Laghai und Joseph (2000) bestätigten die Ergebnisse von Katz und Campbell (1994): Sie benutzten den „NEO Five Factor Inventory“ (NEO-FFI; Costa & McCrae, 1992) in einer simultanen Regressionsanalyse, um Werte für die „Attitudes towards EmotionalExpression Scale“ (AEE; Joseph et al., 1994) und um zum Vergleich Werte für den AEQ vorherzusagen. Zusammen klären die fünf Dimensionen des NEO-FFI 19 % der Varianz des AEQ auf. Höhere Werte im AEQ, welche für mehr Konflikte im Ausdruck von Emotionen sprechen, gehen mit höheren Neurotizismuswerten einher (r = .42, p < .001; Laghai & Joseph, 2000). Dieses Ergebnis gibt Hinweise auf einen starken Zusammenhang zwischen Neurotizismus und Emotionaler Ambivalenz und lässt Überschneidungen zwischen beiden Merkmalen vermuten.
However, if deep acting is shown by service providers, in other words, if sincerity is demonstrated, then clients seem to expect to establish rapport with service providers. In addition, rapport between service providers and clients influences client satisfaction, and if deep acting is shown from service providers, client satisfaction is derived and mediated by rapport. In other words, it seems that clients hope to form pleasurable relationships with their doctors and a sense of bonding. In the case of hypothesis 4 in our study, rapport formed with service providers was found to fully mediate client satisfaction. Considering these remarks, demonstrating sincere behavior to clients may result in their general satisfaction. Thus, Hospitals should not only emphasize the quality improvement of health care services offered but also the management of human resources. That is, if doctors and nurses are required to be trained as accurately recognizing the emotionalexpression rules suggested by hospitals and conducting behaviors with sincerity to clients, overall client satisfaction should increase.
Typically, emotions begin with the individual conscious or unconscious assessment of the personal meaning (appraisal) of some antecedent event (La- zarus, 1991). Thus, which emotions are experienced by teachers depends upon their appraisals of classroom situations. These appraisals are influenced by their individual goals and expectations, personal resources and previous experience (Sutton, 2007). Teachers’ expectations regarding their own work are often unre- alistically high, such as being prepared for and reacting effectively to every dis- ciplinary issue, being able to motivate any student for schoolwork or being fully responsible for students’ academic achievement (Gordon, 1997). These expecta- tions often refer to their emotion experience and expression, as well and some- times even including opposing convictions regarding which emotions should appear, when or how. Hosotani and Imai-Matsumura (2011) have identified two “ideal teacher” images appearing in teacher’s expectations, namely the calm and the emotionally expressive teacher. In the first case, the teacher believes that any unpleasant emotion in the classroom is inappropriate, and thus refrains from its expression. The ideal of the calm teacher who excludes unpleasant emo- tions can lead to emotion suppression and be a source of subsequent unpleasant emotions, e.g., feeling guilty because of experiencing anger. On the other hand, the teacher who believes in the “emotionally expressive teacher ideal” always tries to express all emotions and uses them to evoke emotions in children. This ideal image can be a source of unpleasant emotions to teachers as well, since the ideal criteria cannot always be reached. “Ideal teacher” images are mostly a con- sequence of expectations of the social environment, including colleagues, stu- dents’ parents, school management, school politics, cultural setting, etc. (e.g., Hosotani & Imai-Matsumura, 2011; Schutz et al., 2007; Zembylas, 2004, 2005).
Based on various features mentioned by , we preselected three An- imation Datasets (𝐴𝐷𝑠) per Emotion from Adobe’s Mixamo . These emotional expressions were then validated (cp. ) in our perception study, to find the 𝐴𝐷 which presents the respective emotion best.
comparison of displays w.r.t. PS perceptions allows us to gain a first insight on how the displays impact the users’ distance perception and thus their comfort. 1 Finally, to link to common psychological studies, we added a desktop-based, third-person 𝑆𝑎𝑚𝑝𝑙𝑒 task with the same stimuli as used in the VR settings, evaluating one lateral Direction per Emotion. By this, we evaluate the generalizability of the results. The main contribution of this work is thus a deepened investiga- tion of a user’s PS adaptations in response to whole-body emotional expressions of an approaching individual. The insights gained here will enhance the VAs’ human-like actions and reactions required in social VR applications by improving their proxemic behavior design.
Hochschild (1983) categorized the work undertaken by firms’ employees, and sold to customers, into three different types that create profits for firms and earn employees’ a salary by coordination of labor; physical (the mind and body), mental (mind), and emotional (proper public emotionalexpression). Specifically, emotional labor is defined as “ …the management of feeling to create a publicly observable facial and bodily display; emotional labor is sold for a wage and therefore has exchange value…” (Hochschild, 1983: 7). The meaning of emotional labor varies according to research in different fields. For instance, Ashforth and Humphrey (1993) argue that emotional labor is “ the act of displaying the appropriate emotion” (p.90), while the act is “ conforming to a display rule” (p.96). They emphasize the employees’ actual behavior that is observable and that fits the emotional display regulations set out by service organizations. Grandey (2000) integrated previous works and emotion regulation theory, specifying emotional labor as “ the process of regulating both feelings and expressions for organizational goals” p.97). In other words, the procedure of adjusting emotions becomes more dominant than personal feeling management or real behavior. Emotional labor is the impression management whereby service employees change their displayed emotions on purpose, according to the job needs, when they interact with customers. Other researchers are interested in the extent of the influence that
Figure 3: Structures for the processing of emotional faces. The three rectangles with beveled edges indicate the core system for face perception, areas shaded in yellow represent regions involved in the processing of identity, areas in red show regions involved in emotion analysis, and those in blue reflect the fronto-parietal cortical network involved in spatial attention. Solid lines indicate cortical pathways, dashed lines represent the subcortical route for rapid and coarse emotionalexpression processing. Source: (Palermo & Rhodes, 2006).
Figure 1. User Interaction in the EmoEmma Demonstrator. 2. RELATIONSHIP TO PREVIOUS WORK Several Interactive Storytelling systems to date have incorporated natural language interaction, whether the underlying paradigm was one of complete user involvement  or user influence . There is no previous report of large vocabulary speech-based system within IS, outside a strong context, generally task- oriented, such as the Mission Rehearsal Exercise (MRE)   or Justine . This is easily explained by the difficulties of speech understanding. The case of written interaction is slightly different and has been part of FearNot!  or Façade . In Fearnot! written input was interpreted in terms of speech acts used to influence or comfort the virtual agent. Façade adopted a theatre-like environment heavily based on dialogue, which maintained user interest high, through a strong integration of narrative representations to dialogue acts. Emotional Planning has been originally described by Gratch  as based on emotional activation assessing threats to goal satisfaction during planning, which was later refined through the introduction of appraisal and coping . More relevant to our context, they have described the use of emotions to alter beliefs . The role of emotions in interactive narrative has also been discussed by Rank and Petta . This has been primarily used in Interactive Storytelling applications, although not strictly speaking on those for which narrative was the main focus. Applications such as MRE or
8 Spyros Avdimiotis
This research draws its focus on emotional intelligence, seeking to understand the association with tacit knowledge transfer and acquisition. Findings supported the initial hypotheses that Emotional Intelligence is positively associated with Tacit Knowledge Management, indicating that both elements are closely associated with employees’ behavioral patterns. Indeed, Mayer and Salovey’s model factors of perception, facilitation, understanding and emotional management have an enormous impact on employees’ behavior and routines which according to aforementioned researchers, construct the main route of tacit knowledge transfer. In more details, emotional perception which indicates the ability to identify emotions, to express them accurately has a strong positive connection with Nonaka and Takeuchi’s factors of Socialization and Internalization and a medium with Externalization. Also, the factor of emotional facilitation which demonstrates the ability to redirect and prioritize feelings, generate emotions to facilitate judgment, problem-solving and creativity also has a positive connection with the factors of Socialization and Internalization; Likewise, the factors of emotional understanding referring to the ability to understand the status and consequences of relationships and interpret complex feelings and the factor of emotional management which describes the ability to handle relationships and emotions have also strong positive association with the factors of Socialization, Internalization and Externalization as well. Hence, it could be argued that the tight connection of Emotional Intelligence with the factors of Nonaka and Takeuchi Knowledge Transfer Model indicate the significance
gap (Cornwell et al., 2013, Jacob, 2002). Education literature supports this claim showing that problems of boys are correlated with low intrinsic motivation and disinterest in school (Gorard et al., 1999, Houtte, 2004).
To explore aforementioned questions, we split the dataset by gender and per- formance (Table 4). Modern teaching practices have significant and positive effects for both genders but girls benefit significantly more from standard practices than boys (Panel A, B). Boys are in case of intrinsic motivation and self-confidence even harmed by usage of standard practices (Panel B). For girls, coefficients of standard practice indices are smaller or the same as coefficients of modern practice indices. When we look at girls divided by the mean test score, the effects are driven solely by high-achieving girls. When we divide boys in the same way we see no difference. It suggests that high-achieving girls receive socio-emotional "boost" from standard practices in science subjects and math. Therefore, increase in modern teaching practices may help boys without hurting girls. On the other hand, this result may be specific for science and math and does not have to hold in other subjects.
emotional arousing, pleasant, or unpleasant pictures is asso- ciated with increased cortical responses in the visual system (Lang et al., 1998). Studies using event‐related potentials typically report distinctions between motivationally signifi- cant and neutral visual stimuli within mid‐latency and late time‐intervals. Strongest differences are usually found within the so called Late Positive Potential (LPP) starting around 300 ms after picture onset with a widely distributed positive deflection at centro‐parietal sensors (e.g. see Schupp, Flaisch, Stockburger, & Junghöfer, 2006; Olofsson, Nordin, Sequeira, & Polich, 2008 for reviews). The LPP is preceded by a neg- ative event‐related potential deflection (Early Posterior Negativity, EPN) over temporal‐occipital regions and has been described in response to various visual emotional stim- uli such as scenes (e.g. Junghöfer, Bradley, Elbert, & Lang, 2001), faces (e.g. Schupp et al., 2004), or words (Kissler, Herbert, Peyk, & Junghofer, 2007). EPN onset depends on paradigm and stimulus material and can vary between 130 and 200 ms.
transfer and acquisition. Findings supported the initial hypotheses that Emotional Intelligence is positively associated with Tacit Knowledge Management, indicating that both elements are closely associated with employees’ behavioral patterns. Indeed, Mayer and Salovey’s model factors of perception, facilitation, understanding and emotional management have an enormous impact on employees’ behavior and routines which according to aforementioned researchers, construct the main route of tacit knowledge transfer. In more details, emotional perception which indicates the ability to identify emotions, to express them accurately has a strong positive connection with Nonaka and Takeuchi’s factors of Socialization and Internalization and a medium with Externalization. Also, the factor of emotional facilitation which demonstrates the ability to redirect and prioritize feelings, generate emotions to facilitate judgment, problem-solving and creativity also has a positive connection with the factors of Socialization and Internalization; Likewise, the factors of emotional understanding referring to the ability to understand the status and consequences of relationships and interpret complex feelings and the factor of emotional management which describes the ability to handle relationships and emotions have also strong positive association with the factors of Socialization, Internalization and Externalization as well. Hence, it could be argued that the tight connection of Emotional Intelligence with the factors of Nonaka and Takeuchi Knowledge Transfer Model indicate the significance for management to focus on emotions and employees’ behavior and adopt new strategies –shifting orientation to the subjects and not merely the object- to re- establish knowledge transfer techniques taking under
the shape of proteins. As soon as the immune system produces neutralising antibodies, the target proteins have changed sufficiently to avoid antibody binding (MODROW et al. 2003). Nevertheless, studies of protecting vaccines against SIV indicate that antibody-mediated protection is possible (DESROSIERS et al. 1989). Sera from individuals infected with HIV have been analysed extensively for the presence of neutralising antibodies. Five human monoclonal antibodies 4E10 (STIEGLER et al. 2001), 1b12 (BURTON et al. 1994), F105 (POSNER et al. 1991), 2G12 (TRKOLA et al. 1996) and 2F5 (PURTSCHER et al. 1994) have been isolated out of the serum of inapparent patients and were found to be capable of neutralising a broad range of primary B-clade HIV isolates, however high titre are required for this protection (MASCOLA et al. 1997; LI et al. 1998; PARREN et al. 1999). Their epitopes include regions on gp41 (2F5 and 4E10), the CD4-binding site of gp120 (1b12) and parts of the carbohydrate moiety of gp120 (2G12; reviewed in CALARESE et al. 2003). Work in this thesis focused on the neutralising antibodies 2F5 and 2G12, which were generated and characterised by a team led by Hermann Katinger (TRKOLA et al. 1996). The neutralising antibody 2F5 of the isotype IgG3 was switched to an IgG1 by ligation of the 2F5 V H to an IgG1 constant region, since this isotype is known for longer half-live in humans (KUNERT et al. 2000). Both antibodies are produced by recombinant expression in Chinese
The present study was formulated to determine emotional health in working couples of Gorgan city in 2010.Samples were selected via cluster sampling method after deriving the statistical facts about working males and females in Gorgan City and finally, 100 people (50 couples) were selected. Bar- On questionnaire was selected to measure emotional intelligence due to comprehensiveness, simplicity, and conformity to Iranian culture. The collected data were subjected to descriptive statistics (mean and standard deviation) in SPSS Software. Then, the data were analyzed through inferential statistics. The results obtained from the present study showed that there is no significant difference in emotional intelligence of working females (1.995) compared to their working husbands (1.960).
Emotional responses for the aversive film night were com- pared using repeated measures analyses of variance (ANOVAs) including the factor time (pre- vs. postsleep) and scene valence (negative vs. neutral film scenes) for psychophysiological varia- bles DSCL and DcEMG with follow-up paired sample t tests. For self-reported emotional responses (arousal, valence), we could not differentiate between negative and neutral film scenes; there- fore, we only used the factor time (pre- vs. postsleep). The same analyses—with only the factor time (pre- vs. postsleep)—were used to examine physiological (DSCL, DcEMG) and self- reported responses (arousal, valence) for the neutral film night. We used Pearson correlations to assess whether between- participant differences in late-night REM sleep were related to changes in emotional reactivity from pre- to postsleep. Following the approach of Baran et al. (2012), we focused specifically on REM sleep in the third and fourth quarters of the night (i.e., REM duration in minutes within the third and fourth quarters of the individual’s total sleep time). We concentrated on late-night REM sleep because REM sleep is much more prominent in this part of the night compared to the first half of the night (Carska- don & Dement, 2005), enhancing signal-to-noise ratio for exam- ining REM-related hypotheses. Furthermore, this is consistent with the previous literature since many studies only refer to amounts of late-night REM sleep, sometimes separately for the third and fourth quarters of the night (REM3, REM4; Baran et al., 2012; Groch, Wilhelm, Diekelmann, & Born, 2013; Wag- ner, Fischer, & Born, 2002; Wagner, Gais, & Born, 2001). In sec- ondary, more explorative analyses, the relationships of emotional processing with further REM-related parameters like overall REM duration, REM latency (defined as time from falling asleep until the first REM period), awakenings in REM sleep, and arousal index in REM sleep (defined as number of arousals in REM sleep, i.e., sudden frequency shifts toward faster rhythms like theta, alpha, beta, but not spindle activity, that shortly inter- rupt sleep continuity for at least 3 s, divided by REM sleep time; Iber et al., 2007) were also computed.
Die Bearbeitung der drei Aufgabenstellungen erfolgt in jeweils vier Durchgängen mit jeweils 30 Wörtern. Im ersten Teil waren Farbwörter, unabhängig von der Schriftfarbe vorzulesen. Danach folgte im zweiten Durchlauf das Darstellen von Farbrechtecken, welche als Reiz fungierten. Im dritten Durchlauf waren die einzelnen Wörter (ausschließlich gelb, rot, blau, grün) in unterschiedlicher Schrift geschrieben (GELB, BLAU, GRÜN, ROT) und die Aufgabe der Probanden bestand darin, das Wort als solches in seiner Bedeutung zu ignorieren (zu hemmen) und stattdessen die Farbe zu nennen, in welcher es geschrieben war. Der letzte Teil stellte eine besondere Variante des Farb-Wort-Interferenz-Testes, den so genannten „emotional Stroop-Test“ dar, welcher die Beziehung zwischen emotionalen und kognitiven Prozessen untersucht. In diesem Durchgang bestand die Aufgabe der Probanden darin, die Farbe zu nennen in denen die jeweiligen Worte geschrieben waren. Dabei handelte es sich nunmehr um Sachworte und nicht, wie in den vorangegangenen Durchgängen, um reine Farbworte. Es erfolgte eine Unterteilung der Wörter in vier affektiv gefärbte Gruppen; paranoide Worte (Verfolgung, Apparat, Verdacht), depressive (Angst, kläglich, wertlos), in positive (Glück, Erfolg, Sonne) und neutrale Wörter (Pullover, Seife, Ferien). Die zu Grunde liegende Frage bezieht sich auf die Veränderung der Reaktionszeit in Abhängigkeit von der emotionalen Bedeutung des Wortes.
performance for gist, but not for peripheral information (Reisberg & Hertel, 2004). Thus, the P300 is solely caused by the background pictures; there is no contribution of context updating elicited by the words. Consequently, there is also no P300-recall relationship for the recalled words. It appears that the recall- predicting part of the P300 can only be added by integral items. It is conceivable that a P300-recall-relationship would be seen if subjects were required to recall the content of the emotional background task. In this way, the emotional content would be an integral part and a gist of the encoding material. However, this assumption cannot be tested by the present study, because recall performance to the emotional background pictures was not acquired. Second, words with Arousing Background might be transferred into working memory, but are instantly overwritten by the arousing picture content. This would predict a memory performance for the Arousing Background condition that is even lower than for non-isolated words which was not the case. The third explanation is based on the earlier finding that subjects do not show a VR-effect in behavioral data and no P300-recall relationship in the ERPs when they were instructed to use an elaborative rather than a rote rehearsal strategy to encode word stimuli (Fabiani, Karis, & Donchin, 1990; Karis, Fabiani, & Donchin, 1984). To some extent, this finding is similar to the results presented here. Since a P300-recall- relationship is not seen when subjects refrain from rote strategies, I assume that arousing context could interrupt the rehearsal strategy normally used in simple memory tasks.
Next, facial emotion recognition, or FER for short, is another vitally important component in recent HCI systems. In order to take non-verbal cues from facial emotions as humans, conventional FER systems usually consist of four main stages. First, in the pre-processing stage, noises are removed and meanwhile, the image sequence is enhanced. Second, in the face registration stage, the region of interest is registered, which could be either the whole face or parts of the face such as eyes and the mouth. Thereafter, the third stage is for face representation extraction where features can be extracted from the face with different approaches. Generally speak- ing, the approaches can be categorised into geometric-based versus appearance-based approaches, local versus holistic approaches, or static versus dynamic ones . In particular, in geometric-based methods, features are extracted to describes the fa- cial shape and activity by considering the location and deformation information of the facial components, whereas appearance-based paradigms simply encode textural information by using the intensity information of the images. Also, a variety of pop- ular representations have been studied in the community, including but not limited to Gabor filters, Histogram of Oriented Gradients (HOG), Landmark locations and distances, Local Binary Pattern from Three Orthogonal Planes (LBP-TOP), Local Phase Quantisation (LPQ), and Scale-Invariant Feature Transform (SIFT). Further discussion of the features applied in the thesis will be given in Section 4.2.1. Finally, in the fourth stage, similar to SER, various machine learning algorithms can be performed to model the emotional characteristics accordingly.