The first stage of the algorithm where the body parts are detected is the most computationally expensive. Running three Haar-like-feature based part detectors on a 600 × 150 panoramic image takes on average 400ms on a 2GHz single processor computer. This is the time needed for checking every image position and all possible part sizes. The possible part sizes start from the initial part size and then the part size is increased 1.1 times until it can not fit into the image anymore. However, the floor constraint can heavily reduce the number of positions and part sizes to search for and the time can be cut down to around 100ms. The two detectors (upper body and face) for the 320×200 pan-tilt camera image take 80ms. Once the parts are detected, detecting persons using our model takes around 20ms.
The vital activity of an organism is accompanied by flow- ing of very weak electrical currents (biocurrents) inside it. These currents are induced by electrical activity of cells, mainly muscle and nerve. Biocurrents have very low val- ues and induce magnetic fields of B ~10 -15 –10 -11 T. In ad- dition, weak magnetic fields can be induced inside an or- ganism by ferromagnetic particles, which were acci- dentally trapped or purposefully introduced into it. The external magnetic field discloses inhomogeneities of the magnetic susceptibility of organs, which work as sources of magnetic fields close to the boundary of magnetic vac- uum ( B ≤ 10 -16 T). In viewof the aforesaid, the devel- opment of magnetic field sensors (MFSs) for detecting ultraweak magnetic fields ( B ≤ 10 ‒10 T) is of great practi- cal importance.
A penal law attorney who is more critical of the polygraph also acknowledges the gap, but sees the potential of the polygraph under future conditions when it has been improved, referring to the technology and procedure alike (attorney 29). He sees the polygraph as having been modern in the past, and having the potential to be modern again. Another aspect of the future potential to ensure a fair procedure is emphasized by a penal attorney who asks for the polygraph test for his clients (attorney 31). He points out that the police and judges generally observe bodily signs of an accused person and use them for their interrogation reports. However, the moment those same signs are measured with the help of a polygraphy, they are treated differently and deemed unacceptable. In the viewof this attorney, the “subjective” police observations are “antiquated.” The polygraph registrations, on the other hand, are not, since they are more correct, transparent, and precise. The attorney’s criticism of this injustice of the procedure is only overshadowed by the injustice that might possibly be created through the polygraph test, because such a test is not affordable for everyone and this might cause a different form of injustice (apart from the question of voluntariness raised by Alder 2007, 261). In the fieldof penal law, the discussion of practitioners strongly focuses on the defense side of the application, which is very different from the way the procedure is implemented in the United Kingdom. There the polygraph test became a measure of monitoring sex offenders after their conviction, as part of a political “tough on crime” program (Balmer 2018, 147).
Automatic face recognition systems are nowadays used in different areas, from public security (border checkpoints, video-surveillance) to person identification for private pur- poses (unlock smartphones, customize smart cars) [Ra18, HV18]. The robustness against spoofing attacks is an crucial parameter for evaluating recognition system performances. In particular, the identification of attacks performed by presenting fake biometric traits to the sensor, namely presentation attacks detection (PAD), is deeply investigated in litera- ture [RB17]. The development of new technologies pushes the need for updated methods customized for the specific sensors. In the last years, light field cameras rose the interest of the scientific community [GUC13, Se17, RRB15, JZW16, RB14]. Light field (or plenop- tic) images are based on the idea that multiple information are collected for each pixel. Thus, in addition to light intensity, the camera is able to record the incoming direction of the light rays. From these data, a 3D representation of the scene could be rendered. Light field acquisitions can be obtained from different devices: we used a standard camera with a microlens array insert between the main lens and the sensor. A detailed dissertation about geometrical and physical properties of lens-less light field camera could be found in [LH96, Ng06]. Plenoptic raw data can be rendered in several ways, among which multi- view representation where several images are generated from a slightly shifted point ofview and pair of RGB and depth map images.
capacitance C ox in series, were combined to one impedance Z 2 across these the same voltage V 1 drops. ............................................................................................................................ 74 Figure 4-8 A divider composed of the impedance of the series resistance of the reference electrode and electrolyte solution Rel and the impedance Z2 shown in this graph. .................. 74 Figure 4-9 Exemplary fit of a measured impedance spectrum for a cell-free transistor gate using equation (4.18). The values of the contact line capacitance and the FET transconductance can be extracted to CL = 92.19 pF ± 8.90 pF and gm = 0.194 mS ± 0.015 mS, respectively, whereas the transimpedance circuit parameters were fixed (Table 4-1). ............ 78 Figure 4-10 Exemplary fit of a measured impedance spectrum for a cell-covered transistor gate using equation (4.17). The values of the seal resistance and the cell membrane capacitance can be extracted to Rseal = 1.868 MΩ ± 0.149 MΩ and CM = 1.211 pF ± 0.072 pF, respectively, whereas the device-related and the transimpedance circuit parameters were fixed (Table 4-2). ........................................................................................................................ 79 Figure 4-11 The electrically equivalent circuit model a) without and b) with cell on top of the transistor gate implemented in the PSpice simulation program. ........................................ 81 Figure 4-12 Modelling of the cell detachment process from the transistor surface in an idealized case. The cell doesn't change its shape during the detachment process, whereas the cleft height h was gradually increased. .................................................................................... 82 Figure 4-13 The simulated impedance spectra by varying of the seal resistance values in a wide range (from 1 MΩ (step 1) to 400 kΩ (step 4) (Table 4-4) (Figure 4-12), step 5 is for the case of a cell-free transistor (Figure 4-12)). ............................................................................. 84 Figure 4-14 Modelling of an adherent cell to the transistor surface is shown in step 1. The gradually detached cell from the transistor surface is approximated by simple geometrical shapes (step 2 ̶ step 4). The cell-free transistor surface is shown in step 5. ........................... 85 Figure 4-15 The simulated impedance spectra by varying of the capacitance values of the cell membrane for cell-covered transistor gate (step 1, CJM = 3.14 pF, CFM = 6.28 pF (Figure 4-14, Table 4-5)), transistor gate with the gradually detached cell (step 2 ̶ step 4, CJM = 1.77 pF, CFM = 7.65 pF; CJM = 0.79 pF, CFM = 8.64 pF; CJM = 0.19 pF, CFM = 9.22 pF (Figure 4-14, Table 4-5)) and for cell-free transistor gate (step 5, (Figure 4-14)) are presented in the graph. ..
The investigations here are based on solid samples. Different grain sizes and the corre- sponding effects have not been considered yet. Surface composition, texture and roughness of the target mineral influence the measurement results directly, as was shown in figure 4, al- though the properties of the surface are often just some micrometers to millimeters thick. Minerals with polished surface show different results in comparison to the same mineral with harsh surface properties. This is due to strong “blackbody” aspect of surface holes. In addi- tion, a specular surface might reflect the in- coming energy into the optic the sensor addi- tionally. Similar effects based both on sample geometry and surface textures have been re- ported in literature (e.g. Balick et al. 2009). However a comprehensive solution on how to deal with the spectral variation within samples is not available at present.
tion. While the direction matches the TSM result, the velocity determined with the opti- cal tool is one order of magnitude higher. The difference in velocity may be caused by horizontal permeability variations or, more likely, by the measuring principle of the opti- cal tool. It measures water flow in an open water well, i.e., the natural flow is disturbed by the missing rock matrix. Thus, measured flow velocities must be considered higher than the real groundwater flow velocity (Freeze and Cherry 1979 ). The velocities meas- ured by the optical tool probe in the observation well spread in a width range depending on the depth. Reasons for this apart from the different permeability of the layers, i.e., due to backfilling filtering materials surrounding the well or special casing inlets inside the well, can be also vertical flow of groundwater due to lowering or raising the tool. In principle, the change in the flow potential and the permeability changes listed in the sentence above mean that the calculation of the actual groundwater flow velocity can be complex. The filter velocity inside the well must be converted into the groundwater flow velocity in the aquifer. Those side-effects are nonexistent when estimating groundwater flow velocities of BHEs equipped with TSMs. Due to the direct contact between TSMs and the rock matrix, the temperature measurements are not affected by unwanted physi- cal mechanisms.
used in this publication show a very good binding of analyte PSA with high association constants. 60 , 61
First, to optimize our Si NW-ISFET sensor platform toward the electrical detectionof PSA with lower concentrations in the sample and to con ﬁrm the speciﬁc binding of PSA to the receptors, we utilized two optical assays with chemilumines- cence and ﬂuorescence detection, respectively. The chem- iluminescence sandwich immunoassay for the detectionof PSA is schematically depicted in Figure 3 . Figure 3 a,b shows a schematic illustration of this assay, where the Si NWs are either functionalized with PSA-speci ﬁc aptamers ( Figure 3 a) or nonspeci ﬁc aptamers ( Figure 3 b) of the same sequence length (32 bases) as controls. These experiments were done inside the PDMS micro ﬂuidic channels of 100 μm width, which were mounted onto the Si NW-ISFET chip surfaces. By this procedure, the channel can be compared with the PDMS- protected surface as the background. The analyte PSA solution was ﬂown through the microﬂuidic channels and allowed to bind to the aptamer surfaces. After this, PB solution with anti- PSA horseradish peroxidase (HRP) antibodies was ﬂown through the micro ﬂuidic channels and allowed to bind to the immobilized PSA. The substrate luminol (5-amino-2,3- dihydrophthalazine-1,4-dione) was excited by oxidation to form an intermediate state using H 2 O 2 . The luminol in the excited intermediate state was then allowed to react with the anti-PSA HRP antibodies bound on the Si NW surfaces. The Figure 4. Label-free, fully electronic detectionof PSA with Si NW-ISFETs: the histogram demonstrates how each chip was evaluated for the bioassay. Small standard deviation should be noted for multiple Si NWs from one chip. Here, a control experiment is evaluated, which shows the stability of the sensor platform. The average change in ΔV th at each step of surface functionalization is displayed. The paired t-test results in ** = P
Aust and Obertreis seek to query the dominant role of Europe for Russian history and to open up new spaces of relations and interactions. This endeavour of overcoming national and Eu- rocentric frameworks of analysis is clearly situated in the institutional and discursive context of the German fieldof Osteuropäische Geschichte (p. 13). It consists of twelve articles that approach their region of expertise through the lens of global history. These case studies are followed by two comments from "non-experts of Eastern Europe" (p. 22) that seek to diversify the perspective presented in this volume from outside the discipline.
Keywords Rice weevil (Sitophilus oryzae); Grain storage; Transverse relaxation signal; Infested wheat; Low field
magnetic resonance imaging 1. Introduction
Insect infestation in stored grain is a worldwide problem. Insect pest infestations in grain are responsible for qualitative and quantitative losses of 5 - 10% grain losses in developed countries and 30 - 40% in some developing countries(Brader et al., 2002; Kumar and Kalita, 2017) _ENREF_1 . Insect detection is a prerequisite of Integrated Pest Management, a process often used to solve pest problems while minimizing risks to people and the environment. Many methods have been developed for the detection and monitoring insect infestations, including visual inspection, sampling & sieving, floating & cracking (Brader et al., 2002), trapping (Hagstrum et al., 1998), bioacoustic methods (Mankin et al., 2011), computer vision (Ridgway et al., 2002), near-infrared hyperspectral imaging (Kaliramesh et al., 2013; Singh et al., 2009), and soft X-rays (Karunakaran et al., 2003). Recently, some new techniques have emerged, such as microwave heating (Jian et al., 2015), zymography (Piasecka-Kwiatkowska et al., 2014), solid phase micro-extraction (Laopongsit et al., 2014), and biophotonic methods(Shi et al., 2016). However, most of these approaches cannot be commercialized due to various issue including throughput limits, unreliability, labour costs, time consuming and safety concerns. The most common used technique are sieving samples or the probe-and-trap methods. It is important to note that exceptions to the probe-and-trap include the United States, where visual images are used in combination with probes, and Canada, where the Berlese funnel method is mandated (Sabu et al., 2011). These time-consuming techniques have low accuracy, which detect adult insects and ignore larvae growing inside the kernels. Primary pests, such as the granary weevil, the rice weevil, the maize weevil, the lesser grain borer, and the Angoumois grain moth, cause most of the damage to grains in storage and transportation. The larvae of the primary insect pests live entirely inside the kernel and are hard to detect. Therefore, a rapid, simple, and accurate method for detecting internally feeding life-stages of insects in grains is highly desired by grain industry and inspection and quarantine branch.
performance, where we could utilize chip-to-chip controls. Using a microspotter, we also demonstrated the possibility of an on-chip control, which will be mandatory for the realization of future diagnostic assays. In addition, the highly reproducible sensor sites of our Si NW-ISFET platform would enable simultaneous detectionof multiple analytes on one chip like in typical glass microarray bioassays with ଏuorescence readout. We demonstrated the experimental capability with a precise, site-selective microspotting procedure, but we did not utilize this technique to prime the diଏerent sensors of the Si NW- ISFET arrays with diଏerent capture molecules. For future optimization, the highly minaturized Si NW-ISFETs would eventually allow an integration into readout tools for mobile use because the power consumption of ଏeld-eଏect detection is in general and with highly miniaturized Si NW-ISFETs in particular very low. In our assay, however, we yet did not reach the necessary resolution in the most critical concentration range of ∼4 ng/mL, which is typically associated with the onset of prostate cancer. Because the LOD was much lower than this concentration level, a sample dilution would be possible to condition the patients’ serum stabilizing the pH value while reducing the ionic strength to boost the sensitivity of the detection. So far, we only tested in saline solution with slightly elevated salt concentration. For future developments toward clinical applications, selectivity in complex media needs to be tested. One major advantage of our platform is that in principle, it also allows for parallel analysis of multiple biomarkers. For this then, the surface functionalization and in particular the blocking step before the detection need to be optimized. 63 , 64 Our Si NW-ISFET platform therefore provides a viable substitute for a high-throughput and multiplexed analysis toward other bioassays as well. 67 Equipped with high- density integration of sensor sites and parallel readout options, such sensor platforms are in future expected to generate actionable diagnostic information for PoC medical diagnostics.
It's crucial to simulate the acoustic detection effect timely and accurately between any two positions in the complex undersea environment in a real-time simulation platform. A numerical analysis method of sound ray propagating in complex undersea environment based on the eikonal equation, non-coplanar sound ray and sound velocity gradient vector is presented in this paper. The total undersea concerned information under certain accuracy requirement can be obtained in the algorithm. The multidimensional sound pressure array is established to simulate the whole sound space. The calculated amount for the real-time simulation of the acoustic detection effect is decreased from O (mnu) by the traditional eigenray solution to O (1) (m is the number of the non-layered structures, n is the grid quantity of the local layered structure, u is the number of the iterations in Newton method or Runger Kutta method). The real-time capability is highly improved by the method mentioned above. By comparison, the results of the simulation and the marine measurement are in good agreement. The concept ofdetection sensitivity is proposed to quantitatively describe the relationship among marine environment, detectors and sound sources. The concept can give good expression of the relationship among the three factors
2. Michael Ungar, Linda Liebenberg: Contextual Factors Related to School Engagement and Resilience: A Study of Canadian Youth with Complex Needs 3
3. Angie Hart & Becky Heaver: Evaluating resilience-based programs for schools using
a systematic consultative review 27
Whether or not the occurrence of eye movements during Motor Imagery (MI) informs and guides the motor system during the mental simulation of an action is still a topic of debate. Rodionov et al. (2004) were the first who examined eye gaze in movement imagery. Their data suggested that nystagmic activity in the horizontal plane could be elicited during movement imagery providing evidence that eye movements could be used as an objective measure of online cognitive processes. Using a cyclical aiming task, Heremans et al. (2008) reported that the number and amplitude of the eye movements during imagery resembled closely those of eye movements made during the physical execution of the task. The find- ings contrast, in part, those of McCormick et al. (2013) who reported that addi- tional fixations were made during physical execution. The differences may be ex- plained through the demands of the actions performed. Heremans et al. (2008) used a relatively low demand cyclic wrist extension action that was cued exter- nally whereas McCormick et al. (2013) employed a task that involved the optimal movement of a stylus to a target in the sagittal plane. These data suggest that the neural coupling that exists between eye and hand movements during physically executed movements remains partially, but not totally, intact in imagery (i.e., fixa- tion location is preserved) for relatively simple tasks that involve movement to- wards a motionless target. Therefore, it still remains unexplored whether for more complex tasks, such as the ones that require acting upon a moving target, the neu- ral coupling between eye and hand-movement is maintained or further disrupted during the physical or mental simulation action.
KULT_online 60 (November 2019) Editorial
Liebe Leser_innen von KULT_online,
zu Beginn des aktuellen Wintersemesters werfen wir bei KULT_online zunächst einen Blick zurück und in die Ferne. Ein Konferenzbericht über das internationale Symposium „Colombia, XIX Century: Trips, Exchanges, and Other Forms of Circulation (1819 - 2019)“ in Bogotá beleuchtet verschiedenste Transformationen, die Kolumbien in den 200 Jahren seit seiner Unabhängigkeit durchlaufen hat aus den interdisziplinären Perspektiven der einzelnen Beiträge. Der Bericht über die Tagung „Sakralisierung des Selbst“ an der Akademie der Wissenschaften und der Literatur Mainz wendet sich stattdessen dem Selbst und dessen sakralen Inszenierungen im Licht von Authentizitätsdiskursen zu.
KULT_online 59 ( July 2019) Editorial
Liebe Leser_innen von KULT_online,
in der aktuellen Ausgabe liegt der Fokus insbesondere auf Narrationen und Geschichten, aber auch auf deren Abwesenheit oder Stillschweigen. Ein Rückblick auf die internationale Konferenz „Villains! Constructing Narratives of Evil“ , die im Februar am GCSC stattfand, eröffnet die Ausgabe mit einem Blick auf die Konstruktion von Bösewichten und deren Repräsentation in verschiedensten Formen. Fortgesetzt wird der Schwerpunkt mit Rezensionen über die vielfältige Diskursivierung der Region des Balkans , die rhetorische Analyse von Texten mithilfe des Konzeptes der stasis oder einer Untersuchung von politischem Schweigen und dessen Potenzial für politischen Wande l. Weiterhin besprechen unsere Autor_innen Publikationen, welche die Möglichkeiten der narrativen Psychologie
The antenna is built in the back-end of the structure using the M8 metal layer and the thick top metal (AP metal, AP standing for Advanced Packaging). One antenna leaf, fabricated in both the M8 and AP layers, connects through vias with the source contact of the FET. The second leaf is also made from the two metal layers, which are, however, not wired together by vias. The antenna pattern in the AP layer connects with the drain contact of the FET, that in M8 with the gate contact. The small step to M9 (shown in Figure 1 a) was required for device fabrication in the foundry in order to limit electrostatic charging of the antenna leaf, which could lead to destruction of the FET by electrostatic discharge through the gate dielectric. This approach for the antenna design provides an elegant way to allow independent DC biasing of the gate and read-out of the rectified signal through the source-drain contacts, and at the same time to achieve a capacitive shunting of drain and gate at GHz and THz frequencies. The AC short is provided by the capacitance of the two drain/gate metal layers of the antenna leaf, and puts the gate and the drain on the same AC potential. This leads to an injection of the THz signal into the FET channel from the source side only, therefore the asymmetry condition required for efficient rectification [ 35 , 36 ] is fulfilled. Both the p + body and the source are connected to external