Using two independent samples of Finnish juniorhighschoolstudents, this study investigated the applicability of the SEI (Appleton et al., 2006) for capturing the subtypes of aﬀ ective and cognitive engagement. Additionally, associations were ex- amined between aﬀ ective and cognitive engagement and measures with prior evi- dence of associations to engagement (self-esteem, burnout, and academic achieve- ment), as well as a measure of behavioral engagement. The present study is among the fi rst to investigate psychometric properties of SEI in an educational system outside the US (for another example, see Moreira et al., 2009). The results of con- fi rmatory factor analyses provided support for the studies conducted among the US middle and highschoolstudents (Betts et al., 2010; Carter et al., 2012; Reschly et al., 2014) in indicating that fi ve factors represent the SEI aﬀ ective and cogni- tive subtypes of engagement. Furthermore, the SEI showed acceptable item and scale reliability properties, as evidenced by generally high factor score reliabil- ities, Cronbach’s α coeﬃ cients, and squared standardized loadings. The results supporting the fi ve-factor structure in an educational system other than that of the US suggest that aﬀ ective and cognitive engagement can be assessed across diﬀ erent cultures and educational systems.
It is also possible that CCT programs are particularly effective for certain subsets of students. Since many developing countries have competitive highschool admissions systems for which academic performance is a critical determinant of advancement (Hannum, 1999; Cheyney et al., 2005; De Janvry et al., 2012), it may be the case that the CCT has a differential impact on students with different academic ability. CCTs may have less impact on the highschool matriculation rates of students with lower academic performance because they are constrained in their decision to continue on in school not only by financial concerns but also by their ability to qualify for academic highschool in the first place. By contrast, higher achieving students are likely able to qualify for academic highschool on their own merits but may need CCTs in order to afford highschool tuition. We therefore might expect to see a differential impact of the CCT on students of different academic ability. However, it might also be that when disadvantaged students are high performing that their families have already figured out how to finance highschool, despite the high costs. If this is so, the CCT may also not have an effect on high performing students.
European countries and in the US (e.g. Ma, 1997a, 2001), many students dropout of mathematics. In Israel this problem might be blamed mainly on teachers whose mathematical education is not sufficient (Barak & Waks, 1997). However, it cannot be explained in a country like Germany, where the requirement of a mathematics teacher who teaches in a Gymnasium is at least six years of higher education in mathematics. In Israel the highschool system is rigid, and each pupil that wants to specialize in mathematics has not only to be good at it in grade 9, but also join a “scientific” class with high demands in other scientific subjects from class 10 up to class 12. In the US – on the other hand – each math course in taken separately. Thus, a student can change her/his choice about taking more math courses or taking low level such courses practically after each highschool semester. Indeed – most students take this easy way, namely, they either dropout from math after class 11 (Ma, 2001), or choose not to take advanced algebra or trigonometry classes. Only a small minority of students chooses calculus; even pre-calculus, which is not a compulsory subject, is not very popular by most students (e.g. Davenport, Davison, Kuang, Ding, Kim, &
The final mathematics grade in juniorhighschool is given after nine years of compulsory schooling. The vast majority of Swedish youth enroll in highschool education. Students’
achievements in different subjects are graded on a 7-tiered scale from A to F, where F indicates failing. To calculate a grade point average (GPA), the main selection mechanism for students going from compulsory school to highschool, the grades are translated into a cardinal scale with 0 for an F, 10 for an E and then incrementally by 2.5 to 20 for an A. Final grades are based on absolute knowledge criterion and Mathematics, Swedish and English have nationally stipulated prerequisites for each grade. Grades are based on the level of knowledge, and must not reflect participation or ambition. In practice, however, teachers enjoy great discretion when deciding grades. Because grades are not externally evaluated, teachers could base their grades on anything they observe.
differences across regions in VHS availability—measured in terms of the number and timing of VHS constructions in Turkey. Specifically, we use two different instruments: (1) a dummy variable indicating the existence of a VHS in a given town at the time the individual is 13 years old and (2) the number of VHSs in a given town at the time the individual is 13 years old. This IV framework captures a significant amount of variation across individuals in terms of VHS availability by age 13. Note that we restrict our attention only to men throughout the paper due to the fact that most vocational highschool curricula are designed for male-dominant occupations [see Section 3 for the details of data and institutional setting]. Although we argue that the institutional setting in Turkey supports the validity of our identification strategy, the independence of the school construction decision from the local economic conditions which also affect the labor market outcomes is often questioned in the literature. To address this additional concern, we control for a large set of town-level characteristics including population, average educational attainment and employment rates of the previous cohort, the number of establishments, and the number of employed workers. We argue that the inclusion of these regional socio-economic characteristics significantly alters the nature of the IV estimates.
This study tested for deep understanding and critical thinking about basic quantum chemical concepts taught at twelfth grade (age 17-18). Our aim was to achieve conceptual change in students. A quantitative study was conducted first (n = 125), and following this 23 selected students took part in semi-structured interviews either individually or in small groups that were allowed to interact under the coordination of the investigators. The planetary Bohr model was strongly favored, while the probabilistic nature of the orbital concept was absent from many students’ minds. Other students held a hybrid model. In some cases, students did not accept that the electron cloud provides a picture of the atom. Many students had not understood the fundamental nature of the uncertainty principle. Finally, the mathematical description of the formation of molecular orbitals caused problems in the case of destructive (antibonding) overlap of atomic orbitals. Our approach to conceptual change employed active and co-operative forms of learning, that are consistent with social-cultural constructivism, and to Vygotsky’s zone of proximal development. It proved effective in a number of cases, and ineffective in others. The variation in students’ approaches was explained on the basis of Ausubel’s theory about meaningful and rote learning and of the ability to employ higher-order cognitive skills. Nevertheless, the methodology used can be useful for all students, irrespective of their behavior in traditional written exams.
Placed in a socioconstructivist context, science teaching through debates implies trusting students’ ability to generate knowledge and to develop scientific expertise that they will use outside classrooms. It implies that teachers used to being the one ‘who knows’ become facilitators of the collective construction of knowledge. Debates on SSI allow teaching of science within a social context. Learning how to debate appears therefore essential for the future citizens that will have to make scientific and technical choices during their life. To achieve such a goal, each classroom has to be seen as a community that will produce knowledge instead of one that will consume knowledge (Jiménez-Aleixandre & Pereiro-Munoz, 2002). In this perspective, students would choose the question that they want to debate within the framework of the general topics proposed by the teacher. He also proposes that the aim of the debate sessions is that students’ argumentation progressively evolves as they integrate new scientific and technical knowledge with societal aspects. Meeting with a diverse group of experts should help them to achieve this goal. This also helps students to identify their own position in an argument.
For each of these outcomes, two models are estimated (i.e. two sets of covariates are used for balancing). The first model, which will be referred to as the “base model”, includes as the following matching variables: the student’s gender, his or her socioeconomic status (SES) quintile (determined by his or her parents’ highest occupational status), his or her age in months, the presence of a family member born outside of Canada, his or her mother’s education level (no diploma; highschool diploma; college diploma or university degree), and language spoken at home (French, English or other). Our measure of social disparities is the parents’ highest international socio economic index (ISEI) as measured by PISA analysts. This measure, frequently used in sociological analysis, attributes a score between 11 and 90 to different occupations based on professional characteristics, such as the required level of education and associated income. The index’ creators (Ganzeboom et al, 1992) aimed to improve the measure of socio-economic status for research purposes. The index has been intensively used in the literature on socio-economic gradients (Chowdry et al, 2010; Crawford et al, 2010). The values regroup individuals with different professions; levels 11-20 include individuals working in service sectors and unskilled workers, while levels 80-90 include highly qualified
The relevance of the topic is mostly due to the fact that with the rapid development and spread of technology, - i.e. hardware, software, networks, clouds, content etc. - formal school institutions are increasingly being replaced by virtual environments of open culture, with interactive learning environments and user-generated content becoming prominent issues in education. Their study is also important because by learning about their use and effects in education, we can get a more comprehensive picture of the role of e-learning in education (Benedek, 2008).
In addition, we tested for indirect (i.e., mediated) effects. We assumed that parents’ attitudes toward school would mediate the effect of parental education level on students’ sense of belonging (Hypothesis 2). The significant coefficients for the regression of parents’ attitudes toward school on mothers’ education level range from -.02 to -.05 across countries, and on fathers’ education level from -.06 to .06 (see Table 2 and Figure 2). This direct effect was significant in more than half of the countries. Thus, the higher the mother’s education level was, the more negative was their attitude toward school. For fathers, similar directions were found in some countries, opposite directions were found for others. In all countries, the effect of parents’ attitudes was significantly positively associated with social belonging and negatively with social ostracism. Thus, the more positive parents’ attitudes toward school are, the more students feel they belong to school and the less they feel socially excluded. Thus, parents’ attitudes toward school seem to mediate the effect of parents’ education level on students’ feelings of being an outsider and not belonging to school in at least about half of the investigated countries.
4 Sampling and Descriptive Statistics
The aggregated student-level data consist of representative samples from the above- mentioned cross-sectional competence study (Seeber et al. 2018) and two waves from the ongoing longitudinal study, leading to a total sample size of 6,230 schoolstudents ranging from grade 7 to 10 (see timeline in appendix Figure A1). The sampling of all three samples follows the same procedure: First, we partition the whole population of interest, i.e., all students in the respective grade visiting a public school in the German federal state of Baden-Wuerttemberg, into subgroups by school type and the degree of urbanization (see also Oberrauch and Kaiser 2018). Next, we follow a two-stage cluster sampling procedure with selection of schools in the first stage and a random selection of one class per school in the second stage. The number of schools in each stratum is adapted to the proportions of strata in the target population. Beside these explicit stratification variables, we use school size as an implicit stratification variable. To avoid overrepresentation of schools, we size strata and deploy systematic sampling using sampling intervals in each stratum. Within the IRT analysis, we compensate remaining disproportionalities by means of design weights calculated by the inverse of student selection probability. The final sample consists of 6,230 students in 315 schools. Within the three competence studies, we surveyed basic demographics at the individual level as well as school characteristics at the cluster level.
100.0 100.0 100.0
6.2. Enrolment to SHS
The K to 12 program adds two years in the upper secondary education, allowing students to choose a specialization based on, but not limited to, aptitude, interests, and school capacity. Prior to the start of school year, incoming SHS students are required to take the National Career Assessment Examination (NCAE) to guide them in choosing their specialization in SHS, and ultimately, in making future career choices. This test is conducted among Grade 9 students enrolled both in public and private high schools. Schools are also conducting orientation sessions to provide students, as well as parents, an understanding of the two-year curriculum. With these, reasons of students for selecting the tracks, strands and schools are explored. In choosing school, the top three reasons provided by the students, regardless of track, are as follows: 1) convenience, particularly, the school’s proximity to their place of residence; 2) affordability; and 3) continuity of secondary education in the same school. Most students noted that despite having specific preference on track/strand, they still opted to enroll in the nearest school primarily out of their own judgment, and also in consideration of their parents’ advice. They particularly considered safety, and ease and minimal cost of transportation. This is why affordability is also a major consideration in selecting schools. Students were inclined to choose public schools over private ones because of free tuition. Despite voucher program, which is intended for those enrolling to private schools, many of the student-respondents believed that vouchers would not guarantee them of free schooling. For those who enrolled in private schools, some noted that they choose these schools because of the good facilities and smaller class sizes.
to observe the school outcomes 6 years after they leave grade 9. For individuals in the earlier cohorts, we also use earnings measured at the age of 30 as an outcome variable.
In order to get an understanding of the composition of our sample, Table 1 shows the sample selection process. At the outset, we consider all children who attended grade 9 in the period 1986–2004. If a child attends grade 9 more than once, we use the …rst occurrence. We drop a minor part of the sample due to missing values in the register data (on either their unique personal identi…ers, birth information, or school district information). A larger part of the sample is dropped due to missing information on school size. Whether information on school size is available depends on how good the schools were at reporting these key …gures. In most years, validity and coverage of the school size data are considered to be high, but especially for private schools there are some problems. We therefore restrict attention to students attending public schools in grade 9. Additionally, there is a clear inconsistency between the number of schools and the number of catchment areas in the municipality of Viborg, and children who reside in this municipality are also dropped from the analysis. Finally, we exclude large schools that collect students from feeder schools that do not have lower secondary school grades. In some municipalities, some small schools may only have grades up to grade 6 or 7, i.e. these schools do not have lower secondary school grades. These schools function as feeder schools to larger schools in the area. Thus, some grade 9 students have only attended their current school for a few years, and these students are excluded in order to get a more homogeneous sample. 6 There are 605,125
Reported grades on (midterm) report cards are usually a conglomerate of several single reported grades in a specific subject over (half) a school year. Reported grades, therefore, reflect a broad range of scholastic achievements including written and oral tests or the oral participation in class. Hence, they are based on more comprehensive and representative performance information than standardized competence tests (Schrader & Helmke, 2001). Although reported grades have been and still are criticized frequently (cf. Birkel & Tarnai, 2018; Ingenkamp, 1971, 1995; Jäger & Lissmann, 2004), they fulfill manifold important functions in the German school system: For students, they are an immediate and salient form of feedback by teachers, they can motivate or have a disciplinary effect, they point out performance differences between students for the same subject as well as possible intraindividual performance differences between subjects and/or points of time, and make students familiar with educational standards. For parents, teachers, and the educational system in general, reported grades provide information on eventually required educational support and are of high importance to students and their parents for the promotion to the next academic year (Beutel, Lütgert, Tillmann, & Vollstädt, 1999; Birkel & Tarnai, 2018; Heine, Briedis, Didi, Haase, & Trost, 2006; Willingham et al., 2002). Moreover, they play an important role in the decision of being able to enter educational programs or institutions. For example, the important decision for a secondary school track has to be made after grade 4 in most German federal states which is typically based on students’ reported grades (Baumert, Trautwein, & Artelt, 2003; Bos et al., 2004).
In order to address these issues, three German and two Austrian PER groups have launched the joint Design-Based Research (DBR) project EPo-EKo (“Electricity with Poten- tial & Electricity with Contexts” [spelled with a “K” in Ger- man]) . The overall objective is to evaluate and improve the conceptual understanding of electric circuits in secondary schools as well as to raise students’ interest in the topic by de- veloping and evaluating new research-based curricula. Before investigating the effects of these new curricula, however, tra- ditionally taught students’ conceptual understanding of elec- tric circuits and their interest in the topic was assessed. The teaching of these students was “traditional” in that teachers were not given any instructions as to how they should teach the topic “simple electric circuits”, i.e. they taught in the same way as they had done in previous years using traditional textbooks. This allows to investigate whether students today still have significant conceptual difficulties (e.g. with the con- cept of potential difference) and whether girls are still signif- icantly less interested in physics than boys despite decades of research by the PER community and years of in-service teacher training programs. The purpose of this paper is there- fore to address the following three research questions:
Our investigation is grounded in a contextual approach to immigrant acculturation and adaptation (Phinney et al. 2001). This perspective places emphasis on the systematic analysis of the contextual factors affecting the adjustment of immigrants and members of minority groups, and moderating the effects of various types of predictors on psycho- logical and socio-cultural adaptation. These contextual factors are assumed to be per- ceived, experienced, and interpreted differently by distinct acculturating subgroups within the larger society. One major contextual factor likely to be relevant to the accul- turation and adaptation of young immigrants is the acculturative policy implemented in a society in general, and in its educational system in particular (Bourhis/Dayan 2004; Bourhis et al. 1997). In this study, we wish to apply the contextual approach to the ex- amination of a specific acculturative context, that of the Israeli society and its educa- tional system, and to explore commonalities and differences among two distinct immi- grant sub-groups – newcomers from the former Soviet Union and from Ethiopia – in their language and identity patterns and in the relationship between these factors and school adjustment.
influence of highschool lasts well beyond graduation.
Policy discussions of improving “college readiness” of highschool graduates have largely taken place without information about what components of highschool quality matter for college success. Automatic admissions policies increase access to public universities, but do not directly influence high schools to implement programs that help graduates succeed in college. Universities offer many programs to overcome inequities among admitted students (such as mentoring programs, development education, peer supports, etc.), but lack tools to diagnose need and target interventions. Particularly under automatic admissions, almost all students enroll at elite public universities with a history of exemplary academic performance. Without appropriate controls for selection into college, it is a challenge to apply previous research findings to
Assistant Professor, University of Education Lahore, Pakistan E-mail: email@example.com
In this era of globalization school council plays a vital role towards the performance of students in primary education. Comparative research may help to assess the pace of project development, and explore the impediments for adopting timely remedial measures. This research aims to explore the role of school council in Community Model Schools and Govt Girls Primary Schools. The target population of the study comprises of all Community Model Schools and Govt Girls Primary Schools in Punjab, Pakistan. However, the accessible population was three fifty schools (175 Community Model Schools and 175 Govt Girls Primary Schools) from thirty five districts of the Punjab. To see the role of school council and academic performance of students, a sample from each district is selected based on ten head mistresses, twenty teachers, ten administrators, one hundred students and one hundred parents are randomly selected. Documentary facts were used for seeing the role of school council and academic performance of students in both types of schools, as well as a questionnaire of five point Likert scale was designed to investigate and collect data about the students’ performance and role of school council. Data is analyzed by using descriptive statistics as well as t-test to compare both types of schools at 5% level of significance. Results indicate that Community Model Schools are better in students’ performance due to the role of school council than Govt. Girls Primary Schools.
102 learners acquire the grammar in L2. This theory is pertinent to MASUS due to yielding ‘precise’ anticipation about the areas in the MASUS sub criteria observing the development through ‘language profiling’ (p. 54). The study investigated the relationship between the “Grammatical correctness” MASUS criterion and the grammatical development of two teenage Chinese students of English as an ‘Additional Language’, whose English speech samples of different oral tasks accompanied by pictures were analyzed in terms of their implicit grammatical form. The findings suggest three main validity sources of the MASUS criterion “Grammatical correctness”: the study reinforced the scores’ validity on the grammatical criterion and its sub criteria in terms of the identification of major developmental domains of ‘English as an Additional Language’; the use of assessment categories A – Appropriate and NA – Not Appropriate indicate a variation in terms of learners’ developmental stages; and the fitness of learners’ development with the overall score of the grammar component. The findings of this study also suggest that in order to increase the efficiency of the MASUS grammatical criterion amendments should be made to make the procedure more ‘learner-sensitive’, an approach comparing grammatical properties demanded by the specific context of the target disciplines with the learners’ developmental routes, which evaluates and promotes development to a higher level. Along this line, Johns (2008) emphasizes that the focus on end-products (texts) and the absence of cognitive learning opportunity during the assessment in a certain socio-cultural situations make it arduous to validate a link between the diagnostic assessment and the succeeding specific programme.