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Comparison of free choice profiling and fixed terms for qualitative behaviour assessment in dairy cattle / by Beate Müllner

Comparison of free choice profiling and fixed terms for qualitative behaviour assessment in dairy cattle / by Beate Müllner

On the first rating day Free Choice Profiling of twenty i-clips and twenty h-clips were done in two sessions. One week later the Fixed Terms assessment was also done in two sessions of twenty clips each. After each session there was a break. In total, forty video clips were assessed on one rating day. Watching forty clips and scoring many terms very concentrated might be exhausting. This fact may lead to comparably low consensus profiles. The high variance was intentional to avoid mo- notony and comparison with other video clips seen before. The video clips were cho- sen to show a high diversity of cow behaviour. As a consequence, the generated terms should reflect this behaviour diversity. Panellists should assess every single video clip as independently as possible. For that reason, the clip sequence was cho- sen to avoid similar clips sequenced. As a result it should be possible to assess the actual seen clip without remembering the clips seen before and comparing with pre- viously seen clips.
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Medical insurance and free choice of physician shape patient overtreatment: A laboratory experiment

Medical insurance and free choice of physician shape patient overtreatment: A laboratory experiment

31 public health is comparable, but overall expenditures are lower with competition. On the other hand, insurance reduces inequality amongst the group of patients. We conclude that competition in the guise of free choice of physician has unambiguously beneficial effects in our setting. Informed competition increases the level of public health and decreases overtreatment at the same time. Even though the increased level of public health leads to higher total expenditures, the total expenditures are not as high as they could be – because competition provides incentives to keep overtreatment reasonably low. Of course, extrapolation to health care policies in the field is difficult. Here are three reasons. First, competition is not the only mechanism that can reduce overtreatment, and quite possibly it is not the best that can be thought of. For instance, Brosig-Koch et al. (2014) find that overprovision is significantly lower in a mixed-fee-for-service remuneration system (where the fee-for-service component is complemented by a lump-sum component) compared to a pure fee-for-service system. One would need a comparative evaluation of competition and mixed- fee-for-remuneration or other potential measures to be on safer ground for policy advice. Second, there are distinct differences between the anonymous interactions in an abstract laboratory setting and the interactions of patients and physicians in the field where personal interaction often plays a role. We think it would be interesting for follow-up research to investigate the effects of the institutions studied here in controlled environments that are richer in context. Third, professional norms are also likely to play an important role for the degree to which physicians engage in opportunistic behavior. Kesternich et al. (2015) for instance show (in a controlled laboratory-like internet experiment) that medical students are more likely to sacrifice parts of their own income for a patient’s benefit if they are primed for professional norms (in the context of the Hippocratic Oath).
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Free Choice Profiling von Salmo Salar (L) unterschiedlicher Herkunft undZubereitungsarten

Free Choice Profiling von Salmo Salar (L) unterschiedlicher Herkunft undZubereitungsarten

Free Choice Profiling von Salmo Salar L unterschiedlicher Herkunft und Zubereitungsarten... Abbildungen des Anhangs..[r]

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Free-choice saccades and their underlying determinants: Explorations of high-level voluntary oculomotor control

Free-choice saccades and their underlying determinants: Explorations of high-level voluntary oculomotor control

The issue of free-choice behavior has already been addressed in the manual action-control domain by focusing on actions driven by self-chosen (instead of externally instructed) goals (e.g., Brass & Haggard, 2008; Herwig, Prinz, & Waszak, 2007; Keller et al., 2006; Passingham, Bengtsson, & Lau, 2010; Waszak et al., 2005). Forced- and free-choice tasks were already compared by Berlyne (1957). In typical forced-choice tasks, each stimulus (e.g., a tone of a certain frequency or a visual stimulus, such as a certain letter or object shape) is unambiguously mapped (via instructions) to one specific response (e.g., usually one out of two possible key-press responses); thus, only one response is correct. Free-choice tasks require an arbitrary decision among a set of response alternatives (Berlyne, 1957), for example, pressing one out of two response keys. Still, free-choice tasks usually involve the presentation of a stimulus serving as a starting point for the response-time (RT) interval. A robust finding is that responses are faster in forced- than in free-choice tasks, either because two different ‘‘action-control systems’’ handle stimulus- versus goal-driven actions or because free-choice tasks require an additional process dedi- cated to target specification (e.g., Astor-Jack & Haggard, 2005; Brass & Haggard, 2008; Janczyk, Nolden, & Jolicoeur, 2015; Naefgen, Dambacher, & Janczyk, 2018; Obhi & Haggard, 2004).
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Exit from the Monetary Union - A Free Choice by Greece

Exit from the Monetary Union - A Free Choice by Greece

Ifo Institute – Leibniz Institute for Economic Research at the University of Munich Suggested Citation: Seidel, Martin (2012) : Exit from the Monetary Union - A Free Choice by Greece, CESifo Forum, ISSN 2190-717X, ifo Institut - Leibniz-Institut für Wirtschaftsforschung an der Universität München, München, Vol. 13, Iss. 1, pp. 44-46

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Beschreibung des Einflusses der Fütterung auf sensorische Eigenschaften von Lachs in unterschiedlichen Zubereitungen mit Hilfe des Free Choice Profilings

Beschreibung des Einflusses der Fütterung auf sensorische Eigenschaften von Lachs in unterschiedlichen Zubereitungen mit Hilfe des Free Choice Profilings

Im Jahre 1984 publizierten Williams und Langron die erste Studie zur Anwendung dieses Verfahrens. Sie untersuchten die sensorischen Merkmale acht verschiedener französischer Portweine, welche von einem Panel, bestehend aus zehn Prüfern, teilweise mit Erfahrung in der sensorischen Beurteilung oder Herstellung von Portweinen, beurteilt wurden. Diese Studie erzielte eindeutige und gut auswertbare Ergebnisse und machte somit die Erstellung einer Konsens- Attributliste nicht mehr zwingend notwendig (Williams; Langron, 1984, S.558ff). In den folgenden Jahren etablierte sich das Free Choice Profiling und wurde auf diverse Produkte angewendet. Weil es noch keinen einheitlichen Standard gibt, kann die Durchführung individuell auf das Produkt und die Prüfer abgestimmt werden.
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Der EuGH eröffnet (unbeabsichtigt) neue Wege für "free choice" im Asylrecht

Der EuGH eröffnet (unbeabsichtigt) neue Wege für "free choice" im Asylrecht

Versteht man allerdings das Dublin-System als ein System, das (außerhalb grundrechtlich gebotener Zuordnungen) gar nicht unbedingt den „richtigen“ Dublin- Staat verantwortlich machen, so[r]

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The CJEU (Unintentionally) Opens New Avenues of “Free Choice” in Asylum Law

The CJEU (Unintentionally) Opens New Avenues of “Free Choice” in Asylum Law

with very different standards and life opportunities. If the system of forced allocation is retained, and if there is not done justice to the interests of the allocated persons leastwise as far as possible in terms of burden-sharing – the key issue will boil down to a choice between allocating people efficiently and protecting their human and refugee rights. Primary law offers a clear answer to resolve this kind of conflict. The CJEU does not always.

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Introducing risk adjustment and free health plan choice in employer-based health insurance: Evidence from Germany

Introducing risk adjustment and free health plan choice in employer-based health insurance: Evidence from Germany

Our findings are based on representative enrollee panel data from Germany over two decades. We link these panel data to administrative data on annual RAS allocations, health plan prices, and other financial indicators by sickness fund type. Our findings show that, prior to the RAS and the free choice of health plans, significant differences in risk pools existed. These differences translated into signif- icant price differences. After the RAS implementation, sickness funds with “bad risk pools”—many old, lower income, and unhealthy enrollees—received risk-adjusted payments from the RAS. We show that these RAS allocations significantly reduced health plan premiums, by at least 42 cents per enrollee and euro allocated by the RAS. Depending on the specification, the upper bound of our revenue pass- through rate is almost 0.9 and higher than the findings for the (for profit) Medicare Part C market in the US ( Cabral et al. , 2014 ; Duggan et al. , 2016 ). We also find evidence for asymmetric pass-through rates: Insurers seem to reduce prices more when they obtain more money, and raise prices less when their budget contracts. The findings also show that assets decrease by 13 cents when insurer budgets contract by one euro and a small increase in administrative costs of 3 cents per RAS euro when budgets expand. Because of the significant but partial pass-through of RAS allocations to consumers, market prices converged over time but not fully. Despite the price convergence, we find that the savings of switchers remained relatively stable over time. Because switchers are younger, have higher incomes and better health than stayers—and because they are significantly more likely to switch to cheaper plans ( Schmitz and Ziebarth , 2017 )—free health plan choice increased the segregation of risk pools in Germany. Conse- quently, the volume of money that the RAS redistributed increased over time. Overall, one can conclude that the first version of the simple German RAS was effective and reduced market price dispersion while increasing consumer choice. However, several reports concluded that the simple RAS would not fully eliminate insurer incentives to cream-skim good risks and that a more refined RAS would be indispens- able ( IGES and Lauterbach and Wasem , 2004 ). Following these recommendations, a more sophisticated “Morbidity-RAS” with higher predictive power (which considers 80 expensive diseases) was introduced in 2008.
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Introducing risk adjustment and free health plan choice in employer-based health insurance: Evidence from Germany

Introducing risk adjustment and free health plan choice in employer-based health insurance: Evidence from Germany

Our findings are based on representative enrollee panel data from Germany over two decades. We link these panel data to administrative data on annual RAS allocations, health plan prices, and other financial indicators by sickness fund type. Our findings show that, prior to the RAS and the free choice of health plans, significant differences in risk pools existed. These differences translated into signif- icant price differences. After the RAS implementation, sickness funds with “bad risk pools”—many old, lower income, and unhealthy enrollees—received risk-adjusted payments from the RAS. We show that these RAS allocations significantly reduced health plan premiums, by at least 42 cents per enrollee and euro allocated by the RAS. Depending on the specification, the upper bound of our revenue pass- through rate is almost 0.9 and higher than the findings for the (for profit) Medicare Part C market in the US ( Cabral et al. , 2014 ; Duggan et al. , 2016 ). We also find evidence for asymmetric pass-through rates: Insurers seem to reduce prices more when they obtain more money, and raise prices less when their budget contracts. The findings also show that assets decrease by 13 cents when insurer budgets contract by one euro and a small increase in administrative costs of 3 cents per RAS euro when budgets expand. Because of the significant but partial pass-through of RAS allocations to consumers, market prices converged over time but not fully. Despite the price convergence, we find that the savings of switchers remained relatively stable over time. Because switchers are younger, have higher incomes and better health than stayers—and because they are significantly more likely to switch to cheaper plans ( Schmitz and Ziebarth , 2017 )—free health plan choice increased the segregation of risk pools in Germany. Conse- quently, the volume of money that the RAS redistributed increased over time. Overall, one can conclude that the first version of the simple German RAS was effective and reduced market price dispersion while increasing consumer choice. However, several reports concluded that the simple RAS would not fully eliminate insurer incentives to cream-skim good risks and that a more refined RAS would be indispens- able ( IGES and Lauterbach and Wasem , 2004 ). Following these recommendations, a more sophisticated “Morbidity-RAS” with higher predictive power (which considers 80 expensive diseases) was introduced in 2008.
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Introducing Risk Adjustment and Free Health Plan Choice in Employer-Based Health Insurance: Evidence from Germany

Introducing Risk Adjustment and Free Health Plan Choice in Employer-Based Health Insurance: Evidence from Germany

Our findings are based on representative enrollee panel data from Germany over two decades. We link these panel data to administrative data on annual RAS allocations, health plan prices, and other financial indicators by sickness fund type. Our findings show that, prior to the RAS and the free choice of health plans, significant differences in risk pools existed. These differences translated into signif- icant price differences. After the RAS implementation, sickness funds with “bad risk pools”—many old, lower income, and unhealthy enrollees—received risk-adjusted payments from the RAS. We show that these RAS allocations significantly reduced health plan premiums, by at least 42 cents per enrollee and euro allocated by the RAS. Depending on the specification, the upper bound of our revenue pass- through rate is almost 0.9 and higher than the findings for the (for profit) Medicare Part C market in the US ( Cabral et al. , 2014 ; Duggan et al. , 2016 ). We also find evidence for asymmetric pass-through rates: Insurers seem to reduce prices more when they obtain more money, and raise prices less when their budget contracts. The findings also show that assets decrease by 13 cents when insurer budgets contract by one euro and a small increase in administrative costs of 3 cents per RAS euro when budgets expand. Because of the significant but partial pass-through of RAS allocations to consumers, market prices converged over time but not fully. Despite the price convergence, we find that the savings of switchers remained relatively stable over time. Because switchers are younger, have higher incomes and better health than stayers—and because they are significantly more likely to switch to cheaper plans ( Schmitz and Ziebarth , 2017 )—free health plan choice increased the segregation of risk pools in Germany. Conse- quently, the volume of money that the RAS redistributed increased over time. Overall, one can conclude that the first version of the simple German RAS was effective and reduced market price dispersion while increasing consumer choice. However, several reports concluded that the simple RAS would not fully eliminate insurer incentives to cream-skim good risks and that a more refined RAS would be indispens- able ( IGES and Lauterbach and Wasem , 2004 ). Following these recommendations, a more sophisticated “Morbidity-RAS” with higher predictive power (which considers 80 expensive diseases) was introduced in 2008.
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Spillovers in Education Choice

Spillovers in Education Choice

20 tradition for math and science may face a stronger social pressure or a higher social benefit to conform to the modal choice in their social peer group at large. It is also possible that the pilot changed school quality or that particular parental characteristics drive choices. Fourth, we therefore present results from a placebo test where we match only children from entry cohorts 1984-87 with only children from entry cohorts 1988-91; see Table B11 in Appendix B. In the left panel, we match the children randomly based on mother’s education and income, and in the right panel, we match only children attending the same high school. We perform exact matching without replacement. In both cases the correlation between their course choices are positive but insignificant. When we match only children attending the same high schools, the reduced-form and the 2SLS estimates tend to be larger than when they are randomly matched across high schools. However, the estimates are insignificant and less than 30% of the main spillover estimates in Table 3. It should also be noted that the OLS estimates for the randomly matched siblings with similar mother characteristics and attending the same school are just over 30% of the OLS estimates for the real siblings in Table 3. We conclude that the potential spillover effect transmitted through the school is quantitatively much smaller than the one transmitted through siblings. 25
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Structural choice modelling: Theory and applications to combining choice experiments

Structural choice modelling: Theory and applications to combining choice experiments

2 1 Introduction Random Utility Theory (RUT) underpins the choice models used in a wide array of academic and practical situations to model choice processes (e.g., Luce 1959; McFadden 1974; McFadden 1980; Ben-Akiva and Lerman 1985; McFadden 2001). Recently, there has been interest in extending choice models by including ideas and methods from structural equation models (SEMs). For example, Elrod and Keane (1988, 1995, 1997), Walker (2001), Ashok et al. (2002), and Morikawa et al. (2002) show how to combine covariates with factor analytics to create latent variables that form part of the model specification in explaining discrete choices. The observed variables in SEMs reflect variation in underlying latent variables, known as theoretical constructs, in the measurement sub-model. Regression equations and correlations link the latent variables, in the structural sub-model (Jöreskog 1970; Jöreskog 1973; Bollen 1989; Jöreskog and Sörbom 1996). By including latent variables in this way, one can use SEMs to evaluate and test substantive theory. Because SEMs provide a general method, notation and language to evaluate substantive theory, they have become a powerful and commonly used modelling approach in many social science disciplines.
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Intertemporal discrete choice

Intertemporal discrete choice

2012 ; Chen et al. , 2013 ), is a particular case of their model. The aim of their paper is different from ours since, we are interested in the effect of discount on choice proba- bilities and we focus on "static stochastic choice" over consumption streams. They are interested in the dynamics of stochastic choice. However, the notion of stationarity they use is comparable to ours. We show that it is weaker and it cannot distinguish the discounted logit from the discounted Luce rule (see Section 4 ). The axiomatic charac- terization of the quasi-hyperbolic Luce rule of Theorem 3 can be used to characterize (for example, adapting the axioms of Fudenberg and Strzalecki ( 2015 )) a recursive model of stochastic choice, that allows for quasi-hyperbolic discounting. Such model is receiving an increasing attention in applied works (e.g. Paserman , 2008 ; Tarozzi and Mahajan , 2011 ; Yao et al. , 2012 ; An et al. , 2014 ; Fang and Wang , 2015 ). The interac- tion of discounting and stochastic choice has been understudied so far. Recently, Lu and Saito ( 2016 ) introduced a model where stochastic choice follows uncertainty about the discount function. They characterize geometric and quasi-hyperbolic discounting. Concerning critiques to the multinomial logit, Fosgerau and Bierlaire ( 2009 ) proposed a random utility model with multiplicative error that solves the scale problem. A more general critique of the use of stochastic choice models in the study of risk aversion and time preference comes from Apesteguia and Ballester ( 2015 ). They show that a large class of models including the logit is not monotone with respect to parameters mea- suring risk aversion or impatience. In other words, an increase in the risk aversion or impatience parameter is not necessarily followed by a larger probability of selecting a
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Type-free truth

Type-free truth

Chapter 4 deals with some problems that the liar poses for classical type-free truth. We have seen that the main function of the truth predicate is to enable us to express infinite conjunctions. Several authors claim that the truth predicate can serve its expressive function only if it is fully disquotational—i.e. it satisfies the general equivalence between a sentence and its truth predication, which is impossible in classical logic. We put forward a concise formulation of what it takes for a theory of truth to enable us to express infinite conjunctions and examine existing truth theories in this light. We conclude (i) that there is no need to adopt a non-classical logic—in fact, some non-classical theories of truth are clearly inadequate—and (ii) that any reasonable classical truth theory should contain T-Out among its principles. However, Hartry Field [26, chap. 7] has argued that T-Out theories have problems with expressing agreement and disagreement. In particular, T-Out theories are
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Free Men and Genuine Judges will Remember about Free Courts

Free Men and Genuine Judges will Remember about Free Courts

But they hope that this virtue of judicial independence, as presented by Judge Zabłocki, will survive in the memory of others. In the memory of free men, but also in the memory of genuine judges of lower courts, who will face numerous challenges to their integrity in upcoming years.

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Weapons of Choice

Weapons of Choice

CESifo Working Paper No. 5419 Weapons of Choice Abstract This article investigates the effect of natural resources on whether ethno-political groups choose to pursue their goals with non-violent as compared to violent means, distinguishing terrorism from insurgencies. It is hypothesized that whether or not the extraction of fossil fuels sparks violence depends both on the group’s characteristics and the state’s reaction. Data are taken from the Minorities at Risk Organizational Behavior (MAROB) project, covering 118 organizations in 13 countries of the Middle East and North Africa over the 1980-2004 period. The multinomial logit models combine group- and country-specific information and show that ethno-political groups are more likely to resort to rebellion rather than using non-violent means or becoming terrorists when representing regions rich in oil. This effect is enhanced for groups already enjoying regional autonomy or being supported by a foreign state but can be mitigated by power sharing arrangements.
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Credit market choice

Credit market choice

Figure 1 shows that, on average, U. G-SIBs pursue different credit trading strategies than the other institutions in our sample, and are more likely to, not only change their exposure to[r]

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Relatively free doppelsemigroups

Relatively free doppelsemigroups

linear associative operations. Doppelalgebras play a prominent role in algebraic K-theory. We consider doppelsemigroups, that is, sets with two binary associative operations satisfying the axioms of a doppelalgebra. Doppelsemigroups are a generalization of semigroups and they have rela- tionships with such algebraic structures as interassociative semigroups, restrictive bisemigroups, dimonoids, and trioids. In the lecture notes numerous examples of doppelsemigroups and of strong doppelsemigroups are given. The independence of axioms of a strong doppelsemigroup is established. A free product in the variety of doppelsemigroups is presented. We also construct a free (strong) doppelsemigroup, a free commutative (strong) doppelsemigroup, a free n-nilpotent (strong) doppelsemigroup, a free n-dinilpotent (strong) doppelsemigroup and a free left n-dinilpotent doppelsemigroup. Moreover, the least commutative congruence, the least n-nilpotent congruence, the least n-dinilpotent congruence on a free (strong) doppelsemigroup and the least left n-dinilpotent congruence on a free doppelsemigroup are characterized. The book addresses graduate students, post-graduate students, researchers in algebra and interested readers.
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Free will and education

Free will and education

The reasons-based account of freedom might be contrasted with Niklas Luhmann’s view of freedom. In his writings, Luhmann takes up the classical German debate on the compatibility of education and freedom from the standpoint of his sociological version of system theory. Luhmann emphasizes that children – like other mental systems – must be seen as ‘self-referential’; that is, they are able to ask themselves how to react to ‘input’ coming from outside. Therefore, they can react to the same input in different ways on different occasions. They are – in the terminology of machine theory – ‘non-trivial’ machines, although educators have a tendency, according to Luhmann, to treat them as if they were trivial machines. Trivial machines are easy to guide and control; they react to inputs in a reliable and predictable way. In contrast, non-trivial machines are essentially unreliable. Thus, the capacity for self-reference leads to unreliability. In this context, Luhmann also uses the classical philosophical concepts of self-determination and freedom. He says that non-trivial [523] machines typically react ‘in a self-determined and unreliable way. To put it emphatically, one could also say that they react freely’ (Luhmann 1985/2004, p. 15). Luhmann accuses ‘philosophy’ of ‘re-trivializing’ the idea of freedom. His criticism is directed against the view that free persons act by an insight into some kind of necessity – they voluntarily do what they acknowledge as right or necessary (Luhmann 1986/2004, p. 37).
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