Tulving & Patkau, 1962; Tulving & Patterson, 1968). In studies on episodicmemory, the subjects recall the past events without any cues easily. Cued recall means to name the item in the study list that represented for instance a category. Recent studies are more interested in investigating whether episodicmemory depends on special brain regions. They performed neuro-imaging studies (e.g. Dupont et al., 2000; Royet et al., 2000) using the above mentioned tasks in different kinds of amnesia patients (e.g. Butters et al., 1987; Greene et al., 1996a; Greene et al., 1996b; Bowler et al., 2000 ), or in delusional suspected people (Herlitz & Forsell, 1996), or in groups with different age (Larsson & Bäckman, 1993; Marcom et al., 2003), or gender (Herlitz et al., 1999). However, the methods are limited to assess episodicmemory in consideration of definition including the autobiographical memory concept, because these models seem to assess more semantically or to assess fundamental parts of episodicmemory such as sensory-perceptual episodicmemory. Episodicmemory retains not only the knowledge in weeks, months and years, but also represents something experienced by a subject itself. This always accessed by its contents, does not need to give rise to recollective experience. Conway (2001) described and integrated the model to assess episodicmemory considering both, its sensory-perceptual information and its autobiographical memory context.
The findings of Study III indicated that depression can be suggested to negatively affect episodicmemory functioning, whereas, compared to recognition, the resulting deficits were found to be most pronounced in the ability to recall memory contents. According to the cognitive effort hypothesis, this outcome is not surprising given that depressive symptoms have already been shown to diminish especially those memory performances that require effortful processing (e.g. Jermann et al., 2005). Since depression also turned out to negatively affect recognition performances in Study III, it is conceivable that not only automatic but also effortful processes play a role in recognition performances as assessed by the WMS-IV. Even though these findings are in line with the previous literature suggesting that depression-related impairments in episodicmemory functioning may already emerge at young ages (e.g. Smith et al., 2006), severity levels of such deficits were currently found to remain stable across different stages in life rather than to increase with age. That is, the effects of cognitive aging on episodicmemory turned out to be not different in size between healthy and depressed individuals. In addition to episodicmemory impairments, considerable deficits in broad and specific components of executive functioning could also be confirmed to be present in depressed patients. This is compatible with the idea that depressive symptoms may cause structural and functional changes in those prefrontal brain regions that are strongly associated with executive functioning (Alvarez & Emory, 2006). As would be expected from the close connection between both cognitive constructs (e.g. Busch et al., 2005), Study III further revealed that certain executive dysfunctions may likely explain depression-related impairments in episodicmemory components of similar modality. Given that several executive processes such as the inhibition of irrelevant information contribute to the encoding and retrieving of episodic memories, executive dysfunctions could even be suggested to be the main cause of memory- related impairments.
The goal of the present study was to select a set of highly imaginable and concrete words that can be used in age-comparable memory research. The selection process included two steps. First, 10 children aged 7-9 years rated 400 high-imagery, concrete, and meaningful words selected from an existing corpus of 1082 spoken words (Singer et al., 2003) on a three- point scale of comprehensibility. Second, two independent raters further selected words to reduce the likelihood of lexical error during recall. As a result, 413 words were retained as stimulus materials for age-comparative investigations of episodicmemory performance.
Measuring episodicmemory problems has moved to the focus of scientific endeavors, because standard neuropsychological tests are poorly correlated with subjective memory complaints ( 12 , 13 ). Virtual reality tests realize self-motion for the construction of spatial memory representations. Therefore, these tests allow episodicmemory to be assessed in a way that is closer to the original definition of episodicmemory ( 14 – 16 ). For spatial episodicmemory content, the formation of memories is said to be experience-dependent ( 17 ). Virtual reality tests require active engagement and induce the experience of first-person movement through a virtual environment. Thus, they promote egocentric information storage ( 18 ). Tests relying on virtual reality are able to determine cognitive functions in pathological aging, which are subjectively relevant and closely related to the memory requirements of daily life ( 19 ). Episodicmemory induced by virtual environments can be assessed in sub-domains, such as the memory for elements, details describing these elements, time information, and spatial representations of these elements ( 19 ). The ecological validity of virtual reality measures was demonstrated through correlation with subjective estimations of cognitive abilities in patients with epilepsy ( 20 ).
5.1 Background information and research objectives
Two recent ERP studies investigated explicit and implicit retrieval of emotional and neutral scenes using immediate memory tests (Ferrari, Bradley, Codispoti, Karlsson, & Lang, 2012; Weymar et al., 2013). In both studies, enhanced ERP old-new differences were found for emotional and neutral pictures over centro-parietal electrodes during explicit retrieval. However, when the post-encoding task involved an implicit retrieval condition, such as free viewing (Ferrari et al., 2012; Weymar et al., 2013) or an active decision task (one vs. more people-categorization; Weymar et al., 2013), only previously presented emotional pictures were associated with greater ERP positivity than new pictures, again over central and parietal electrodes. Hence, both studies suggest that for immediate testing, emotional pictures seem to spontaneously trigger recollection even when the task does not explicitly probe episodicmemory. The question arises, however, whether spontaneous remembering also persists after longer retention intervals or only occurs during immediate testing. Spontaneous remembering of past events may also play a maladaptive role in trauma and stressor related disorders, in which environmental cues prompt intrusive distressing memories, dreams and flashbacks (Ehlers & Clark, 2000). Knowing the neural correlates of involuntary retrieval in healthy populations might also help in understanding these intrusion symptoms.
We experience a considerable growth of the older population due to rising life expectancy and the extent of the aging population is even likely to ascend in future. Older adults’ main concerns do not only regard effects of physical aging but also the experience of age-related memory loss. This entails increasing need in understanding age-related cognitive changes and developing procedures to remain mentally healthy and fit. The symptom of memory impairment is not simply restricted to dementing diseases but can even be observed in healthy old individuals (Ofen & Shing, 2013). Most older adults report that their ability to learn new information or to remember past experiences has become worse with age (Stokes, 1992). However, there is ample evidence showing that age-related memory changes are not uniform and that memory loss is not an inevitable consequence of aging. On the one hand inter-individual differences in the extent of cognitive changes in old age are large and on the other hand aging does not affect all forms of cognitive processes equally, causing deterioration in some memory aspects whereas others remain (relatively) spared (see Nyberg, Lövdén, Riklund, Lindenberger, & Bäckman, 2012, for a review). One major aim in cognitive neuroscience of aging is to determine which memory processes are predominantly affected by aging and which remain preserved across lifespan and to identify the neural bases of cognitive decline and stability. A resultant endeavor further is to examine whether age-related memory differences can be alleviated by providing cognitive support. Past research has shown that particularly executive functions and episodicmemory are susceptible to the effects of aging (Nyberg et al., 2012). Within the present thesis, the effects of aging on episodicmemory processes and implications of cognitive support on older adults’ memory performance are investigated. These broad issues are specified in detail in the subsequent sections of this thesis. To begin with, episodicmemory functions as part of the declarative long-term memory are described.
This study of episodicmemory focused on subjects who had suffered disturbances of consciousness, paying no attention to aetiology, lesion size or location. The study aimed at accumulating evidence in support of the concept of episodicmemory in a different geographical setting, and further to establish if episodicmemory was affected following disorders of consciousness. Despite our present knowledge on memory systems, tests are rarely carried out to assess episodicmemory following brain lesions or diminished level of consciousness but are routinely carried to establish semantic memory. This is probably due to the fact that semantic memory is easier to assess as it contains facts about world that can be memorized and then tested by asking the subject to recall information previously given to him. Episodicmemory on the other hand, contains information about the past that is personal, and which cannot be learned by heart.
3&4&567(8%'9#''%:4((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((01/( One question to be addressed in this context concerns the factors that influence which retrieval strategy is most beneficial for performance in a given source memory paradigm. It has been argued that a strategy which relies on assessing whether or not it is possible to recollect information about one class of information is beneficial for making binary source judgments, because a failure in recollection can be used as a basis for accurate judgments (Wilding & Herron, 2006). In fact, the idea of evaluating only those characteristics that are maximally diagnostic for the relevant judgment is central to the cognitive framework of source monitoring presented in Chapter 1 (Johnson et al., 1993). Supporting evidence comes from ERP data showing that focusing retrieval on only one form of episodic content can benefit memory judgments, presumably because the quality of information recovered is greater than when information from multiple sources is being monitored (Bridger, Elward, Herron, & Wilding, 2009). Selective retrieval strategies of this kind have been proposed to be abandoned only in cases when the targeted class of memory is insufficiently available (Herron & Rugg, 2003b) or when encoding conditions are not sufficiently elaborative (Herron & Wilding, 2005). In addition, selective retrieval processing has been assumed to rely on individual resources available for cognitive inhibitory control (Elward & Wilding, 2010).
avoided (by using more than one cue per task and changing the cue even when the task repeats) – and we note that, both in the PEP model and in the empirical data it simulates, omitting cue repetitions decisively changes the balance of switch costs attributable to “feature integration” (S/R-rep effects) vs. “task-set con- trol” in favour of the latter. Given the large (and growing) number of task-cueing studies where the switch cost (and its reduction) has been measured without repeating cues, we wonder if the far-reaching conclusion that “These feature integration biases are the primary means via which the PEP model explains task switch- ing behaviour, rather than task-set control” might be premature. After all, the model’s “episodicmemory” can only learn about repetitions (e.g., of cues) if there are such repetitions in the first place.
The present study allowed for a secondary line of questioning focusing on controlled versus automatic retrieval operations. Controlled retrieval processes were necessary to overcome the mismatch between retrieval cue and encoded information in the different context condition (novel context and target); in the same context condition (original context and target), automatic retrieval was sufficient to complete recognition. Differential parietal areas were expected to be active during retrieval in the different context condition compared to retrieval in the same context condition as predicted by the AtoM model (Attention-to- Memory Model; Ciaramelli et al., 2008). Confirming this hypothesis, the parietal clusters found in an interaction effect between retrieval tests indicate top-down attention to memory in the different context condition (controlled retrieval). The same contrast yielded additional data indicating a difference in activity patterns within cortical connectivity networks. For controlled retrieval, areas associated with the central executive network (CEN; Eckert et al., 2009; Menon & Uddin, 2010) including the bilateral AIC were preferentially active. Although, memory retrieval processes are commonly associated with activity in the default mode network (DMN; Menon & Uddin, 2010; Raichle et al., 2001; Maguire, 2001a), under certain circumstances the CEN may have aided retrieval when the presented retrieval cue did not lead to automatic recovery of the encoded information. In accordance with cortical connectivity research, the synopsis of all available data of the present study suggested that automatic retrieval was accomplished by the DMN, while controlled retrieval depended on CEN processing. The CEN is but one of two attentional networks (Eckert et al., 2009). The second attentional network – the salience network – is active depending on the personal salience of stimuli (Seeley et al., 2007). A core area of the salience network is represented by the AIC, with AIC activity preferentially found for controlled retrieval. Sridharan et al. (2008) suggested that the AIC also causes the switch between DMN and CEN. The present study found CEN activity in the different context condition, while DMN activity was acquired in the same context condition for retrieval success, respectively. As a result, this study demonstrated that for episodicmemory retrieval the switch associated with the AIC occurred depending on the retrieval cue presented.
these asymmetric recalls as a self-deception strategy motivated by self-image concerns. This finding is consistent with previous theoretical and empirical studies on motivated memory revealing an asymmetric recall of feedback depending on whether individuals receive good or bad news about their relative performance (Bénabou and Tirole, 2002; Gottlieb, 2014; Li, 2017; Chew et al., 2018; Zimmermann, 2018). More generally, it contributes to the literature showing that individuals have motivated cognitive limitations even in the absence of risk and uncertainty (Exley and Kessler, 2018), selective memory being one of these self-serving biases. We complement the previous studies on motivated memory by showing that individuals also use selective memory in social interactions (the only previous evidence came from Li, 2013) and by revealing the crucial role of personal responsibility in this process. Indeed, the asymmetric recalls that we identified are no longer observed when decisions are made at random by the program. Moreover, our study shows that incentivizing correct recalls increases the percentage of dictators’ correct recalls when they chose the altruistic option but has no effect when they chose the selfish option. This suggests that when dictators are given a monetary incentive to provide a memory effort, they allocate this effort to retrieve the memory of desirable rather than undesirable information in terms of image. Like Zimmermann (2018), we interpret the fact that incentives generate more accurate recalls as evidence against complete forgetting. Individuals selectively suppress bad news (in the case of Zimmermann, 2018) or selectively retrieve good news (in our case).
Today, there is little doubt concerning the signi ﬁcance of sleep for memory consolidation. Some studies have suggested, however, that overnight memory consolidation as well as their underpinning neural mechanisms might be modulated by general cognitive abilities. In this paper, we used a more speci ﬁc trait measure of declarative word-pair encoding ef ﬁciency, namely “baseline memory performance (BMP).” We explored its relation to consolidation and stabilization of declarative memories overnight as well as its relationship to sleep mechanisms. We included healthy subjects and insomnia patients from two studies with slightly differing demands on declarative memory. In the ﬁrst study, an insomnia sample (N = 21) performed a declarative word-pair association task with pre- and post-sleep retrieval sessions and recorded 8 hr of nocturnal sleep following learning. In the second study, insomnia (N = 24) as well as sex-and-age-matched control (N = 29) subjects underwent a similar task but with an additional interference and time delay manipulation. Based on their encoding ef ﬁciency in the evening, all three study samples were split into good (BMP+) and moderate (BMP −) learners. Although not each subsample reached statistical signiﬁcance, we observed – across all three samples – a pattern of only BMP− forgetting overnight and BMP+ showing enhanced activity and density of sleep spindles. Our ﬁndings suggest that – independent of the exact study design and subjective sleep complaint – exclusively participants with high BMP seem to be able to eliminate forgetting over sleep which may be related to stronger “ofﬂine” replay.
The protocol consisted of three nights of baseline sleep, seven nights of sleep manipulation, and three nights of recovery sleep. Memory performance was assessed by a declarative learning task (40 word pairs). Besides ma- nipulating time in bed, the authors further investigated different learning strategies: word pairs were either pre- sented over four consecutive days (i.e., spaced items), or all at once during one single study session (i.e., massed items), with total study time kept constant across condi- tions. Recall performance was examined 0 h, 24 h, and 120 h after all items were studied. In general, recall of massed items was impaired by a greater amount in ado- lescents exposed to sleep restriction. In contrast, cued re- call performance on spaced items was similar between sleep groups. These findings demonstrate the importance of combining good study strategies as well as good sleep habits to optimize memory outcomes. A further way to experimentally manipulate memory consolidation during sleep is called “targeted memory reactivation,” which has been described, e.g., by Rasch and colleagues [ 20 ] (2007) in adults. They found that presenting odor cues during learning of object locations in a declarative task (2D object-location) and re-presenting the same odor cues during slow wave sleep improves memory consolidation. These findings were recently replicated in a field study in a regular school setting investigating children aged be- tween 10 and 11 years [ 21 ••]. Their results replicate pre-
breaks and/or regime switching (e.g., Diebold and Inoue (2001), Perron (1989), Per- ron and Qu (2007), Davidson and Sibbertsen (2005), Granger and Ding (1996)) unit roots (e.g., Hall (1978), Nelson and Plosser (1982), Perron (1988), Phillips (1987)), learning dynamics (e.g., Alfarano and Lux (2005), Chevillon and Mavroeidis (2011)), nonlinearity (e.g., Chen, Hansen, and Carrasco (2010), Miller and Park (2010)), as well as other mechanisms (e.g., Parke (1999), Calvet and Fisher (2002)). While these approaches all identify plausible mechanisms generating a long memory behavior, the search for a simple structural explanation for long memory is still actively ongoing (especially for the popular “fractionally integrated” processes). The goal of this paper is to identify a new, diﬀerent and arguably more universal mechanism.
But there is yet another dimension to this story to which we must attend. It is more about audiences than about origins, and although not of fundamental significance, it still is part of the story of why so many people are talking about memory today. In the West, one important precondition of the memory boom has been affluence. In a nutshell, overall economic growth and the expansion of the service sector since World War II have helped shift to the right the demand curve for cultural commodities. In the history of this rising demand, higher education has played a central role. Since the 1960s there has been a rapid expansion in the population of university-trained people whose education provided them with access to and a desire for cultural activities of varying kinds. In Britain, for instance, the number of university students expanded very rapidly after the Robbins report of 1963, granting the right to free higher education to all who could pass entrance requirements. In 1962 there were 216,000 full-time university students: 118,000 in universities; 55,000 in teacher training; and 43,000 in technical colleges. By 1990 the numbers had risen to 650,000 full-time students: 340,000 in university and 310,000 in colleges of further education. To be sure, during the Thatcher years, changes in university funding upgraded many polytechnics into universities in one fell swoop. But however tertiary sector education was defined, there were at least three times as many people studying in institutions of higher education in 1990 as had been three decades before.
International communication between states is important for understanding the motivations behind the proposal for a new memory law in Poland – a bill that would punish with prison sentences and fines the use of the term ‘Polish death camps’ to designate the German Nazi concentration camps and death camps that operated on the occupied territory of Poland. The law’s proponents argue that introducing the risk of criminal sanctions could help to eradicate ‘defective memory codes’. According to the current Law and Justice government, the diplomatic and educational efforts of previous Polish administrations did not lead to satisfactory change in this regard. The proposal aims to eradicate statements inconsistent with the documented historical truth, and it is justified as a tool for fighting
Tomlinson et al. (2014) found that participants were less accurate during a verbal version of the Sternberg task if a trial was preceded by a stimulation of the right cerebellar hemisphere. Moreover, patients with right-sided cerebellar lesions have been found to be impaired in verbal memory, whereas patients with left cerebellar lesions turned out to be slower in a visuospatial task ( Hokkanen et al., 2006 ). All these findings suggest a lateralized function of the cerebellum with its right hemisphere contributing mainly to verbal and its left hemisphere to visuospatial processing. Moreover, a meta-analysis ( Stoodley and Schmahmann, 2009 ) analyzing cerebellum neuroimaging studies found that regions involved in vWM studies overlap with those involved in language tasks which is in agreement with domain-specific storage modules as in Baddeley’s model. It corroborates the idea that vWM is more right-lateralized with a strong activation occurring mostly at the junction lobule VI/Crus I. Our results showing a significantly stronger activation in the right cerebellum (crus I) support this hypothesis. A case study of a right cerebellar hemispherectomy in an 18-years-old patient reported that the patient suffered from a disproportionate impairment of the rehearsal system, while the phonological store was preserved ( Silveri et al., 1998 ). This could be due to anatomical connections between Broca’s area, left SMA, right lobule VI and crus I of the cerebellum ( Schmahmann, 1991 ). However, in the present meta-analysis, we did not differentiate between those processes and, thus, we cannot further investigate whether the right cerebellum is mainly involved in rehearsal. Still, our analysis provides clear evidence for the relevance of the right cerebellum, especially crus I, in the context of vWM processing. Further studies disentangling the different vWM processes are warranted to elucidate the specific function of the right cerebellum in vWM.
The strategy of Kuhn’s book consists of reflecting on the relation of memory and pictures by following her personal associations brought about by a comparatively small number of pictures. By stating what these particular pictures mean to her she tries to work out how photographs relate to memory in general. This approach to a theory of photography likens her project to the more prominent one Roland Barthes pursued in La Chambre Claire (1981). When trying to tie down the essence of photography, Barthes likewise starts out from specific pictures and tries to figure out how and what they mean to him. He records the idiosyncratic associations that spring to his mind when he looks at certain photographs – yet, he chooses journalistic and art photo- graphs by renowned photographers, not photographs from his own past culled from his private family album. Still, in stark contrast to Kuhn, Barthes insists on the absolute individuality of his associations. He cherishes photo- graphy precisely because it permits him to leave his cultural background be- hind, since the photographic image itself refers to reality without any inter- vention of psychology or culture. Exempt from the generalizations of cultural coding, photography, he contends, may lay the foundations for a science of the absolutely singular (cf. Barthes 1981: 6–9). This appears in particular in the second part of Camera Lucida which is haunted by a photograph of the author’s recently deceased mother as a little girl. Strangely enough it is this picture that in Barthes’ eyes captures his mother’s essence, her complete per- sonality, finally showing “the truth of the face I had loved” (Barthes 1981: 67). 4 To signal that this recognition is purely personal the photo itself is ex-