repeated qualitative (in-depth) interviews can also carry a ‘therapeutic potential’, when the interviewees become emotionally engaged in the research, which “must be treated with caution, recognizing the costs of self-exposure for the participant’s privacy and integrity” (Thomson, Holland 2003: 239, see also Hemmerman 2010; Krings et al. 2013). Furthermore, the change that takes place in the lives of participants between interviews may not necessarily be positive in character so they may be reluctant to talk about their experiences and an acknowledgement of undesirable facts may cause distress (Ryan et al. 2016). Another important issue to take into account is that repeated contacts with the researcher aimed at reflecting upon experiences (such as e.g. migration decisions) can alter the life trajectories, attitudes and perceptions of the research participants, which otherwise would not occur (Holland et al. 2006).
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Qualitative comparative analysis as a method for  innovation research: analysing legal innovations in OECD countries

Qualitative comparative analysis as a method for innovation research: analysing legal innovations in OECD countries

The combination of both elements defines a strong equal pay regulation and is designed to enforce equal pay for women and men according to their qualifica- tions and their occupation with no regard for their gender. It promises (2) a novel and better way to ensure equal pay for women and men and marks a fundamental change to already existing modes for the solving of this problem (cp. Kern and Nam 2009, 639; Polsby 1984, 8; Rogers 1995, 11). Wage determination is not left to the actors in the economic system, e.g. through negotiations between em- ployees and employers. Instead, the specialized body has the authority to super- vise the wage determination, based on the principle ‘equal pay for work of equal value.’ It breaks ‘with the preceding governmental responses’ to the problem and introduces a novel procedure to legally regulate wage determination for employ- ees (Polsby 1984, 8). Thus, the equal pay regulation for women and men is an innovation in the legal field (Castro 2012; Duffy 2007). It is defined as an ‘ad- vance,’ which is “better in accomplishing the purposes of the law” (Duffy 2007, 3) and is embedded in a broader ‘cultural vision’ (Kern and Nam 2009, 638) of modern societies, in which attributes like race or gender do not influence the opportunities available to a person (Parsons 1972; Schimank 2005, 242). The equal pay regulation is a reaction to the discriminatory practices in wage determi- nation which are perceived as a social problem. Wage inequalities between wom- en and men exist in all OECD countries – only the size of the gender pay gap differs. One possible explanation for the persistence of wage inequalities is the absence of effective equal pay regulations (Weichselbaumer and Winter-Ebmer 2005, 486). The identification of innovations is only possible ex-post (3). It be- comes apparent that a strong equal pay regulation is institutionalised in 50% of the OECD countries, which shows its success as an accepted way of ensuring equal pay for women and men (Laux 2014a). The task is then to analyse the relevant conditions for its institutionalisation (cp. John 2012, 82). In case of legal innovations, it is trivial to suppose that the legislation is solely responsible for the institutionalisation of the equal pay regulation. Instead the relevant conditions of the context as well as the actors are analysed in order to explain the success of the equal pay regulation in OECD countries.
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OPUS 4 | Anticorruption in Public Procurement - A Qualitative Research Design

OPUS 4 | Anticorruption in Public Procurement - A Qualitative Research Design

infrequent   use   of   interview   techniques   makes   it   especially   interesting   to   know   how   researchers  approach  interviewees  and  in  what  fields.  Are  there  special  techniques?“   Taking   this   gap   in   the   methodological   literature   into   account,   chapter   II   develops   a   qualitative   approach   to   anticorruption   research   and   presents   it   in   detail.   This   method   enables   researchers   to   describe   and   explore   the   application   of   regulatory   systems   aiming   to   induce   policy   recommendations   for   anticorruption   measures   in   public   administration.  It  is  based  on  a  case  oriented  design  that  applies  in-­‐depth,  open-­‐guided   expert  interviews  as  the  main  data  collection  tool  and  that  examines  the  data  by  means   of  a  qualitative  content  analysis.  The  explanation  of  the  method  starts  with  the  definition   of  the  research  questions  including  the  elaboration  of  findings.  The  chapter  offers  advice   on  how  to  enter  and  succeed  in  the  field  when  researching  sensitive  topics.  In  order  to   get   rigor   results   out   of   the   field,   the   method   is   drawn   on   the   concepts   of   external   validity,   construct   validity,   internal   validity   and   reliability.   The   presented   research   approach  can  serve  as  a  roadmap  for  conducting  future  research  projects  in  the  field  of   anticorruption   and   good   governance   in   public   administration.   It   is   being   applied   to   conduct  the  two  studies  presented  in  chapter  III  and  IV.  While  chapter  II  introduces  the   main  concept  of  the  research  method,  chapters  III  and  IV  shortly  provide  some  further   information   about   specific   characteristics   of   the   respective   approach   to   fieldwork   of   each  project.    
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Qualitative Psycholgy Nexus Vol. VIII: Epistemologies for Qualitative Research

Qualitative Psycholgy Nexus Vol. VIII: Epistemologies for Qualitative Research

Teemu Suorsa goes to more fundamental questions by reminding us that scientific concepts in psychology have their history and "local background." Suorsa analyzes carefully the origin of empathy in English and German languages and their Finnish equivalent "myötäeläminen." Empirical evidence is always formulated from unique and local circumstances. Following the ideas of Jaan Valsiner, Suorsa underlines that the challenge in scientific psychology is to produce universal knowledge through respectful investigation of local phenomena. This task requires, however, applying our minds to careful analysis of the history of the scientific concepts we use in our studies. Salvora Feliz, Tiberio Feliz and Maria Carmen Ricoy want to listen to people's voices concerning their everyday lives and especially their opinions about their homes. The authors emphasize the pragmatic point and users' views to the architectural design of homes. It was stated that different groups of people have also quite different views and perceptions about homes, which should be payed attention to in architectural designing. Another kind of participation and way of listening to everyday life experiences is presented in the article of Maria Carmen Ricoy, Salvora Feliz and Tiberio Feliz when they describe the use of diaries and self- reflection on the practical training periods during the university studies. The diary method is used as a way to promote and enhance the practical learning especially in social education programs. The content analysis of diaries is described and various categories could be found. The method could at the best be a useful way to support students' self-reflection.
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Subjectivity and reflexivity in qualitative research – a new FQS issue

Subjectivity and reflexivity in qualitative research – a new FQS issue

Reason]“, published in 1781, to REICHENBACH (1970), who distinguished the “context of discovery” from the “context of justification” in the philosophy of science. The everyday scientific life it reached with POPPER's (1984) “Logik der Forschung [The Logic of Scientific Discovery]” – POPPER under- scored the necessity and possibility of objective scientific knowledge, a form of knowledge that is created but not contaminated by subjects. Many objections had been raised since then against the idea of constructing objective knowl- edge. More recent methodological frameworks prefer to use terms like “logic” in the plural form, and the post-KUHNIAN reflexive sciences were concerned with the “Entzauberung der Wissenschaft [demystification of science]” (BONSS & HARTMANN 1985) and with the psycho- and socio-“logic” of research. Furthermore, some explicitly pledge for the re-introduction of sub- jects into the sciences – we are talking about ourselves” (e.g. RAUSCHEN- BACH 1996). But this plea was predominantly a programmatic one, which is also apparent in the field of qualitative research, where “the phantom of undis- turbed research settings is persisting: in the case of research practice by ne- glecting the researchers' involvement in the research process and its products (naturalism of qualitative research practices), and for qualitative methodologies that ignore their own contingency (naturalism of qualitative research method- ologies)” (MRUCK & MEY 1996b, pp.4f; our translation).
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A bibliometric reconstruction of research trails for qualitative investigations of scientific innovations

A bibliometric reconstruction of research trails for qualitative investigations of scientific innovations

Abstract: »Die bibliometrische Rekonstruktion von Forschungslinien für quali- tative Untersuchungen wissenschaftlicher Innovationen«. Abrupt changes in re- search content are of interest to innovation research because many innovations in general and scientific innovations in particular emerge from such changes. However, investigations of innovations emerging from research processes face the problem that the initial change of direction in research by one or few re- searchers is an elusive phenomenon. The method presented in this article contrib- utes to solving this problem by supporting the in-depth analysis of individual re- search biographies and of the emergence of new directions of research in these. The method employs bibliometric tools for a reconstruction of individual cogni- tive careers, embeds these reconstructions in qualitative studies of research biog- raphies, and provides opportunities to link cognitive careers to the dynamics of scientific fields. As we will demonstrate, the method is generic in that it supports not only the investigation of scientific innovations but also, more generally, the identification of thematic change in individual cognitive careers. Two applications in qualitative research projects illustrate the potential of the method.
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Qualitative Psychology Nexus, Vol. I: Qualitative Research in Psychology

Qualitative Psychology Nexus, Vol. I: Qualitative Research in Psychology

purposes. In the latter case, the precise ways in which the method can be used for a particular object need to be explored. Billmann-Mahecha, too, thinks this a sensible approach and, after analyzing a group discussion with children, concludes that this method is fruitful. But: "Further pilot studies are needed that clarify, among other things, which stimuli are adequate for such group discussions" (ibid., p. 296; translation C.K.). Of course, countless stimuli can be thought of (see e.g. Lamnek, 1998, pp. 136-138; for further insights in respect to the question of how to start a group discussion, see also Loos and Schäffer, 2001, pp. 49-51 and pp. 86-98). This becomes obvious when one takes into account the numerous possible variations of the media in which a stimulus is presented: texts, films, tapes, things, pictures or photographs could be used. The number of possible variations rises again when aspects of the material's content are taken into account as well. (At least) three categories of organization can be thought of: Time, culture and theme. Thus, a stimulus representing something that happened 'long ago' or something that has happened quite recently, a stimulus drawing on one's own culture or on a foreign one, finally a stimulus originating in the history of economy, ideas, law, everyday life, or any other specific form of history can be presented. Acknowledging this complexity, it becomes evident that it is impossible to explore all possible variations. One could now be tempted to regard the choice of a stimulus to start a group discussion a matter of a more or less arbitrary decision. This impression, however, is not completely true. The arbitrariness can be limited by concentrating on the subjective relevance systems of the research subjects: specific stimuli will be chosen to bring out these relevance systems. To cut a long story short: after the first 'pre-test' of group discussions with pupils I could observe that texts did not work, no matter how close to everyday life they were. What happened was that their use created the atmosphere of a typical school lesson. The use of other media such as tape recordings or post cards did not really change this. 'Dense' discussions emerged only when the pupils were asked to bring objects they associated with history to the group discussions. I will demonstrate the beginning of such a discussion with an example.
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Developmentally oriented thematic analysis (DOTA): a qualitative research method to explore meaning-making processes in cultural psychology

Developmentally oriented thematic analysis (DOTA): a qualitative research method to explore meaning-making processes in cultural psychology

summarize and code to give an account of the complexity of the phenomena under study. It can be difficult to categorize sentences that give an account of the coexisting layers associated with said phenomena. According with previous research (LEHMANN, 2018), these sentences might evoke, for instance, the tension between the diverse positionings of the self (e.g., I-as-a-good-student and I-as-a-mindfulness-practitioner) that are simultaneously activated in the stream of consciousness. They could also indicate the tension elicited by affective processes (e.g., I feel frustrated but I also want to feel motivated). In other words, while linguistic categories are sequential (e.g., a participant writes one word after another in a journal), psychological processes are simultaneous (e.g., a plurality of processes is occurring in the mind, and multiple layers of meaning are negotiated, both consciously and unconsciously). Thus, with such a multi-layered quality of the psyche that we aim to highlight, in this article we present a ground for acknowledging and studying the aforementioned simultaneity, when textual data are rich enough to acknowledge it. This multi- layered nature of the mind gives account of undifferentiated or nonarticulated aspects of cognition, meaning that including a focus on the silent aspects of our experiences might be a possibility for expanding the understanding of meaning- making. [1]
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Sampling knowledge: the hermeneutics of snowball sampling in qualitative research

Sampling knowledge: the hermeneutics of snowball sampling in qualitative research

Snowball sampling is arguably the most widely employed method of sampling in qualitative research in various disciplines across the social sciences. It is sometimes used as the main vehicle through which informants are accessed, or as an auxiliary mean, which assists researchers in enriching sampling clusters, and accessing new participants and social groups when other contact avenues have dried up. Indeed, this type of employment may partly account for this method’s weak integration into mainstream qualitative work: it seems as an auxiliary and ‘informal’ procedure (Hendricks, Blanken, & Adriaans, 1992), one that is plain and rather commonsensical so as to avoid systematic reflexive consideration. As Atkinson and Flint (2001, p. 1) observe, it ‘lies somewhat at the margins of research practice.’ In addition, there is a wealth of related sampling terms and concepts, such as chain, referral, link-tracing, respondent-driven and purposive sampling, which further contribute to the lack of integration and coherence of snowball sampling (Bieranacki & Waldorf, 1981; Heckathorn, 1997; Patton, 1990; Spreen, 1992). In various studies snowball sampling is often employed as a particularly effective tool when trying to obtain information on and access to ‘hidden populations’ (such as non-institutionalized drug-users: Heckathorn, 1997; Sifaneck & Neaigus, 2001; unem- ployed men: Atkinson & Flint, 2001; Faugier & Sargeant, 1997; AIDS carriers: Sifaneck
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Methods for qualitative management research in the context of social systems thinking

Methods for qualitative management research in the context of social systems thinking

A number of authors compare different methods for processing information within the social system they study. Several authors highlight the potential of functional analysis in allowing researchers to capture and visualize the distinc- tions which operate at the system level for classifying (management) problems and solutions (MAYR & SIRI, 2010; JOHN & RUECKERT-JOHN, 2010; KNUDSEN, 2010). Gian-Claudio GENTILE (2010) describes a documentary method of analyzing discussions in detail as content (what is said), structural (how collective sense making structures are processed) and inter-case level (what distinguishes sense making patterns between one case study and an- other). In addition authors report on how processes used for validating data complement and support the research data. Examples include feedback work- shops with, or presentations to, former interviewees (GENTILE, 2010; JOHN & RUECKERT-JOHN, 2010; LEMON et al., 2010; WOLF, 2010) and the structural analysis conducted by former interviewees of the relationship of terms which they themselves had used (MEISSNER & SPRENGER, 2010). All authors of empirical papers confirm that triangulation methods for validating data were applied.
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Major Change in the Quality Management of the Qualitative Market Research

Major Change in the Quality Management of the Qualitative Market Research

The trends registered in Romania are similar to those from other new EU member states. The total value of the turnover generated by the qualitative research services has increased annually. In 2007, at global scale, the market research turnover reached the value of USD 28.235 billion. (ESOMAR, 2008) In Europe, the value was USD 12.882 billion. The qualitative methods accounted for 14% of the global research spend in 2007. The group discussions have contributed with 72% to the qualitative research spend and the in-depth interviews with only 14%, the rest of 14% being due to other qualitative research methods. The distribution of qualitative research spend by method reflects primarily the need of the organizational customers for specific types of information. The figures may also suggest a propensity of the companies specialized in market research to apply mostly the group discussion method. There is a potential risk to switch from “methodology” to “methodolatry”, being excessively focused on methods and paying less attention to the substance of the reality that is studied. (Stokes and Bergin, 2006) Experts consider that many advantages claimed for focus groups relate to aspects such as costs, time and easiness of the analysis - aspects that are extrinsic issues of the process and do not relate to the quality of the research outcome. In fact, while the focus groups are better suited to wide- ranging exploratory research, the in-depth interviews are a better choice when it is necessary to get a detailed understanding of consumer perspectives.
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Qualitative Psychology Nexus, Vol. III: Research Questions and Matching  Methods of Analysis

Qualitative Psychology Nexus, Vol. III: Research Questions and Matching Methods of Analysis

Literature of this sort is not a normal topic of text analysis for psychologists and social scientists who would rather concern themselves with everyday texts closer to their own daily ex- perience. Highly literary productions some hundred years old and from distant societies are a challenge to any method of text analysis, particularly those in the social sciences. Such texts can test their methods' capacities to discover and describe literary and cultural structures in general. Their methods should produce results which allow a critical comparison with findings gained from other forms of text analysis, such as literally history, linguistics, and philosophy as well as poetry, journalism, and art criticism. Of course there are different ways of dealing with texts, particularly in the arts. For those who claim a scientific approach, however, methods developed within the social sciences should insist on tests of validity which lead beyond interpretative fantasy on the part of the researcher and plausibility on the part of the reader. W ithin the social sciences we can argue that if the method succeeds when applied to works of art, it should also allow us to analyze other forms of verbal expression within a certain society, such as popular culture or everyday language in speech or writing. On the other hand, if a m ethod seems to work with everyday texts but fails when applied to highbrow literature, the researcher should be careful not to overestimate the ability of the method per se. Analyses of highly complex texts are a crucial test for any method of text analysis as they must be well enough developed to deal adequately with them but also apply to the more simply structured texts as well. The reverse, however, is not necessary.
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Qualitative experiment as a participating method in innovation research

Qualitative experiment as a participating method in innovation research

Because of the ‘immune reaction’ strategies practitioners may use for prevent- ing their organization from becoming a research field, researchers are keenly aware even though they may have obtained entry into an organization, they may be excluded from what is “really” happening in the field. When members of an organization know, for example, that that there is a researcher in their workplace kitchen, they probably will not discuss all topics in that room or will not tell him what is happening in other spatialities of the organization. Looking at workplace kitchens as an arena for exchanging private and work related issues, the research- er will increasingly learn more topics over a period of time when he is no longer a total foreigner to the people in the field. This point shows the importance for researchers of establishing closeness and building trust to people in the field in order to be able to examine the research object. Frequently, researchers will be- lieve they understand the problems of the field better than the practitioners them- selves. This ambivalence of inferiority and power appears to the researcher as well as to the practitioners who are not certain about the research. There are good reasons for a researcher not to know everything about what is happening in the field. For example, when practitioners give information to the researcher and tell him later that nobody is supposed to know about it, the researcher has to deal with that secret. It is easier for a researcher when practitioners keep such infor- mation from him. How does the researcher need to position himself in relation to the field? According to Wolff the approach to the field is a never fully completed task for which researchers need collaboration with the practitioners. Such an approach provides insight on structures and processes of research as a social action and the examined field of action possible (Wolff 2010).
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Conflicts in qualitative research

Conflicts in qualitative research

of the Oppressed (1970) and Martín Barro's work (1994), and has been steadily gaining acclaim for its promotion of a more communal nature of engagement. It is applied, collaborative, and committed research that works in a cyclical rather than necessarily "conclusive" method (Walter, 2009). There is an initial sort of need recognition phase where a weak point in a given system is identified by not just a single group or team of field workers, but a "community of local researchers". Next comes a resource-pooling step with the goal of "tackling the problem", leading to the "action" phase where strategies are implemented to reach the "desired objective". The last stage of the cycle is a reflective one, where flaws in design are ironed out and methodology is stream lined, eventually leading to a new "reflection- informed planning" period. The em phasis here is on the rotational nature of the process; there is no real "end" until the problem is solved. While Dr. Sládková's work was done at the individual level, I believe that if replicated on a larger scale, it can be utilized within a m osaic of system-wide change when it comes to not only immigration reform but the migration process itself. As discussed earlier, in addition to teaching introductory English courses, she led several focus groups with migrant wom en. Unlike the more formal interview sessions, these groups provided a forum for migrant women to experience a sense of community and gave them the courage to ask questions, to challenge her research and motives, and to hopefully "challenge the metanarrative of immigration, acknowledging [themselves] as transformative subjects, not passive victims or the collateral damage of the sweeping forces of globalization" (Cahill, 2010, p. 160).
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Qualitative analysis and documentary method in international educational research

Qualitative analysis and documentary method in international educational research

Both in studies on hip hop as well as on youth in general, there is a great gap with regard to the feminine presence in political-cultural manifestations. Do young female adolescents make up a minority in the hip hop movement, in other aesthetic-music movements and other associative forms, such as crews and gangs? If our criterion is the existing bibliography, then we should af- firm they do. Since the first studies carried out by sociologists at The Chica- go School (among others Trasher, 1963; Whyte, 1996; Cohen, 1955) and by members of the Center of Contemporary Cultural Studies (CCCS) in Bir- mingham (among others Hebdige, 1979; Willis, 1997; Clarke, 1975; Cohen, 1979) to more recent studies, among others, in Germany (i.e. Baacke, 1987; Schäffer, 1996; Hill, 1996; Tertilt, 1996; Nohl, 2001), in Portugal (see Pais, 1993, 1999) and in Brazil (among others Caiafa, 1985; Vianna, 1985, 1997; Costa, 1993; Kemp, 1993; Abramo, 1994; Abreu, 1995; Xavier, 1999), there have been few references to be found or none at all with regard to female participation in these movements (among the studies of both gender, espe- cially the work of McRobbie/Garber, 1975; Willis, 1990 are significant). Papers on youths and on youth culture that encompass the category youth as a whole, a category that does not distinguish between young female and young male teens, are widespread. Considering the importance of these au- thors' works, fundamental for consolidating the field of youth studies, there is yet one more problem in addition to representing the category youth as a whole: analyses on corporeal aesthetics, style of attire, music preferences and the teens' overall outlook on life, among other aspects, have been mainly carried out on the basis of participant observation and interviews with male
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Qualitative and Quantitative Approaches in the Research of Historical Learning : Potentials and Limitations

Qualitative and Quantitative Approaches in the Research of Historical Learning : Potentials and Limitations

Empirical Research on Historical Learning and Thinking in Finland 17 the basis of narrative theories. This study drew on teaching experiments in two upper secondary schools and it also represented teacher research. The author worked as an upper secondary school history teacher and collected his data during two years in connection with an obligatory course of Finnish history. The lessons were based on the National Core Curriculum and in addition, the students (n= 144) wrote narratives in small groups connecting a micro-historical approach to the main line of national history, and to the political and societal developments. Aho analysed the students’ narratives according to the typology of historical consciousness developed by Rüsen and classified them into traditional, exemplary, critical and genetic narratives. The traditional narratives were most common, because this structure was perhaps the best reflection of the dominant way of teaching history. Then, the narratives were analysed following Northrop Frye’s typology of plot structures (tragedy, comedy, satire and romance). The girls tended to write fatalistic tragedies and emotional romances, while the boy groups’ tragedies were stories of hatred or grotesque comedies. Romances also occurred in boy groups, but these were patriotic romances and the object of love was the home country, not females. The author saw clear-cut gender differences in the students’ views on history. The boys tended to have very masculine and girls somewhat feminine eyeglasses through which they looked at history. Furthermore, this method seemed to suit girls better as the girl groups produced more often deeper-level genetic narratives. This kind of study is valuable in projecting students’ views on history and it has certain merits even as an experiment. 12
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Recovering the "Individual" for Qualitative Research: An Idiographic Approach

Recovering the "Individual" for Qualitative Research: An Idiographic Approach

Importantly, these assertions and focus are not a signal that qualitative researchers should be purely interested in the individual as such; after all, the research focus may be on the way people more broadly respond to and live with normative value and social structures. Nonetheless, we would say that even such broadly social research focuses rest on the need to ascertain and engage with the individual's qualitative experiences (KNOBLAUCH, 2014; MEY, 2000). Indeed, under the qualitative model, experience of the social should always be informed by—and necessarily ascertained from—individual experience. This is no more than the reminder that the foundations of qualitative research can be traced to medieval philosophers who differentiated quanta (the quantities) from qualia (the qualities of things), an idea which was carried through into the modern distinction between objective or "primary qualities" open to quantitative study and subjective or "secondary qualities" being the focus of qualitative research
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Hermeneutic interpretation in qualitative research: between art and rules

Hermeneutic interpretation in qualitative research: between art and rules

For example, Psychoanalytic Hermeneutics is based on concepts of the deformation of language, Objective Hermeneutics is based on life experiences contained in latent meaning struct[r]

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Comparative qualitative research in cultural
psychology: challenges and potentials

Comparative qualitative research in cultural psychology: challenges and potentials

There have, in fact, been a number of studies from linguistic anthropology and, particularly, within the Language Socialization approach (e.g., Ochs 1988; Schieffelin/Ochs 1986; Duranti/Ochs/Schieffelin 2012) that draw on ethnography on the one hand, and Discourse/Conversation analysis on the other, to under- stand the nature and the development of cultural practices within certain local communities. Within this approach, it is assumed that language to which chil- dren and novices are exposed and which they use in several domains of sociali- zation conveys not only communicative meanings but also sociocultural knowl- edge: engaging in discursive practices means for children to enter sociocultural realms. This line of research has for instance examined how the particular forms of discursive practices socialize children and novices to forms of social demeanor that are meaningful in a certain community, such as, eating (Ochs/ Pontecorvo/Fasulo 1996; Aronsson/Gottzen 2011), playing (Aronsson 2011; Fatigante/Liberati/ Pontecorvo 2010), cleaning (Fasulo/Loyd/Padiglione 2007), reading (Moore 2008; Sterponi 2007, 2008), negotiating activity contracts (Aronsson/Ceikate 2011; Goodwin M.H. 2006), expressing affect and affiliation (Goodwin M.H. 1998, 2006; Ochs/Schieffelin 1989; Goodwin/Goodwin 2000), per- forming self and morality (Goodwin M.H. 1999; Ochs/Kremer-Sadlik 2007; Sterponi 2003, 2004). The ethnography of the context (including, interviews with members, ethnographic observations of local practices in formal and infor- mal contexts, analysis of space and artifacts) in which the communicative, so- cializing practices are situated is essential to understand the preferences and ideologies that underlie the language use on the one hand, and the interpreta- tion of the societal structure and members’ social roles on the other (see excerpt on Cameroon Nso provided above).
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