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Human-Animal Relationship in Dairy Farming: Evaluation of measures for on-farm application and investigation of influences on cows´ behaviour towards humans

Human-Animal Relationship in Dairy Farming: Evaluation of measures for on-farm application and investigation of influences on cows´ behaviour towards humans

Repeatability  of  the  measures  on  animal  level  over  time  was  only  acceptable  for  QBA  (r s  =  0.73).   As  discussed  in  chapter  3.5,  unsatisfactory  test-­‐retest  reliabilities  of  AD,  TTI,  and  RB  (r s  =  0.33-­‐ 0.60)   might   partly   be   attributed   to   short-­‐term   effects   of   single,   less   regular   handling   routines,   such  as  veterinary  treatment  or  artificial  insemination.  Particularly,  the  procedure  of  claw  trim-­‐ ming  is  suggested  to  be  a  stressful  and  frightening  experience  for  the  cow  (O’Callaghan  Lowe  et   al.,  2004;  Pesenhofer  et  al.,  2006)  and  might  affect  the  animals´  responsiveness  towards  human   handling  in  the  short  term.  Within  a  Master  thesis  at  the  Farm  Animal  Behaviour  and  Husbandry   Section,   University   of   Kassel,   Schmitz   (2017)   investigated   the   influence   of   claw   trimming   on   cows´  responsiveness  in  the  AD,  TTI,  and  RB  test  as  well  as  regarding  QBA.  Trials  were  conduct-­‐ ed  at  the  training  and  research  farm  of  the  State  Hessen  (Landesbetrieb  Landwirtschaft  Hessen   (LLH)),  Germany.  First  measurements  were  recorded  six  days  before  routine  claw  trimming  by   professional   claw   trimmers,   and   measurements   were   repeated   the   subsequent   day   after   trim-­‐ ming.  Contrary  to  expectation,  no  significant  differences  between  test  days  were  found  for  any  of   the  behavioural  measures  (p  >  0,2)  at  the  investigated  farm.  The  absence  of  effects  might  be  at-­‐ tributed  to  a  relatively  intensive  management  and  regular  handling  of  animals  at  the  LLH  farm,   probably  reducing  the  effect  of  single  handling  events  on  the  cows´  responsiveness  towards  hu-­‐ mans.  A  repeated  investigation  on  a  farm  handling  the  cows  less  intensely  might  lead  to  different   results.  Furthermore,  potentially  aversive  interventions  other  than  claw  trimming,  or  short-­‐term   changes  in  the  management,  might  also  lead  to  behavioural  changes.  
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Taking animals seriously: interpreting and institutionalizing human-animal relations in modern democracies

Taking animals seriously: interpreting and institutionalizing human-animal relations in modern democracies

So a political theory about the human-animal relationship should not just be concerned about expanding (or reducing) our “moral imagination” to view animals in one way or another. To focus on the expansion of “moral imagina- tion” about the future of human-animal relations would limit political perspec- tives and turn its practical orientation into something like a moral campaign trying to convince as many fellow citizens as possible that a positive vision such as the communitarian one outlined by Donaldson and Kymlicka is the best concept of the good life both for humans and for animals. Yet such a strategy would not only neglect the fact that in most industrial societies most citizens have different visions of their good life in relation to animals. It would also disregard the fact that most of the existing institutional frameworks of liberal democracies limit the sovereignty of their democratic political institutions vis- à-vis the domain of private decision-making about the fate of animals by defin- ing them as private property. Thus a political theory of human-animal relations should also be concerned with how we communicate in our controversies and interact in our conflicts about these relationships and the legal settings that predefine the matter of these conflicts as public or private. It should offer some ideas about how we can and should deliberate and decide upon issues related to animals and how we can and should institutionalize these processes of delibera- tion and decision-making about our relationships with them. Since animals cannot speak for themselves, to repeat the truism, their interests and concerns have to be interpreted by humans if they are to be taken into account in the political process at all.
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Exploring Human-Animal Relationships in Michel Faber's "Under the Skin" (2000)

Exploring Human-Animal Relationships in Michel Faber's "Under the Skin" (2000)

Faber’s Under the Skin is loaded with hints, threads, foreshadowing elements, or Chekhov’s guns of various calibers, that are aimed to bring readers closer to the truth, which is the fact that it is a story about the human-animal relationship and interaction, as well as various strategies employed in this relationship, deliberately or unconsciously, to distance oneself from animals and justify farming activities. These elements, whether the units that refer to the nature of Isserley’s interest in hitchhikers or to her alienness, intertwine with each other. By connecting them together, readers can see the complete picture. In this way, the seemingly unnecessary reference to the lorry labelled Farmfoods passing by, or the hitchhiker’s explanation of what whelk gatherers do, are important narrative units. As Barthes wrote, “Even though a detail might appear unequivocally trivial, impervious to any function, it would nonetheless end up pointing to its own absurdity or uselessness: everything has a meaning, or nothing has” (1975: 244-245). Elements like these do not appear on the pages out of the blue to disappear into oblivion later, on the contrary, they are integral vehicles of the narrative - a complex machine with moving parts, gears of which are Chekhov’s guns.
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Vitamin A and D in allergy: from experimental animal models and cellular studies to human disease

Vitamin A and D in allergy: from experimental animal models and cellular studies to human disease

T cells/Treg cells VD3 inhibits the expression of the Th1 (IFN-y, TNF- α), Th9 (IL-9), Th17 (IL-17) and Th22 (IL-22) cytokines in T cells, but has been described to up-regulate Th2 (IL-4, IL-10) cytokines and to induce FOXP3+ regulatory T cells [ 8 , 20 ]. A recent study on human CD4+ T cells showed a significant increase in the frequency of FOXP3+ regulatory T cells after stim- ulation with physiologically relevant levels of VD3 in combination with TGF-ß [ 21 ]. Interestingly, Th2 cell differentiation can also be inhibited by VD3 [ 20 ]. ILCs In innate lymphoid cells VD3 seems to inhibit ILC2 activation and the expression of gut homing in- tegrin [ 22 ].
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The changing human-nature relationship (HNR) in the context of GEC (Global Environmental Change)

The changing human-nature relationship (HNR) in the context of GEC (Global Environmental Change)

We take a closer look at the mythology issue since it takes up behavioral aspects and the ethical complex with respect to ecological rationality. Religious responses to GEC may inspire modifications in how we treat the world environment, this in turn having repercussions for how we conceive human actions and what we deem to be a rational social order. These conceptions have shaped—for certain ecology-minded groups in society, at least—the present cultural situation which interprets GEC as risky. It is argued that eco-religion is a necessary condition to implant ecologically rational behavior. Environmental anxiety coincides with the chiliastic movement (cf. section 3 above) which views (eco)religious disobedience as cause for apocalypse. Global change and growing scarcity are seen as a consequence of our environmental misconduct. Religious responses shift from monotheism to pantheism, whereby “nature qua God” (deus sive natura) becomes the object of worship. Examples like Lovelock’s Gaia hypothesis or the deep ecology movement illustrate well how this potential can grow into a firm religious belief. Global ecological rationality will emerge as a new form of rationality and induce new cultural contexts of action affecting personal individual behavior and action to mitigate environmental destruction. Whereas eco-religion will eventually die, its “behavioral aspects may still remain . . . with future generations. The ecological ethic will thus survive the spirit of the corresponding religious beliefs that inspired it . . .” (Giner and Tábara, 1999, 75).
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An empirical inquiry into the relationship between corporate governance and human resource management

An empirical inquiry into the relationship between corporate governance and human resource management

3. Methodology 3.1 Sampling and Data Collection Sample of study was collected from public listed consumer product firms listed in the Bursa Malaysia. The consumer product sector was chosen as the firms listed are more visible and well-known to the public, thus, there is a higher probability that they are much more stringent in the implementation of corporate governance. This study is conducted at the firm level. The survey was distributed to all 132 companies in the consumer product sector and the Human Resource manager was made the respondent. Data was collected via structured questionnaire by using self-addressed stamped envelope. Phone calls were conducted as a follow up to all companies. However, only 35 firms cooperated and answered the survey. Roscoe (1975) suggested a simple rule of thumb for determining appropriate sample size. The recommendation is that sample size is at least 30 and need not be larger than 500.
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Relationship between Islamic Human Resources Management (IHRM) practices and trust: An empirical study

Relationship between Islamic Human Resources Management (IHRM) practices and trust: An empirical study

aim to select pious workers who possess good personality or akhlak, sprit of team work or amal jama’i, experts (Surah al-Qasas: 26; Sunan al-Bukhari) in terms of qualifications, skills, experiences, health, intelligence, dedication and committed toward their tusk. The quality, excellent, and competent workers in Islamic HR practices that should be hired who qualified in terms of spiritual, personality or characters (akhlak), mental and physical (Azmi, 2008). In Islamic law, employee selection is abided by certain principles. Firstly, principle is justice; according to Syed Agil, Jasin and Pa’wan (2007), wrote from Ali Ibn Talib; “does not nominate them (officer) an account of favoritism or egoism. These two attributes reflect injustice and treachery.” Secondly, an employee is selected based on his competency. The individual is not to be appointed based on kinship or blood relationship, friendship, wealth, age, race, and political power or alike. Finally, principle is honesty; both the applicant and recruiter have to be honest. Islam forbids assignment of work that will exceed the individual’s capacity. Ali (2005) reported that the main factor affecting employees’ selection in contemporary Muslim countries is friendship networks; “during his lifetime Prophet Muhammad (p.b.u.h) refused to accept the request of his close friend, Abu Zarr, who sought to work as a governor, and told him kindly that Abu Zarr was weak (not suitable for work), and the employment process is based on the values of trust and responsibility.”
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Quantitative genetic analyses for dairy cow behavior traits and traits reflecting human-animal-technic interactions

Quantitative genetic analyses for dairy cow behavior traits and traits reflecting human-animal-technic interactions

Over the past century, dairy cattle breeding has strongly focused on the improvement of production efficiency to satisfy growing consumer markets that demanded animal products at a low cost level (Oltenacu and Algers, 2005). More recently, the importance of functional traits such as fertility, longevity, and conformation has gradually increased in dairy cattle breeding (Miglior et al., 2005). Today, the economic competitiveness of the dairy industry is directly related to public acceptance of breeding techniques (Oltenacu and Algers, 2005). Increasing consumer demands towards animal welfare are forcing dairy breeders to further integrate trait categories that reflect animal health and behavior. Genetic improvements in animal behavior or temperament might contribute to correlated response in other functional traits. Temperament in response to human handlers (docility) has been used as a criterion for genetic selection in beef cattle (Le Neindre et al., 1995). In several countries, subjectively scored dairy cattle temperament is included in breeding indices (Pryce et al., 2000). However, due to challenges in time-efficient and objective trait recording, assumed low heritabilities as well as difficult economic evaluations, only a few studies addressed dairy cattle temperament from a quantitative-genetic or breeding goal perspective (Gutiérrez-Gil et al., 2008; Jensen et al., 2008; Haskell et al., 2014).
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MOnAMi | Animal Work : Menschlichkeit durch Tierverkörperung

MOnAMi | Animal Work : Menschlichkeit durch Tierverkörperung

Für die Rolle des Stanley Kowalski aus Endstation Sehnsucht von Tennessee Williams ist es selbst für einen Schauspieler ohne Animal Work Kenntnisse un- ausweichlich, sich mit einem Tier zu beschäftigen, da das Animalische dieser Figur die Charakterisierung maßgeblich dominiert. In der Auseinandersetzung mit Stanley Kowalski führt auch an Marlon Brandos Darstellung selbiger kein Weg vorbei. Mel Gussow stellt in seinem Artikel sogar die Frage, ob je ein Schauspieler nach ihm wieder diese Rolle darstellen kann. Aus Respekt und 40 Ehrerbietung für Brando nahm ich mir also das Tier, welches er bereits damals für seine Animal Work nutzte – den Gorilla. Ich recherchierte und stieß im Berli- ner Zoo auf die Westlichen Flachlandgorillas. Während meiner Probenzeit für das Stück in Berlin plante ich also einen Besuch im Zoo Berlin ein. Ich setzte mich auf eine Bank und beobachtete mehrere Stunden nur die Gorillas, insbe- sondere den Silberrücken Ivo. Es war für mich das erste Mal, dass ich ein le- bendiges Tier für meine Recherche beobachtete und nach einiger Zeit, in der sich der Gorilla nicht bewegt hatte und vermeintlich nur saß, meinte ich alles gesehen zu haben. Doch dann begann ich, das Tier genauer zu studieren und die Motivationen hinter seinen Handlungen zu verstehen. Ich achtete auf jede noch so kleine Regung, auf die Stellung seiner Schultern, die Haltung seiner Arme. Vor allem über seine Mimik und Blickrichtung verschaffte ich mir Zugang zur Gedankenwelt des sensiblen Riesen und stellte beschämt fest, dass es auch nach mehreren Stunden des Beobachtens noch vieles zu entdecken gab.
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Scheeck: The Relationship between the European Courts and Integration through Human Rights

Scheeck: The Relationship between the European Courts and Integration through Human Rights

Faced with these challenges, the two European courts effectively circumvented the dilemma of non-jurisdiction by reciprocally intruding into their respective le- gal orders. This also caused some reciprocal puzzlement and triggered reactions. Yet, with time, the courts’ increasingly nested linkage has given rise to new forms of judicial diplomacy among supranational judges. The European judges engaged into strategic inter-institutional interactions when they perceived the potential benefits and risks for the protection of human rights and for their own courts. Whereas both courts stubbornly pursue their institutional priorities, conflict and co-operation between European judges are transversal: there appear to be as many tensions within the courts than between the courts when it comes to protecting human rights at the EU level. Rather unexpectedly for all involved actors, the two courts not only anticipated, but also diminished intergovernmental choice, as their interaction has paved the way towards the EU’s accession to the ECHR. A very awkward situation has emerged as a result of the courts’ interaction and such an accession meanwhile has more advantages than disadvantages for member states. The latter recently agreed to make the EU accede to the ECHR and laid down their commitment in the constitutional treaty and in the ECHR’s new protocol 14. For the time being, upholding or unravelling this very fragile process of integration through human rights heavily depends on the European judges’ linkage, which is simultaneously underpinned by competitive and cooperative dynamics.
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Review >Paul Thomas Young: Motivation of Behavior. The Fundamental Determinants of Human and Animal Activity<

Review >Paul Thomas Young: Motivation of Behavior. The Fundamental Determinants of Human and Animal Activity<

glaubt, dass die Zeit für endgültige theoretische Aussagen über die Prinzipien der Motivation noch nicht reif sei.. Das Buch ist vor allem dadurch wertvoll, dass es in übersichtlicher [r]

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The relationship between animal welfare and economic performance at farm level: A quantitative study of Danish pig producers

The relationship between animal welfare and economic performance at farm level: A quantitative study of Danish pig producers

2012 ). Six herds were inspected by technicians from the Ministry of Food, Agriculture and Fisheries, while the remaining 293 herds were inspected by veterinarians. All veterinarians and technicians who took part in the study were engaged in animal welfare control as part of their daily occupation and participated in a calibration meeting, during which the different measures were discussed. At the meeting, each section of the pig farm was discussed with a representative of the “travelling inspectors” (Danish: “ Rejseholdet,” i.e. a group of veterinarians who participate in specific campaigns to control compliance with animal welfare regulations). The specific codes to be used in the inspections were also discussed to ensure a standardised recording. According to the Danish legislation, there are three levels of sanctions: admonition, decree and police report. An admonition only consists of advice to enable the farmer to follow the letter of the law. A decree either results in a second inspection or requires a written explanation of how and when the non-compliance was dealt with. If the farmer does not follow the required directions, he/she is reported to the police. A police report is also given for serious non-compliance with the animal welfare legislation, e.g. a chronically sick animal that is not in a hospital pen or is not being treated ( The Danish Veterinary and Food Administration (DVFA) ,
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Darf‘s ein bisschen mehr sein? Ein Forschungsbericht zu den historischen Human-Animal Studies

Darf‘s ein bisschen mehr sein? Ein Forschungsbericht zu den historischen Human-Animal Studies

auf bereits vorhandene Forschungsberichte 3 und Überblicksartikel 4 verwiesen. Dennoch ist zu konstatieren, dass sich das Feld immer noch im Aufbau befindet. Dies zeigt sich ganz besonders deutlich in den Geschichtswissenschaften. Obgleich diese wohl zu den tragenden Dis- ziplinen der HAS gerechnet werden müssen, liegen hier bis dato noch recht wenige umfassende empirische Studien vor. Dies heißt nicht, dass Tiere nicht auch in die Geschichtswissenschaft eingedrungen sind. Im Gegenteil zeigen sie sich auch hier in Form der Tiergeschichte in zahlreichen Projekten und Forschungsvorhaben. Was die historischen Disziplinen jedoch vor allem von den humanimalen Literaturwissen- schaften unterscheidet, ist, dass hier noch fundamentaler methodische Bedenken ausgeräumt werden müssen. Die Legitimation der histori- schen Befassung mit Tieren und das schon fast reflexhafte Eingehen auf die historiographischen Herausforderungen durchziehen die hier entstandenen Arbeiten. Dies ist indes nicht ohne Grund so. Die Aufga- ben der Geschichtswissenschaften innerhalb der HAS seien, so sagt der Literaturwissenschaftler Roland Borgards, mit nicht weniger als mit „einer qualitativen Neufassung ihrer methodisch-theoretischen Grundlagen verbunden.“ 5 Dorothee Brantz ergänzt, man müsse „al- ways specify the sociocultural, economic, and political circumstances in which humananimal relations occur. We must also carefully chart the class, race, and gender relations that characterize human encoun- ters with animals; and we must differentiate between diverse types of animals and their particular status within human societies“. 6 Dies wer- 3 Für frühere Forschungsüberblicke vgl. Pascal Eitler, In tierischer Gesellschaft. Ein
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A spatiotemporal characterization of the relationship between ongoing and
evoked activity in the human brain

A spatiotemporal characterization of the relationship between ongoing and evoked activity in the human brain

In EEG, neuronal activity is reflected quite directly since it mainly captures postsynaptic population activity with high temporal resolution. However, EEG is derived from the human scalp as a surface signal and tracing back its exact origin within the brain (called the ‘inverse problem’) is prone to ambiguity (Helmholtz, 1853) without further appropriate constraints. One of the most prominent patterns of ongoing EEG activity in the human brain is the alpha rhythm, known since the late 1920s (Berger, 1929). Oscillating with a frequency of about 10 Hz and reaching amplitudes of up to 100 µV, it dominates the typical EEG derived from posterior human scalp of healthy relaxed subjects with eyes closed. How the alpha rhythm exactly originates from the cortex and involved subcortical structures is a matter of ongoing debate (Shaw, 2003b). It was known from the beginning of its discovery that it strongly decreases during eyes opening (‘Berger blockade’) or during visual stimulation (event-related desynchronisation, ERD, Pfurtscheller, 1977). Thus, a tight link appears to exist between the visual system and the alpha rhythm (Shaw, 2003a), sparkling early interest in investigating the relationship between alpha rhythm and the visual EP. In general, there are two major approaches to examine an interaction between a rhythmic signal and for example, evoked activity. An oscillation can be characterized by phase and amplitude, thus both are sensible features to be investigated for their predictive value for evoked activity. In a number of studies it has already been shown, that amplitude as well as the phase of ongoing rhythms may affect processing of sensory input as reflected by EPs and accordingly by behavioural measures involving memory and perception (Barry et al., 2000; Jasiukaitis and Hakerem, 1988; Klimesch et al., 2006; Linkenkaer-Hansen et al., 2004; Makeig et al., 2002; Mathewson et al., 2009; Varela et al., 1981).
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Customer Relationship Vulnerability: A New Concept in Relationship Marketing

Customer Relationship Vulnerability: A New Concept in Relationship Marketing

the firm about the relationship. From a logical standpoint, it can be argued that partners with incongruent styles may fail to negotiate a relationship agreement, jeopardizing the future of the relationship. The third subprocess relates to the development and exercise of power. The development of power is a function of relationship dependencies. Earlier research has shown that power and dependence are essential for understanding relationship dynamics (Cox, 2001; Frazier & Antia, 1995). Partner A’s dependence on partner B for a particular resource is a source of power for partner B. In this scenario, partner A’s dependence becomes much higher when there exist limited alternative sources of that resource (Dwyer et al., 1987; Thibaut & Kelley, 1959). The most independent partner thus dominates the relationship (L. Buchanan, 1992). This situation creates a power-dependence imbalance that determines the future of the relationship. In fact, research has demonstrated that a relationship with such imbalance may be deficient considering that the independent partner might attempt to abuse the relationship (E. Anderson & Weitz, 1989; Frazier & Rody, 1991; Geyskens, Steenkamp, Scheer, & Kumar, 1996). In customer relationships, it is therefore crucial that service or product firms and customers seek to make concessions to some extent to create a more harmonious relationship at this phase.
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Systemic flexibility and human capital development: the relationship between non-standard employment and workplace training

Systemic flexibility and human capital development: the relationship between non-standard employment and workplace training

In all the models we introduce control variables related to several workplace characteristics at firm level that have been commonly found as determinants of training propensity and intensity: size, employment structure, innovation propensity, industry dummies (“other industries” is the benchmark), trade union recognition, and the organization of training activity. Employment structure includes the following variables measured as a ratio of total workers: women, young workers (<24 years old), managers. Training organization includes the following dummy variables: the presence of a training department and a person in charge for training; the adoption of training evaluation procedures based on workers’ satisfaction, learning achievements, and performance; the adoption of a training plan; the existence of a training budget; a formal role of trade unions in influencing firm’s training investments and the presence of firm-level contract clauses dealing with training interventions. Rationale for this selection is supported by both theoretical and empirical literature. Large firms may be better able to bear the risk associated with investments in general training (Goux, Maurin, 2000) while achieving economies of scale in the provision of specific training (O’Connell, 2007), and are more likely to report the presence of temporary and/or part-time worker in their workforce. Gender and age may affect the employer’s willingness to train as well as training intensity. In particular women are less-likely be offered formal on-the-job training than men (Evertsson, 2004), while older workers are less likely to be offered job-related training due to their lower expected payoff (Gelderblom and de Koning, 2006). On the contrary, the younger the worker, the higher the expected return from training, both for the firm and the individual. The propensity to innovate is also expected to be positively related to training and other job-related practices (Gashi et al., 2010). In line with our theoretical framework, a positive relationship between the adoption of job-related practices and training intensity is assumed to be in place (Whitfield, 2000). Finally, the role of trade unions and firm-level contract clauses in the training decision-making process are also expected to be associated with increased training intensity (Green et al., 1999; Groot, 1999) as well as all variables concerning training organization and evaluation procedures (O’Connell, 2007).
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Animal spirits: Die verhaltensökonomischen Grundlagen der Keynesschen Theorie

Animal spirits: Die verhaltensökonomischen Grundlagen der Keynesschen Theorie

Behavioral Economics zielt darauf ab, zu verstehen, wie Individuen entscheiden, was ihre Entscheidungen motiviert. Es werden Einsichten aus anderen Disziplinen einschließlich psychologischer, kognitiver und emotionaler Faktoren und Konzepte wie Framing, begrenzte Rationalität, Normen, sozial eingebettete Individuen und ihre Interaktionen, Routinen, Heuristiken, Emotionen, Animal Spirits integriert. Die Neurowissenschaften haben Emotionen als Voraussetzung für Entscheidungen erkannt. Der florierendste Bereich der Behavioral Economics ist Behavioral Finance, obwohl für die Finanzmärkte das Modell des perfekten Marktes am ehesten zutreffen sollte (Schettkat 2010). Erwartungen an den Finanzmärkten hängen voneinander ab und werden von Stimmungen beeinflusst, wie Keynes es in seinem beauty contest so treffend charakterisierte.
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Der domestizierte Hund und der vergöttlichte Schakal im Alten Ägypten - ein Vergleich: eine wissenschaftliche Analyse und eine fachdidaktische Aufarbeitung für den Geschichtsunterricht unter Berücksichtigung der Human-Animal Studies / eingereicht von: Car

Der domestizierte Hund und der vergöttlichte Schakal im Alten Ägypten - ein Vergleich: eine wissenschaftliche Analyse und eine fachdidaktische Aufarbeitung für den Geschichtsunterricht unter Berücksichtigung der Human-Animal Studies / eingereicht von: Carina Gruber

andere Perspektive eingenommen werden muss. Beim Thema Tierversuch bietet es sich ebenfalls an, eventuell mit Texten, Zahlen und Fakten zu Tierversuchen an den einzelnen Tierarten 873 einzusteigen und in weiterer Folge wiederum eine Diskussionsrunde zu der Thematik zu starten. Eine ähnliche Vorgangsweise kann auch bei anderen aktuellen Themen, wie Tiertransporten, Gatterjagd, Fiaker- Unfällen, Pelzindustrie, Zoo und vielen weiteren inhumanen Umgangsformen mit den nicht- menschlichen Tieren, umgesetzt werden. Auch Vergleiche eignen sich hierbei und helfen den Schüler_innen eingefahrene Strukturen und Konzepte wahrzunehmen und zu überdenken: „Warum lieben wir Hunde und essen Schweine?“ 874 Mit dieser Frage lässt sich ein optimaler Stundeneinstieg in die Thematik der Ernährung und dem Konsum- bzw. Essverhalten umsetzen. Außerdem wird dadurch auch der Bildungsbereich Gesundheit und Bewegung 875 in den Unterricht mit einbezogen. Um gleich eine weitere Förderung dieses Bereichs zu nennen, so könnte auch eine Unterrichtsstunde zum Thema der Medizin aus tierischen Produkten und dem damit häufig verbundenen Tierleid gehalten werden. Eines von vielen Beispielen dafür wäre das Leid der Gallebären. Hierfür würde es sich als Einstieg mit Sicherheit eignen, zu Beginn der Stunde das Wort Gallebären in den Klassenraum zu stellen und zu fragen, ob sie überhaupt wissen, was damit gemeint ist. Nach der gemeinsamen Definitionsfindung kann die Thematik auch in diesem Fall anhand eines aktuellen Artikels 876 bearbeitet werden. Die selbstständige Bearbeitung solcher Artikel fördert erstens die politische Urteilskompetenz, da sie anhand der Informationen aus dem Text das darin verlautete Urteil verstehen, sowie sich selbst eines darüber bilden, und andererseits die politikbezogene Methodenkompetenz, da sie politische Manifestationen darin auch dekodieren sollen. Überdies ist es vor allem in heutigen Zeiten der Medienflut von großer Wichtigkeit, Medien analysieren, entschlüsseln und auf ihre Belegbarkeit hin untersuchen zu können. 877 Eine weitere sehr effiziente Maßnahme, um politikbezogene Methodenkompetenz zu fördern ist zum Beispiel die Erarbeitung eines Gesetzestextes. Im Bereich der Human-Animal Studies würde es sich hierfür natürlich anbieten,
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Antibiotic Susceptibility Patterns and B eta-L actam ase Production of Animal and Human Isolates of Campylobacter in Lagos, Nigeria 

Antibiotic Susceptibility Patterns and B eta-L actam ase Production of Animal and Human Isolates of Campylobacter in Lagos, Nigeria 

Forty-three stool samples and rectal swabs were collected from diarrhoeic and 20 non- diarrhoiec patients under 5 years of age at various general hospitals in Lagos. A total of 110 faecal samples from animals (101 from chickens and 9 from pigs) were obtained from Mitchel farm, Agege and Oshodi - Isolo Local Government farms at Ejigbo. Campylobacter species were isolated from 6 (13.9% ) of 43 children with gastroenteritis and none from 20 asymptom­ atic subjects. Forty-nine (48.5% ) isolates from the hundred and one faecal specimen were isolated from chicken, while 3 (33.33% ) out of 9 were from pigs. Campylobacter jejuni was the most prevalent accounting for 79% of the total isolates and C. coli accounted for 25% . All the human strains were gentamicin sensitive, while streptomicin and cloxacillin were resistant. Erythromycin had a high activity (83.3% ) on human strains and only 59.6% activity on animal strains. About ten percent (9.6% ) of the strains produced beta-lactamase.
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Hoffnung jenseits der Illusion: Global Animal Law

Hoffnung jenseits der Illusion: Global Animal Law

operates as a rhetorical device for persuasion in the legal discourse. For example, studies on goats’ memory or on the cognitional capacities of pigs are portrayed as providing the "scientific proof” for legal provisions ". It is therefore unsurprising that Berns’ MRI studies on dogs lead to the inevitable result that animals must be persons in the legal sense. Such a conclusion implies that scientific findings create a direct connection to ethical and legal claims. According to Sykes, this rhetorical move runs through the heart of the "animal turn". On the one hand, science has saved arguments from constituting merely emotional outbreaks: The treatment of animals is taken seriously as a legal question.
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