human-animal studies

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Der domestizierte Hund und der vergöttlichte Schakal im Alten Ägypten - ein Vergleich: eine wissenschaftliche Analyse und eine fachdidaktische Aufarbeitung für den Geschichtsunterricht unter Berücksichtigung der Human-Animal Studies / eingereicht von: Car

Der domestizierte Hund und der vergöttlichte Schakal im Alten Ägypten - ein Vergleich: eine wissenschaftliche Analyse und eine fachdidaktische Aufarbeitung für den Geschichtsunterricht unter Berücksichtigung der Human-Animal Studies / eingereicht von: Carina Gruber

Nun stellt sich die Frage, welche Kompetenzen durch den Einbezug der Human-Animal Studies in den Unterricht gefördert werden. Im Prinzip können mittels der Human-Animal Studies alle Kompetenzbereiche abgedeckt werden, nur bietet sich die Förderung mancher Kompetenzen aus diesem Blickwinkel besonders gut an. Die historische Fragekompetenz lässt sich beispielsweise gut mit dem Einbezug der Human-Animal Studies in den Unterricht fördern, da dieses relativ junge Forschungsfeld etliche neue – auf das historische Material anwendbare – Fragestellungen mit sich bringt. Da die Human-Animal Studies eine andere Perspektive auf historische Ereignisse einnehmen, bedarf es dafür auch anderer Fragestellungen. Dies ermöglicht auch die Förderung der Formulierung eigener Fragen an die Geschichte oder an eine historische Quelle. Der Kompetenzbereich der historischen Methodenkompetenz, in welchem es insbesondere um Quellenarbeit geht, kann ebenfalls sehr gut mit den Human-Animal Studies erarbeitet werden. Die Schüler_innen erfahren Quellen und Darstellungen neu – aus der Sicht der Tiere – zu lesen. Ein typisches Anwendungsbeispiel dafür in der Schule wäre das „Arbeitsblatt 1: Bildanalyse“ im Anhang, welches einen Leitfaden zur Bildanalyse bietet, um die Tiergeschichte aus den Abbildungen herauszuarbeiten. Die historische Sachkompetenz kann durch die Human-Animal Studies mit Sicherheit auch gefördert werden, da dieses interdisziplinäre Forschungsfeld einen sehr sensiblen Umgang mit Begrifflichkeiten fordert. Außerdem werden die oben beschriebenen Teilkompetenzen, wie Perspektivität, Selektivität oder Belegbarkeit in diesem Zusammenhang benötigt. Trotzdem wird die historische Sachkompetenz noch der am diffizilsten durch die Human-Animal Studies zu fördernde Kompetenzbereich sein, da dieses Forschungsfeld noch ein sehr junges ist und es daher zum Teil noch an Ergebnissen – vor allem in der Geschichtswissenschaft – mangelt. Mit der fortwährenden wissenschaftlichen Erforschung der historischen Human-Animal Studies wird sich dies zukünftig aber sicherlich ändern. Die historische Orientierungskompetenz ist hingegen ohne Zweifel der Kompetenzbereich par excellence für eine Förderung durch die Human-Animal Studies. Grund hierfür ist ganz einfach der Bezug zur Gegenwart und Zukunft. Sehr viele Schüler_innen kennen selbst Haus- oder Nutztiere, oft sind ihnen die Folgen der derzeitigen Ressourcenausbeutung, Massentierhaltung oder Umweltproblematik bewusst,
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Die Darstellung des Elefanten in der Naturalis historia des Plinius des Älteren: eine Analyse aus der Sicht der Human-Animal Studies mit einer themenbezogenen didaktischen Umsetzung für den Lateinunterricht an einer AHS-Oberstufe / eingereicht von Julia A

Die Darstellung des Elefanten in der Naturalis historia des Plinius des Älteren: eine Analyse aus der Sicht der Human-Animal Studies mit einer themenbezogenen didaktischen Umsetzung für den Lateinunterricht an einer AHS-Oberstufe / eingereicht von Julia Authried

Aufgrund der unterschiedlichen Perspektiven, aus welchen dieser Text untersucht werden kann, ergeben sich mannigfaltige Möglichkeiten bezüglich der Methodik. So lassen sich, in meinen Augen, sowohl methodische Großformen, wie offene und projektorientierte Stile, in den Unterricht integrieren, als auch unterschiedliche Sozialformen (Drumm/Frölich, 2007, S. 5). Diese Methodenvielfalt dient nicht nur zur Abwechslung für SchülerInnen, sondern vor allem dazu, dass sie die Thematik durch unterschiedliche Herangehensweisen kennenlernen, zu kritischem Denken angeregt werden und Emotionen nicht in Vergessenheit geraten. Ein Wechsel zwischen Einzel- und Gruppenarbeiten fördert zum einen die Reflexion über eigenes Handeln und regt zum anderen Diskussionen über eingefahrene Einstellungen an. Letztere vergrößern zudem den gegenseitigen Respekt und das Akzeptieren von Ansichten, die von den eigenen abweichen können. Außerdem wird dabei die Meinungsbildung provoziert. Im Rahmen des Lateinunterrichts, der mit den Human-Animal Studies verknüpft wird, wären in der Praxis auch solche Methoden sinnvoll umzusetzen, bei welchen die Lernenden ihre Eigenständigkeit beweisen. Dazu zählen Präsentationen oder kreative Realisierungen (Drumm/Frölich, 2007, S. 6).
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Darf‘s ein bisschen mehr sein? Ein Forschungsbericht zu den historischen Human-Animal Studies

Darf‘s ein bisschen mehr sein? Ein Forschungsbericht zu den historischen Human-Animal Studies

Zusammenfassung Die von den Human-Animal Studies beeinflusste Tiergeschichte folgt diversen kulturwissenschaftlichen Deutungen, möchte gleichsam aber auch Quellen und Materialien erschließen, die über herkömmliche Corpora hinausgehen und neue Lesungen anbieten. Es geht ihr um nicht weniger als um die In- tegration des Tieres bzw. um die Berücksichtigung tierlicher Akteure in die von ihr als anthropozentrisch verstandene, konventionelle Geschichtsschrei- bung. Diesem großen Anspruch konnte sie auch aufgrund der Diversität der Human-Animal Studies selbst noch nicht gerecht werden. Dennoch gibt es einige Linien, die sich in der Tiergeschichtsschreibung der letzten Jahre her- ausgebildet haben, und die in diesem Forschungsbericht aufgegriffen werden. Sie zeichnen sich durch ihre Konzentration auf materielle Tiere aus und haben damit das Anliegen, einen rein der Repräsentation von Tieren folgenden An- satz abzulösen. Eine zentrale Herausforderung der Tiergeschichtsschreibung ist es, der Handlungsmacht der Tiere in den historischen Quellen nachzu- spüren. Anhand von drei Themenfeldern wird der Forschungsstand auch mit diesen Ansprüchen abgeglichen. Im Rahmen der Annährung über die Stadtgeschichte wird die räumliche Einordnung der Spezies als fruchtbarer Zugang diskutiert, der im zweiten Beispiel, den (kolonialen) Tierwahrneh- mungen im außereuropäischen Raum, als doppelt codiert dargestellt wird. Das dritte Forschungsfeld der tierlichen Körper- und Materialitätsgeschichte verweist auf die Relevanz des „realen“ Tieres in der Erfassung der histori- schen Transformation von Tieren sowie des Wandels, den sie anstießen.
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Anzeige von Human-Animal Studies zwischen wissenschaftlicher Distanz und politischem Engagement Ein Gespräch über Wissenschaft, Politik und Gesellschaft mit dem Chimaira-Arbeitskreis

Anzeige von Human-Animal Studies zwischen wissenschaftlicher Distanz und politischem Engagement Ein Gespräch über Wissenschaft, Politik und Gesellschaft mit dem Chimaira-Arbeitskreis

Chimaira – Arbeitskreis für Human-Animal Studies: Ehrlich ge- sagt ist es für uns schwierig, die Kritik von Schulte und Freund_innen ge- nau zu erfassen, weil sie so wenig konkret ist. Was den Vorwurf, wir seien antihumanistisch, anbelangt: Nach unserer Einschätzung stellt die anti- humanistische Kritik von Autor_innen wie zum Beispiel Althusser, Fou- cault, Butler und Derrida einen wichtigen Impuls zur Weiterentwicklung des Humanismus dar. In dieser Kritik geht es gerade nicht um eine ethische Abwertung von Menschen – auch wenn Schulte und Freund_innen dies anscheinend so auffassen –, sondern um eine Infragestellung des humanis- tischen Subjekts mit seiner vermeintlichen Autonomie und seiner selbstbe- stimmten Handlungsfähigkeit. Es ist nun aber nicht so, dass Foucault und seine Mitstreiter_innen dem Subjekt die Handlungsfähigkeit komplett ab- sprechen wollen. Sie gehen allerdings davon aus, dass Menschen in bestimm- te, innere und äußere Strukturen eingebunden sind, die ihre Möglichkeiten zu handeln einschränken. Zwar gibt es weiterhin die Möglichkeit gegen diese Strukturen anzugehen, allerdings nicht von außen, als autonomes Subjekt, sondern innerhalb komplexer Machtverhältnisse.
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Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococci and Macrococci at the Interface of Human and Animal Health

Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococci and Macrococci at the Interface of Human and Animal Health

Friedrich Loeffler-Institute of Medical Microbiology, University Medicine Greifswald, 17475 Greifswald, Germany; karsten.becker@med.uni-greifswald.de The global impact of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) clonal lineages on human and animal health continues, even considering the decreasing MRSA rates in some parts of the world [ 1 , 2 ]. Subsequent to the emergence of hospital-associated (HA) and community-associated (CA) MRSA, livestock-associated (LA) MRSA has become an additional threat for human and animal health, contributing significantly to morbidity, mortality and socio-economic costs [ 3 – 5 ]. Linking human, animal and environmental health, the basically old – but for a long time too little considered – holistic “One Health” concept is more imperative than ever to solve the challenges due to microorganisms which cross the boundaries of ecosystems [ 6 ].
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Pathology of inflammatory diseases of the nervous system: Human disease versus animal models

Pathology of inflammatory diseases of the nervous system: Human disease versus animal models

Major progress has been achieved during the last years regarding the origin, phenotype, and function of microglia in the normal rodent brain. Microglia are tissue resident and self-renewing cells in the cen- tral nervous system (Ajami, Bennett, Krieger, Tetzlaff, & Rossi, 2007), which enter the brain and spinal cord as yolk sac derived myeloid pro- genitors during fetal development and assume their mature pheno- type in contact with specific environmental cues in the CNS (Alliot, Godin, & Pessac, 1999; Ginhoux et al., 2010; Kierndorf et al., 2013). Transforming growth factor beta (TGF-ß) is one of the key cytokines mediating this transformation (Butovsky et al., 2014) and colony stim- ulating factor 1 (CSF-1) is instrumental for the differentiation and sur- vival of microglia in vivo (Greter et al., 2012; Wang et al., 2012). Thus, conditional genetic deletion of CSF-1 or its pharmacological blockade results in efficient deletion of the cells from the tissue (Elmore et al., 2014). Within the normal CNS microglia assumes a resting or homeo- static phenotype, which is characterized by a cell type specific pattern of gene and protein expression (Butovsky et al., 2014; Gautier et al., 2012; Hickman et al., 2013). In conventional human neuropathology, this profile can be detected by the expression of three markers. Iba-1 is a very reliable marker of all microglia and other myeloid cells in the CNS, but it is also expressed on bone marrow derived myeloid cells, recruited in pathological conditions. TMEM119 is a marker, selectively expressed in microglia, being absent from recruited myeloid cells (Satoh et al., 2016), and the purinergic receptor P2RY12 is a sensitive marker for the homeostatic phenotype of microglia (Butovsky et al.,
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Quantitative genetic analyses for dairy cow behavior traits and traits reflecting human-animal-technic interactions

Quantitative genetic analyses for dairy cow behavior traits and traits reflecting human-animal-technic interactions

Over the past century, dairy cattle breeding has strongly focused on the improvement of production efficiency to satisfy growing consumer markets that demanded animal products at a low cost level (Oltenacu and Algers, 2005). More recently, the importance of functional traits such as fertility, longevity, and conformation has gradually increased in dairy cattle breeding (Miglior et al., 2005). Today, the economic competitiveness of the dairy industry is directly related to public acceptance of breeding techniques (Oltenacu and Algers, 2005). Increasing consumer demands towards animal welfare are forcing dairy breeders to further integrate trait categories that reflect animal health and behavior. Genetic improvements in animal behavior or temperament might contribute to correlated response in other functional traits. Temperament in response to human handlers (docility) has been used as a criterion for genetic selection in beef cattle (Le Neindre et al., 1995). In several countries, subjectively scored dairy cattle temperament is included in breeding indices (Pryce et al., 2000). However, due to challenges in time-efficient and objective trait recording, assumed low heritabilities as well as difficult economic evaluations, only a few studies addressed dairy cattle temperament from a quantitative-genetic or breeding goal perspective (Gutiérrez-Gil et al., 2008; Jensen et al., 2008; Haskell et al., 2014).
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Endometriosis and regional lymph node involvement in animal and clinical studies / submitted by Yao Gong

Endometriosis and regional lymph node involvement in animal and clinical studies / submitted by Yao Gong

Until now, we do not know if the IELCs and endometriotic lesions in LN will be influenced by the hormones and experience cyclical changes like the frank lesions out of LN. There were no symptoms caused by the affected LN. Most of the LNs by visual inspection showed no signs of enlargement or gunpowder lesions. The lesions in LN have normal epithelium, unlike typical lesions out of LN where the presence of epithelium is rare. Ki67 expression was seen in 5-10% of epithelial and stromal cells in endometriotic lesions in LN but IELCs showed no proliferative activity by Ki67. 23 Furthermore, the tissues around the lesions in LN showed no signs of inflammation. 37 This raised the question whether we should take the LN involvement in endometriosis as a disease entity. To date, no studies have been conducted to compare IELCs and endometriotic lesions in LN with those in the primary endometriotic lesions. These questions may direct future studies.
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Is the Human Distinguishable from the Animal by being a Rational Animal? 
In Principles of Nature and Grace by G. W. Leibniz

Is the Human Distinguishable from the Animal by being a Rational Animal? In Principles of Nature and Grace by G. W. Leibniz

In the case of animals, what are connected are perceptions and no ideas. Thanks to the connections, the perceptions of these animals do not remain insulated each from another, but are forming a coherent ensemble which leads to a pertinent behaviour. If for instance A is calling his cat to come, this cat will come (if of course, the material and contextual conditions were met: the cat must be in proximity etc…). However, it would be wrong to say that through this process animals are able to afford reasoning, because first the animals are not conscious of this process and subsequently, they are not able to direct and control it: what is a conscious process for the human beings is not for the animal. To sustain it, an example might be useful: a group of sheep is followed by a wolf. This latter feels the danger and in order to escape it, the leader of the group will throw itself in a river all the others will do the same. Here the cheeps obey to a gregarious spirit and to connections between perceptions (the fear, the wolf, and the escape) but they do not analyse the case in which they find themselves, they just physiologically react. They can react only physiologically and only in a same kind of way, because their perceptions are derived from their experience, thus because of the limitation of the latter, their reactions will be predictable but not reasoned. (We might predict that the sheeps will try to escape the wolf, but the way they have chosen is irrational, because this way leads to the death too.)
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Human-Centric Data Science for Urban Studies

Human-Centric Data Science for Urban Studies

• Wearable sensor data. Recently, research efforts capitalizing on new developments in physiological sensing have been flourishing, particularly in deriving emotions from physiological parameters. These efforts are driven by the increasing availability of a variety of affordable wearable sensors that measure a broad range of physiological parameters, such as heart rate, galvanic skin response, or skin temperature [ 8 ]. These new low-cost wearables are increasingly used in scientific studies in a variety of areas like health research [ 9 ], well-being assessment, extraction of emotion information [ 10 ], spatial emotion analysis, and stress detection [ 11 ]. However, as a new research field, caution has to be exercised as some research efforts in this direction have used wearable physiological sensors without prior investigation of the sensor’s exact quality parameters; i.e., how accurately a sensor actually measures a given parameter or how reliable a sensor is at producing continuously high-quality measurement results.
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Functional studies of matrix metalloproteinases (MMP14, 15, 16) in animal and cell culture models

Functional studies of matrix metalloproteinases (MMP14, 15, 16) in animal and cell culture models

Based on abundant documents correlating invasive phenomena and the presence of MMPs, there is general agreement that MMPs are important in the execution of migration and invasion through the matrix. For example, the invasion of human malignant melanoma cells into ECM is associated with the accumulation of activation of MMPs at sites of ECM degradation (Nakahara et al., 1997). MMPs, including MT1-MMP, can degrade ECM and cell surface receptor molecules and have an essential function in malignancy (Egeblad and Werb, 2002). There is evidence that MMP-2, MMP-9 and MT1-MMP are implicated in glioma malignancy (Friedberg et al., 1998; Fillmore et al., 2001). It has also been shown that integrins regulate the expression of MMPs in cell migration and cancer invasion events. For example, a vß3 produces the active form of metalloproteinase MMP-2 and leads to elevated mRNA levels of MT1-MMP and TIMP-2 in human melanoma metastasis (Felding- Habermann et al., 2002). Moreover, integrin avß6-associated ERK2 mediates MMP-9 secretion in colon cancer cells (Gu et al., 2002). On the other hand, certain MMPs such as MMP-2 are able to localize on the cell surface and participate in localized matrix degradation via binding to integrins or other receptors (Brooks et al., 1998). Interestingly, MMPs may as an integrin convertase respond to tumor cell migration. For instance, MT1-MMP processed pro-α v and triggered outside-in signal transduction for breast carcinoma cell migration (Deryugina et al., 2002). Through proteolytically degrading the existing matrix molecules the MMPs may induce changes in cell behavior and function from a state of rest to migration. Furthermore, MMPs may contribute to form new structures such as tubules, alveoli and acini, thereby reshaping tissues and organs during cells migration and cancer invasion (Quaranta, 2000).
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Studies on cell junctions in an ex vivo human lung infection model

Studies on cell junctions in an ex vivo human lung infection model

at intercellular junctions, claudin-2 colocalized neither with the epithelial cell marker pan-cytokeratin (data not shown) nor with endothelial specific VE- cadherin. Therefore, additional methods are needed to precisely define claudin-2 expression in the alveolus, e.g. by using superresolution structured illumination microscopy. Claudin-2 is deemed as an integral component of a tight junction pore pathway, permitting the transport of cations and small solutes [292]. However, evidence is provided that claudin-2 contributes to the regulation of epithelial sodium flux in the gut [293] and the kidney [209], but its role in lung homeostasis is still unknown. Claudin-3, -4 and -18 are exclusively found at the interface of type II alveolar epithelial cells to adjacent cells which is consistent with previous studies delineating junctional expression differences in healthy lung and lung diseases [282, 283]. Futhermore, a study investigating the protective effect of keratinocyte growth factor (KGF) on alveolar epithelial barrier found that primary rat alveolar epithelial cells express claudin-3, -4 and -18 and that enhanced alveolar barrier function does not require a change in claudin expression [294]. Claudin-5 connects endothelial cells lining out the interior surface of capillaries and blood vessels, but it is not expressed in alveolar epithelium. It is classically thought to be an integral component of the vessel sealing cell junctions [295] including the lung [296] but its epithelial expression has also been observed in tumor cells [274].
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Integrated analysis of human-animal-vector surveillance: West Nile virus infections in Austria, 20152016

Integrated analysis of human-animal-vector surveillance: West Nile virus infections in Austria, 20152016

All samples originate from routine surveillance activities of the corresponding institute. For example, the human population is monitored through both screening of donor blood collected from WNV-endemic areas by the ÖRK, as well as testing of human clinical cases by the Center for Virology at the Medical University of Vienna (MedUni Vienna). Similarly, samples from sick horses at the Equine Clinic of the University of Veterinary Medicine Vienna (VetmedUni) are tested for WNV under routine diagnostic services by the Institute of Virology at VetmedUni, and verified by the Austrian Agency for Health and Food Safety (AGES). Testing of sick or moribund captive birds sub- mitted by their owners and passive monitoring of dead wild birds is performed by the Institute of Virology at VetmedUni. Finally, AGES supports nationwide mosquito monitoring, with additional sampling in areas of WNV activity as determined by human and animal sampling efforts.
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Review >Paul Thomas Young: Motivation of Behavior. The Fundamental Determinants of Human and Animal Activity<

Review >Paul Thomas Young: Motivation of Behavior. The Fundamental Determinants of Human and Animal Activity<

glaubt, dass die Zeit für endgültige theoretische Aussagen über die Prinzipien der Motivation noch nicht reif sei.. Das Buch ist vor allem dadurch wertvoll, dass es in übersichtlicher [r]

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Effective strategies for human resource management in educational organizations. Conflict management case studies

Effective strategies for human resource management in educational organizations. Conflict management case studies

Abstract: The purpose of this paper is to outline human resource management strategies in educational institutions and investigate the implications of the systemic approach. The methodology is the combination of primary and secondary research. Primary research is quantitative and refers to a case study on conflict management in an educational organization between the Director and his subordinates. The method of collecting data was the on-site observation from the position of deputy director, since it is an experiential experience. Secondary research is based on content analysis from different case studies, draws data from modern literature, leads to critical analysis of human resource management strategy theories and examines their effectiveness. Conflict in an educational organization is influenced by both structural and personal factors. According to modern theories of management education, conflicts in an educational organization can be both positive and negative and can positively contribute to activating people for greater effort and efficient operation. This research argues that a comprehensive analysis of the environment and complex systems can contribute to the understanding of contemporary issues. It is based on the principles of systemic theory and suggests the imperative need of knowledge of conflict management by education executives. There are bibliographic gaps in the recording and analysis of case studies, dealing with the management and resolution of conflicts between education staff and subordinates.
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Minimum quality threshold in pre-clinical sepsis studies (MQTiPSS): an international expert consensus initiative for improvement of animal modeling in sepsis

Minimum quality threshold in pre-clinical sepsis studies (MQTiPSS): an international expert consensus initiative for improvement of animal modeling in sepsis

Conclusions: We believe that these recommendations and considerations will serve to bring a level of standardization to pre-clinical models of sepsis and ultimately improve translation of pre-clinical findings. These guideline points are proposed as “best practices” for animal models of sepsis that should be implemented. In order to encourage its wide dissemination, this article is freely accessible in Shock, Infection and Intensive Care Medicine Experimental.

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Long-term studies on sodium balance and their relevance to human health

Long-term studies on sodium balance and their relevance to human health

Natalia Rakova participated in the design of the study, in obtaining ethical approval from Russian regulatory authorities, saw to formal contractual issues. She was in charge of acquisition of the necessary food items in Germany, organizing their transport to Moscow (to the site of the Mars520 project), including customs clearance and compliance with formal issues. She transferred all scientific equipment to Russia, purchased consumables for the studies and loaded the simulation facility (Mars500 ground-based aircraft) with materials necessary for both long-term balance studies prior to their start. Apart from logistical tasks, Natalia Rakova trained the subjects on the protocols of the studies, including managing the equipment, data and biological material collection. A challenging part of her pre-study assignment was to establish a trust-based contact with the subjects, spark their interest and motivation in the balance studies, as it was one of the crucial points to ensure compliancy. She spent the entire time on-site in Moscow as part of the “ground control team”, contacted the subjects on a regular basis and saw to their needs. She transferred more than 6 000 frozen urinary samples and over 50 frozen blood aliquotes to Germany, processed the samples, and performed the electrolyte measurements. She participated in data analysis and manuscript preparation.
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Effective strategies for human resource management in educational organizations: conflict management case studies

Effective strategies for human resource management in educational organizations: conflict management case studies

At the level of interdisciplinary research, the broader aim of these studies is to identify different mechanisms applied to conflict resolution in educational institutions. The subject of the Ramani and Zhumin (2010) study is the perceptions of school leaders, board representatives, teachers and pupils about school conflicts and their impact on public secondary schools in Nairobi. The results showed that conflicts when not properly addressed lead to negative results for groups of students, school managers and teachers. It is concluded that effective communication is needed to analyze conflicts in public schools and to identify their causes. The findings showed that the causes of conflict in public secondary schools are varied. Therefore, solving different forms of conflict requires specific strategies, which are often unique. The study by Tshuma et al. (2016) sought to investigate the causes of conflict in secondary schools in Guanta Province, Zimbabwe through a questionnaire. The results show that conflicts occur between teachers in the same department, teachers of different departments, teachers and school managers, and among teachers, parents and students. The study found that the conflict took place, both because of structural and personal factors. The main structural reasons were resource allocation, bad working conditions and the administrative style used by the leadership. The main personal conflicting factors are: differences in personalities, poor dissemination of information and favoritism at work by leadership. The study recommended that the heads of schools and departments should be equipped with conflict resolution skills to identify possible causes of conflict and then manage conflicts in schools.
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Structural studies of human dipeptidyl aminopeptidases / by Gustavo Arruda Bezerra

Structural studies of human dipeptidyl aminopeptidases / by Gustavo Arruda Bezerra

Proline-specific dipeptidyl peptidases (DPPs) are emerging targets for drug development. DPP4 inhibitors are approved in many countries, and other dipeptidyl peptidases are often referred to as DPP4 activity- and/or structure-homologues (DASH). Members of the DASH family have overlapping substrate specificities, and, even though they share low sequence identity, therapeutic or clinical cross-reactivity is a concern. Here, we report the structure of human DPP7 and its complex with a selective inhibitor Dab-Pip (L-2,4-diaminobutyryl- piperidinamide) and compare it with that of DPP4. Both enzymes share a common catalytic domain (α/β-hydrolase). The catalytic pocket is located in the interior of DPP7, deep inside the cleft between the two domains. Substrates might access the active site via a narrow tunnel. The DPP7 catalytic triad is completely conserved and comprises Ser162, Asp418 and His443 (corresponding to Ser630, Asp708 and His740 in DPP4), while other residues lining the catalytic pockets differ considerably. The “specificity domains” are structurally also completely different exhibiting a β-propeller fold in DPP4 compared to a rare, completely helical fold in DPP7. Comparing the structures of DPP7 and DPP4 allows the design of specific inhibitors and thus the development of less cross-reactive drugs. Furthermore, the reported DPP7 structures shed some light onto the evolutionary relationship of prolyl-specific peptidases through the analysis of the architectural organization of their domains.
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A computer game based motivation system for human physiology studies.

A computer game based motivation system for human physiology studies.

In human physiology studies subjects are often asked to perform certain exercises, eg.knee extension or flexion,hip extension or flexion etc . Those experiments are split into several repetitions which might last just for few seconds. Therefore subjects need to motivated fast and reliably to perform a maximum extension or flexion. The standard procedure in those cases is however verbal motivation by the investigator (in fact, the investigator is just yelling at the subject "Push harder, harder..") . It has been shown that the performance of the subject is strongly correlated to verbal motivation by the investigator [3], [4], [5], [6], [7], [8]. Therefore, the experiments are not reproducible, and mainly biased by the invesigator. To overcome the problems associated with the standard verbal motivation procedure a game based motivation system has been designed for human physiology studies.
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