Medicinal and aromatic plants

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Conservation of medicinal and aromatic plants

Conservation of medicinal and aromatic plants

The Lithuanian flora contains 1334 plant species. There are more than 460 species, which are used in folk and traditional medicine in Lithuania (R ADUŠIENĖ and J ANULIS , 2004). The majority of medici- nal and aromatic plants are still collected from the wild; the lack of advanced local varieties limits their cultivation. There are species which are difficult to cultivate and therefore vulnerable to harmful harvesting of wild populations . 33 species of medicinal plants are included in the Red Data Book of Lithuania . Generally, the conservation of wild plants species and their resources is regulated by the the Law on Wild Vegetation (1999), the Law on Protected Areas (1993, 2001), Law on National Plant Genetic Resources (2001) and supplementary legal acts. The protected areas account for 14.8 % of the total area of the country.
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Medicinal and Aromatic Plants Value Chain Performance in Albania: Information System Implementation

Medicinal and Aromatic Plants Value Chain Performance in Albania: Information System Implementation

Department of Economics, Faculty of Economy, Mediterranean University of Albania, Albania Abstract The medicinal and aromatic plants (MAPs) represent a very important sector for the Albanian economy. According the COMTRADE 2018 statistics, this sector exports rank the country at the 16-th position in the World, indicating that Albania has a very big economical potential in this area (Hoxha, 2016, Naka et al., 2003). Despite this potential, the last 20 years records show that these exports have remained almost constant. The lack of information about the value chain, indicating the asymmetric information is the main reasons of this performance (USAID, 2010, Lekocaj et al, 2017). Therefore, conclusion emerges that there is a limited rationality between the economic agents who work and study in this sector. This study object is to identify the information sources and to fabricate all the channels where this information goes through. To achieve our objectives, we are using systemic approach. At the national level, we have chosen 3 municipalities, while for the information level regarding this sector’s actors we have chosen 12 exporting companies, the most important ones in Albania. The results show that the sector information system has methodological problems on their identification and a lack of a central database, which can be updated at any moment with new information in time and space from all the value chain actors.
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Welcome to the 6th International Symposium Breeding Research on Medicinal and Aromatic Plants (BREEDMAP 6)

Welcome to the 6th International Symposium Breeding Research on Medicinal and Aromatic Plants (BREEDMAP 6)

Customers all over the world are interested in products based on natural sources. There is a per- manent demand for high-quality products. Prerequisite are new varieties and lines of medicinal and aromatic plants with better resistance to biotic and abiotic stress, with adaptation to different conditions in cultivation, and finally with an increase of active principles. In many cases we do have a breakthrough but for a broad range of medicinal plants much can still be done in order to improve quality and quantity and to get constant high levels of active principles. The BREEDMAP 6 Symposium presents the international platform to share new results and techniques with an inter- national audience to create new ideas and fruitful collaborations in this promising field.
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New, emerging and re-emerging fungal diseases on medicinal and aromatic plants in European domain

New, emerging and re-emerging fungal diseases on medicinal and aromatic plants in European domain

Keywords: Apiaceae, Lamiaceae, fungal pathogens, asexual morphs Introduction Medicinal and aromatic plants (MAPs) are considered minor crops generally grown on limited area. There was a view that they had no serious diseases. The sources of information related to the diseases of MAPs were mostly limited to the areas in which their cultivation reached appreciable levels. During the last decades, mainly Europe and America have experienced an increase trend towards healthy diet and natural products, which led to a growing demand for MAPs, partly satis- fied by collections of wild-growing plants, but to an enhanced extent by cultivation. The increased interest in the use of MAPs is also recognizable regarding the bigger diversity of genera processed in Europe. A negative consequence of the growing concentration in cultivation is an increase of
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Cell, tissue and organ culture, cryopreservation, endophytes in relation to medicinal and aromatic plants

Cell, tissue and organ culture, cryopreservation, endophytes in relation to medicinal and aromatic plants

DOI 10.5073/jka.2016.453.006 Abstract Plant cell, tissue, organ and protoplast culture methods offer a rich scope for creation, conserva- tion and utilization of genetic variability for the improvement and production of elite planting material of medicinal and aromatic plants. Besides, tissue culture techniques are now increasingly being used for the production of bioactive compounds in vitro. Micro propagation ensures true to type, rapid and large scale multiplication under disease free conditions. In the absence of seasonal constraints, 10-30 cycles, depending upon the plant species, can be completed in one year, ensur- ing 5-50 times multiplication per cycle.
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DNA barcoding to trace Medicinal and Aromatic Plants from the field to the food supplement

DNA barcoding to trace Medicinal and Aromatic Plants from the field to the food supplement

The global market of food supplements is growing, along with con- sumers demand for high-quality herbal products. Nevertheless, substitution fraud, and adulteration cases remain a common safety problem of global concern. In the last years, the DNA barcoding ap- proach has been proposed as a valid identification method and it is now commonly used in the authentication of herbal and food pro- ducts. The objective of this study was to evaluate whether DNA barcoding can be applied to trace the plant species from the start- ing raw material to the finished commercial products. We selected a panel of 28 phytoextracts obtained through three different extraction methods (i.e., maceration, percolation and sonication) with different solvents (i.e., ethanol, deionized water and glycerol). Furthermore, we chose six plant species for which we collected and analysed all the intermediates of the industrial production. We sequenced and analyzed the sequence variability at DNA barcoding (psbA-trnH, ITS) and minibarcoding (rbcL 1-B) marker regions. Phytoextracts obtained through hydroalcoholic treatment, with the lower per- centage of ethanol (<40%), and aqueous processing, at the lowest temperature, had major rate of sequencing and identification success. This study proves that DNA barcoding is a useful tool for Medicinal and Aromatic Plants (MAPs) traceability, which would provide con- sumers with safe and high-quality herbal products.
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Design, development and modeling of a solar distillation system for the processing of medicinal and aromatic plants

Design, development and modeling of a solar distillation system for the processing of medicinal and aromatic plants

used in preventing and treating specific ailments and diseases and are generally considered to play a beneficial role in health care. Some cultivars from medicinal plant families are also used as ingredients to season or to give a pleasant flavor or smell to foods. Therefore, the terms “medicinalandaromatic” are usually used in conjunction. Essential oils extraction from medicinal and aromatic plants is one of the medium temperature agro-based industries. These oils are used in medicinal and pharmaceutical purposes, food and food ingredients, herbal tea, cosmetics, perfumery, aromatherapy, pest, and disease control, dying in textiles, gelling agents, plant growth regulators, and paper making (Öztekin & Martinov, 2007). A single ounce of most of the oils is worth thousands of Dollars. In the last decade, these oils remedies have gained enormous popularity in industrialized countries as well particularly in the multi-million-dollar aromatherapy business. Out of all extraction methods, the distillation methods have advantages of extracting pure and refine essential oils by evaporating the volatile essence of the plant material (Malle & Schmickl, 2005). At present, there are large and centralized distillation units mostly located in city areas. Due to their high operating costs, these are sometimes unmanageable by farmers or even groups of farmers in most of the developing countries. Further, some essential oils come from extremely delicate flowers and leaves that must be processed soon after harvesting. Thus, for functional, economic and environmental reasons, there is need of a decentralized distillation system. Due to lack of adequate facilities for the decentralized distillation systems, farmers prefer to dry their product rather to sell it at very low price. Results show that conventional drying methods such as open sun drying and conventional-fuel dryers are not suitable which deteriorate the essential oils components in the herbs. Moreover, the drying process necessitates an enormous amount of thermal and electrical energy (Fargali, 2008). The on-farm solar distillation is a decentralized approach to reduce the post harvest losses and to prevent spoilage of essential oil components by processing the fresh herbs. Examples of the plants are Peppermint, Lemon Balm (Melissa), Lavender, Cumin, Cloves, Anise, Rosemarie, Patchouli, Caraway, Cassia, Oregano, European Silver Fir, and Fennel etc.
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Identification and enhancement of secondary metabolites in medicinal and aromatic plants for potential use as biological pesticides and pharmacologicals

Identification and enhancement of secondary metabolites in medicinal and aromatic plants for potential use as biological pesticides and pharmacologicals

11 th Young Scientists Meeting 2018, Braunschweig, Germany, November 14-16 Karimi et al. Identification and enhancement of second- ary metabolites in medicinal and aromatic plants for potential use as biological pesti- cides and pharmacologicals

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Announcement - 6th International Symposium Breeding Research on Medicinal and Aromatic Plants  (BREEDMAP 6),  June 19 - 23, 2016

Announcement - 6th International Symposium Breeding Research on Medicinal and Aromatic Plants (BREEDMAP 6), June 19 - 23, 2016

This meeting continues a series of international symposia for Breeding Research on Medicinal and Aromatic Plants, which started in 1996. Open to all aspects of basic and applied research in plant breeding, the conferences place emphasis clearly on medicinal and aromatic plants. This BREEDMAP 6 Symposium will be organized by the Julius Kuehn Institute, Federal Centre for Cultivated Plants (JKI) in collaboration with the Leibniz Institute for Plant Genetics and Crop Plant Research (IPK) and the Society for Medicinal Plant and Natural Product Research (GA). Customers all over the world are interested in products based on natural sources. There is a permanent demand for high-quality products. Prerequisite are new varieties and lines of medicinal and aromatic plants with better resistance to biotic and abiotic stress, with adaptation to diff erent conditions in cultivation, and fi nally with an increase of active principles. In many cases we do have a breakthrough but for a broad range of medicinal plants much can still be done in order to improve quality and quantity and to get constant high levels of active princip- les. The BREEDMAP 6 Symposium will present the interna- tional platform to share new results and techniques with an international audience to create new ideas and fruitful collaborations in this promising fi eld.
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Intraspecific taxonomy of plant genetic resources – Important for differentiation of medicinal and aromatic plants?

Intraspecific taxonomy of plant genetic resources – Important for differentiation of medicinal and aromatic plants?

binary matrix out of 300 polymorphic markers from which a neighbor joining tree based on Nei & Li distances was generated (D ITTBRENNER , 2009; D ITTBRENNER et al., 2008) with the programme PAUP. Papaver glaucum Boiss. & Hausskn. was used for a clear separation within the opium poppy. For the phytochemical studies the content of the five main alkaloids morphine, codeine, thebaine, noscapine, and papaverine was measured with HPLC (high pressure liquid chromatography) based on a method described by D ITTBRENNER (2009) and D ITTBRENNER et al. (2009).

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Sustainable Resource Management of Medicinal and Aromatic Plants of Afghanistan

Sustainable Resource Management of Medicinal and Aromatic Plants of Afghanistan

During the mid-1800s through the 1900s, Afghanistan was caught between the British Empire in India and the Russian empire to the north. The country was in the middle of a tug-of-war between the two great powers for nearly 100 yr. All present-day boundaries of Afghanistan were forced on the country by the British, the Russians, or a combination of the two. At about 1885 Wakhan has been established as a neutral zone between the British and Russian empires and then it became part of contemporary Afghanistan. Russia consolidated its control in Central Asia by incorporating Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan, Kazakhstan, Tajikistan, and Kyrgyzstan into the Soviet Union in the 1920s (Robinett et al., 2008). By 1919, this vestige of foreign interference was removed, and Afghanistan became a member (in many cases a founding member) of the United Nations (U.N.) and other international bodies. King Amir Abdur Rahman Khan (1880-1901) laid the groundwork for the modern Afghan state by establishing a standing army and by instituting a more efficient administration that enhanced tax assessments and collection, and improved it beyond the capital by dividing the country first into six provinces. Successor Afghan rulers gradually added to the state’s administrative goals and capacity, and cautiously attempted modernization. While much of Amir Habibullah Khan’s (1901- 1919) reign was spent fending off foreign encroachment and protecting royal power, he accomplished several educational and cultural reforms (Evans et al., 2004). Amanullah (1919-1929), who assumed power after his father’s assassination, introduced the country’s first constitution. The 1923 Constitution formed a modern executive, but kept legislative powers in the hands of the king and his seven-member cabinet. It granted virtual equality to women, abolished slavery and gave rights to non-Muslim minorities, while abolishing many traditional executive privileges and limiting the power of religious court judges. Primary education was declared compulsory in a system of national schools, while intermediate and secondary were set up in Kabul and provincial capitals. Amanullah instituted direct taxation of farmers and traders, and regular budgeting and accounting procedures. But his attempts to use state administration to impose these reforms prompted oppositions from conservative religious and tribal leaders (Evans et al., 2004).
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Morphometrics and chemometrics as tools for medicinal and aromatic plants characterization

Morphometrics and chemometrics as tools for medicinal and aromatic plants characterization

Statistical analysis Data are presented as the mean ± standard deviation, expressed by fresh weight or leaf area, and differences among means were deter- mined by analysis of variance (ANOVA), using SPSS (Statistical Package for Social Sciences) version 19.0 software (IBM Corpora- tion, New York, U.S.A.). Averages were compared using the Dun- can test (P < 0.05). Pearson correlations were calculated using SPSS. Principal component analysis (PCA) allows the recognition of pat- terns in the data by plotting them in a multidimensional space us- ing the newly derived variables as dimensions (factor scores). PCA was applied for reducing the number of variables (30 variables cor- responding to all analyzed parameters) to a smaller number of newly derived variables (principal component or factors) that adequately summarize the original information, i.e., the biometric and biochem- ical characterization of leaves of five MAP’s. The factors to retain in data treatment were evaluated by the Scree plot, taking the eigen- values, which should have be greater than one, into account, hence keeping the factor in the analysis and the internal consistency by means of αCronbach’s value (m aroco , 2003).
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The pharmacological assay as a tool to medicinal plants domestication

The pharmacological assay as a tool to medicinal plants domestication

6 th International Symposium Breeding Research on Medicinal and Aromatic Plants, BREEDMAP 6, Quedlinburg, Germany, June 19-23, 2016 Human tumor cell lines used: U251 (glioma), MCF-7 (breast), NCI-H460 (lung, non-small cells), HT- 29 (colon), PC-3 (prostate) were kindly provided by National Cancer Institute (Frederick, MA, USA). Cell culture: stock cultures were grown in medium RPMI 1640 (GIBCO) supplemented with 5 % fetal bovine serum (FBS, GIBCO) and 10 U/mL penicillin, 10 µg/mL streptomycin at 37 °C in 5 %

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Biotechnological tools for improvement of black nightshade (<i>Solanum nigrum</i> L. complex), valuable medicinal and vegetable plants in Kenya

Biotechnological tools for improvement of black nightshade (<i>Solanum nigrum</i> L. complex), valuable medicinal and vegetable plants in Kenya

6 th International Symposium Breeding Research on Medicinal and Aromatic Plants, BREEDMAP 6, Quedlinburg, Germany, June 19-23, 2016 Julius-Kühn-Archiv, 453, 2016 23 The knowledge that the S. nigrum complex has high nutritional and medicinal benefits has led to an increase in their consumption, monetary value and demand in Africa. There is a high demand to improve S. nigrum cultivars. The production of doubled haploid plants ensures that homozy- gous lines can be obtained in a shorter period, unlike conventional breeding which takes 5 - 6 years of selfing to achieve this homozygosity level. Through development of haploids and later doubled haploids, cross breeding process can be initiated. Here we present the first results of anther culture of the Kenyan S. nigrum complex accessions. Furthermore, for development of new African S. nigrum varieties knowledge is necessary about the genetic structure of the local African nightshade accessions. For that purpose amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) tech- nique was used.
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Recent achivements of the introduction and improvment of native medicinal plants in Iran

Recent achivements of the introduction and improvment of native medicinal plants in Iran

6 th International Symposium Breeding Research on Medicinal and Aromatic Plants, BREEDMAP 6, Quedlinburg, Germany, June 19-23, 2016 length and diameter sepal (16.93 % and 19.44 % respectively). Essential oil content was varied between 0.93 % to 6.2 % among populations. The essential oil composition was homogeneous as the main chemical component in oils of all the studied populations was carvacrol (89.2 – 96.2 %). Rosmarinicacid content of methanolic extracts had considerable variation varying from 0.54 to 7.29 % (w/w) of the dry matters based on qualitative and quantitative TLC analysis.
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Parasitic Angiosperms as medicinal plants

Parasitic Angiosperms as medicinal plants

6 th International Symposium Breeding Research on Medicinal and Aromatic Plants, BREEDMAP 6, Quedlinburg, Germany, June 19-23, 2016 66 Julius-Kühn-Archiv, 453, 2016 ESL 5: Parasitic Angiosperms as medicinal plants Karl Hammer 1 , Merita Hammer-Spahillari 2

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Medicinal plant breeding in Poland: history and nowadays

Medicinal plant breeding in Poland: history and nowadays

6 th International Symposium Breeding Research on Medicinal and Aromatic Plants, BREEDMAP 6, Quedlinburg, Germany, June 19-23, 2016 68 Julius-Kühn-Archiv, 453, 2016 Session F: Plant breeding and plant analytics FPL 1: Medicinal plant breeding in Poland: history and nowadays Katarzyna Seidler-Lozykowska

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Antiinflammatory Medicinal Plants from the Ugandan Greater Mpigi Region Act as Potent Inhibitors in the COX-2/PGH2 Pathway

Antiinflammatory Medicinal Plants from the Ugandan Greater Mpigi Region Act as Potent Inhibitors in the COX-2/PGH2 Pathway

highest test concentration, indicating low antioxidant activity and eliminating free radical scavenging as a potential mechanism of action. Moreover, extract eE005 only exhibited low growth inhibition activity against S. aureus (MIC: 500 µg/mL) and no antibacterial effects on L. innocua and E. coli (MICs: >500 µg/mL). L. calostachys is an aromatic herb occurring in some parts of Uganda. It was recently identified by the DoP method as a “highly understudied” species [ 6 ]. In fact, not much research has been done on this species so far. Three studies reported moderate to low antiplasmodial activity of L. calostachys crude extracts [ 66 – 68 ]. The n-hexane extract of the leaves (hE005) displayed significant quorum sensing inhibition activity against the accessory gene regulator (agr) system in S. aureus [ 65 ]. Thus, our study provides the first report of strong in vitro antiinflammatory activity of L. calostachys. Other publications in the literature describe the traditional uses of L. calostachys in Kenya, which include use for the treatment of ulcers [ 69 – 71 ], colic pain in infants, cancer, skin diseases, headache, arthritis, heart diseases [ 69 ], malaria [ 72 , 73 ], gastrointestinal disorders [ 69 , 71 , 74 – 76 ], flu [ 76 , 77 ], and stomach ache [ 70 , 76 ]. Our data provides further evidence for some of these traditional therapeutic uses. According to the authors’ knowledge, there have been no articles published so far reporting isolation and identification of bioactive natural products from L. calostachys.
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Mites in aromatic, condiment and medicinal dehydrated plants in bulk sale in the city of São Paulo.: Poster

Mites in aromatic, condiment and medicinal dehydrated plants in bulk sale in the city of São Paulo.: Poster

Torres, A.R., Araujo, E.F., Cursino, L., Hungria, M. and S.T.A. Cassini, 2009: Genetic diversity of indigenous common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) rhizobia from the state of Minas Gerais, Brazil. Brazilian Journal of Microbiology 40, 852-856. Vidal-Valverde, C., Frias, J., Estrella, I., Gorsepe, M. and J. Bacon, 1994: Effect of processing on some antinutritional factors of lentils. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry 42, 2291-2295.

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Scientific evaluation of medicinal plants used for the treatment of cervicitis (Qorohe- Rahem) in Iranian Traditional Medicine

Scientific evaluation of medicinal plants used for the treatment of cervicitis (Qorohe- Rahem) in Iranian Traditional Medicine

8.N Kermani. Sharh-ol-Asbab val Alamat: Tehran Research Institute for Islamic and Complementary Medicine publication; 2008. 9. M A, ed. Ghazvini T, Favaed -ol-Ttafie.. . Almaii, Tehran (2009 ) 118 [Persian]. 10. Arzani M. Tibb-e-Akbari. Jalal al- Din, Qom (2008 ) 120- 1330 [Persian]. 11. Naseri M, Mojab F, Khodadoost M, Kamalinejad M, Davati A, Choopani R, Hasheminejad A, Bararpoor Z, Shariatpanahi S, and Emtiazy M. The study of anti-inflammatory activity of oil-based dill (Anethum graveolens L.) extract used topically in formalin-induced inflammation male rat paw. Iran. J. Pharm. Res. (2012) 11: 1169-74.
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