Embodied Cognition

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Embodied Cognition als Lehrparadigma in der Programmierausbildung

Embodied Cognition als Lehrparadigma in der Programmierausbildung

Dieser Beitrag stellt den aus der Kognitionswissenschaft stammenden Ansatz des Embodied Cognition vor und verargumentiert sein Potenzial für die Lehre und die Lehr-Lernforschung. Am Beispiel der hochschulischen Programmierausbildung wird aufgezeigt, wie ein kognitionswissenschaftlicher Ansatz zu einem didaktischen Instrument führt, der Graph-Metapher, welche die in der Programmierung übliche Objekt-Orientierung stringent vermittelbar und systematisch und schlüssig erklär- bar macht – dies vor allem auch in der Hinsicht, dass informatische Modellbildung und lebensweltliche Erfahrungen reflektiert und in ihren Unterschieden erkannt werden. Darüber hinaus wird eine theoretische Verortung im Neuen Realismus vor- gestellt, die der Lerntheorie des Kognitivismus als Paradigma eine etwas andere Fär- bung verleiht.
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Unconstraining theories of embodied cognition

Unconstraining theories of embodied cognition

Unconstraining Embodied Cognition 15 representations, or do some cognitive tasks require more symbolic, abstract representations? The latter position is taken by Markman and Brendl (2005). They claim that “perceptual and motor representations alone may not be sufficient to account for cognitive processing, because phenomena that at face value seem prime examples of lower-order perceptual and motor processing may nonetheless involve higher-order symbolic processing” (p. 10). The phenomenon addressed in their study is the approach/avoidance effect; the finding that valenced words automatically trigger approach or avoidance reactions. According to Markman and Brendl, their study demonstrates that approach/avoidance actions are not executed with respect to the body, but with respect to a symbolic, disembodied representation of the ‘self’. Although the representation of the self is usually located within the body, they argue that it is not necessarily tied to the body. Markman and Brendl tried to separate the representations of the self and the body, by presenting the participant’s name on the computer screen. They assumed that this manipulation induced participants to form a disembodied self- representation, located at the position of the name on the screen. As a result, they argued, participants demonstrated approach/avoidance effects with respect to their own name (the self). Participants responded faster when moving positive words toward their own name and negative words away from it, than when moving positive words away from their name and negative words toward it. Based on this finding, Markman and Brendl conclude that phenomena that have been put forward as prime examples of embodied processing, such as the approach/avoidance effect, may involve higher order symbolic representations. Theories of embodied cognition must specify how such higher order symbolic representations play a role in cognition.
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Evolutionary Musicology Meets Embodied Cognition: Biocultural Coevolution and the Enactive Origins of Human Musicality

Evolutionary Musicology Meets Embodied Cognition: Biocultural Coevolution and the Enactive Origins of Human Musicality

The debate over the origins and meaning of music for the human animal is one of the most fascinating areas of inquiry across the sciences and humanities. Despite the diversity of perspectives on offer, however, this field has traditionally been guided by approaches that see adaptation by natural selection as the central mechanism driving evolutionary processes ( Huron, 2001 ; for a discussion see Tomlinson, 2015 ). This extends to the brain, which is often understood as a computing machine that evolved to solve the kinds of problems faced by our prehistoric ancestors in their everyday lives (see Anderson, 2014 ). Importantly, this “adaptationist” orientation posits a rather strict separation between the products of natural selection (i.e., adaptations) and those of culture. Because of this, evolutionary musicologists have often been faced with something of a dichotomy: Music tends to be seen either as a naturally selected adaptation that has contributed directly to our survival as a species, or as a product of culture with little or no direct connection to our biological heritage (see van der Schyff, 2013a; Tomlinson, 2015; Killin, 2016a, 2017 ). Various arguments have emerged in support of each position (more on this below; see Pinker, 1997; Huron, 2001; Mithen, 2005; Patel, 2008; Honing et al., 2015 ). Moreover, the influence of the computational model of mind has tended to focus research and theory in music cognition toward a complex information-processing hierarchy limited to the brain ( Sloboda, 1985; Deutsch, 1999; Huron, 2006; Levitin, 2006 ). This is sometimes discussed in terms of discrete cognitive modules that have been naturally selected to perform specific tasks related to the survival of the species ( Fodor, 1983; Pinker, 1997; Coltheart, 1999 ), leading some scholars to postulate 1:1 mappings between anatomical brain regions and musical functions ( Peretz and Coltheart, 2003 ; cf. Altenmüller, 2001 ). While this research has indeed produced a number of important insights, it has arguably tended to downplay the role of the environmentally situated body in the development of musicality as a cognitive domain (see Clarke, 2005; Johnson, 2007 ).
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Optimizing Performative Skills in Social Interaction: Insights From Embodied Cognition, Music Education, and Sport Psychology

Optimizing Performative Skills in Social Interaction: Insights From Embodied Cognition, Music Education, and Sport Psychology

The wide range of examples provided here shows how new possibilities for action can be  developed and negotiated in real time as a performance unfolds. Unidirectional forms of learning are then traded for more dynamical “explorations” of the different possibilities for action emerging from the interactions and from the affordances of the environment (see Schiavio and Cummins, 2015; Schiavio, 2016). Here, it appears that “forms of flexible and adaptive actions which are clearly not the product of deliberation or explicit reflection can nonetheless be  best understood as involving certain sorts of (dynamic, embodied) intelligence” (Sutton et al., 2011, p. 78). The experience of performing with one or more other individuals cannot be  reduced to a simple “mindless” response to an external perturbation. It emerges from, and sustains, the ongoing interactive coupling; it brings together emotional, bodily, and cultural aspects that may not be present in individual contexts; it is continuous with a wide range of unique metabolic and neural processes; and gives multiple agents shared responsibilities (e.g., the maintenance of the interaction) among others. As the joint activity unfolds, different behavioral trajectories are developed, with a shared horizon of meaningful possibilities for novel (inter)actions being co-created. This embodied dynamicity helps eschew the dichotomy between behavioral and reflective domains and, at the same time, shifts the unit of analysis from the individual to the group. Here, what is meaningful becomes what is shared. On this view, skills are “relational” in the sense that they are shared and negotiated by a community of practice, and developed and experienced contextually. The move can be particularly useful to differentiate
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Embodied cognition and its implications for the educational system

Embodied cognition and its implications for the educational system

Deleuze’s experimentalism is based on embodiment, the concrete, and facilities, rather than idealism, the abstract, and the universal (Jaarsma, 2005, p. In order to create knowledge, we[r]

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Gutenberg Open Science: Embodied prediction

Gutenberg Open Science: Embodied prediction

Versions of the “predictive brain” hypothesis rank among the most promising and the most conceptually challenging visions ever to emerge from computational and cognitive neuroscience. In this paper, I briefly introduce (section 1 ) the most rad- ical and comprehensive of these visions—the account of “active inference”, or “ac- tion-oriented predictive processing” ( Clark 2013a ), developed by Karl Friston and colleagues. In section 2 , I isolate and discuss four of the framework’s most provoc- ative claims: (i) that the core flow of information is top-down, not bottom-up, with the forward flow of sensory information replaced by the forward flow of prediction error; (ii) that motor control is just more top-down sensory prediction; (iii) that ef- ference copies, and distinct “controllers”, can be replaced by top-down predic- tions; and (iv) that cost functions can fruitfully be replaced by predictions. Work- ing together, these four claims offer a tantalizing glimpse of a new, integrated framework for understanding perception, action, embodiment, and the nature of human experience. I end (section 3 ) by sketching what may be the most important aspect of the emerging view: its ability to embed the use of fast and frugal solu- tions (as highlighted by much work in robotics and embodied cognition) within an over-arching scheme that includes more structured, knowledge-intensive strategies, combining these fluently and continuously as task and context dictate.
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Are abstract action words embodied? An fMRI investigation at the interface between language and motor cognition

Are abstract action words embodied? An fMRI investigation at the interface between language and motor cognition

First of all, both concrete and abstract multi-word expres- sions activated the core areas of the sensorimotor neural network. Hence, this is in line with embodied cognition theories. The find- ing suggests that internal simulation results in the activation of sensorimotor representations, wherein the grounding is in the sensorimotor system for not only concrete but also for abstract language content. In order to show dissociative neural correlates, direct contrasts of pure concrete vs. mere abstract noun-verb combinations and vice versa were used. Concrete stimuli revealed adjacent activations to the sensorimotor system whereas abstract stimuli elicited pronounced activation of areas known to underlie lexical and phonological processing. Multiple representations like this in turn are predicted by embodied cognition theories includ- ing LASS and WAT proposals. Since both LASS and WAT rely on the idea that multiple representations are activated, both theories are compatible with the results we obtained.
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4E Objectivity. Reconceptualising legal objectivity according to the concept of embodied  embedded  enacted and extended cognition

4E Objectivity. Reconceptualising legal objectivity according to the concept of embodied embedded enacted and extended cognition

the legal discourse the implications of 4E Cognition on legal knowledge and legal objectivity have selectively been taken into account. Under the framework of the Cultural Cognition Project (CCP) at Yale University and the Project of Law and Mind Sciences (PLMS) at Harvard University, research has been undertaken on the influence of different political and cultural backgrounds on the evaluation and collection of evidence, as well as on the adjudication of professional judges and jurors. The PLMS deals more extensively with the embodiedness of legal knowledge by also taking into account “external factors” such as the influence of camera perspectives on the evaluation of video evidence, or the implications of the warmth or the architecture of a room on decision making processes. Particularly Adam Benfornado emphasised the need for more research on embodied cognition within the legal sciences. 21
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Are abstract action words embodied? An fMRI investigation at the interface between language and motor cognition

Are abstract action words embodied? An fMRI investigation at the interface between language and motor cognition

First of all, both concrete and abstract multi-word expres- sions activated the core areas of the sensorimotor neural network. Hence, this is in line with embodied cognition theories. The find- ing suggests that internal simulation results in the activation of sensorimotor representations, wherein the grounding is in the sensorimotor system for not only concrete but also for abstract language content. In order to show dissociative neural correlates, direct contrasts of pure concrete vs. mere abstract noun-verb combinations and vice versa were used. Concrete stimuli revealed adjacent activations to the sensorimotor system whereas abstract stimuli elicited pronounced activation of areas known to underlie lexical and phonological processing. Multiple representations like this in turn are predicted by embodied cognition theories includ- ing LASS and WAT proposals. Since both LASS and WAT rely on the idea that multiple representations are activated, both theories are compatible with the results we obtained.
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Physical activity, aging and cognition

Physical activity, aging and cognition

These changes are generally associated with aerobic exercise and endurance exercise. This confirms that the transmission of foodstuffs accompanied by the blood during exercise can improve neurogenesis and act as a useful tool for preventing the cognitive decline in adults’ population. Thus, it could be expected that aerobic exercise increases the rate of oxygen consumption in healthy older adults and enhances performance of cognition. Additionally, aerobic exercise can increase level of BDNF, an effective element for supporting the survival of existing neurons in some areas of the brain including hippocampus, medial temporal lobe, amygdala, frontal, prefrontal and parietal cortices. These are vital areas related to learning process, cognitive function, memory performance, and notably the long- term memory. Also, physical exercise can directly enhance synaptic plasticity by changing the synaptic structure and strength, thus, supports neurogenesis. One of the key mechanisms of exercise and physical activity on the brain is induction of growth factors, which plays an important role in structural and functional changes as well as neuroprotective effects in aging. However, our findings support that the participation in regular aerobic activities can help to preserve cognitive activity and decrease the risk of dementia in older adults’ population.
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Entrepreneurial Cognition: Three Essays on Entrepreneurial Behavior and Cognition Under Risk and Uncertainty

Entrepreneurial Cognition: Three Essays on Entrepreneurial Behavior and Cognition Under Risk and Uncertainty

Research in decision making and cognition has a long tradition in economics and management and represents a substantial stream of research in entrepreneurship. Risk and uncertainty are two characteristics of the decision environment. It has long been believed that entrepreneurs who need to make business judgments in such environments are less risk- and uncertainty-averse than non-entrepreneurs. However, this theoretical prediction has not been supported by empirical evidence. Instead, entrepreneurs have been found to be more susceptible to cognitive biases and heuristics. These cognitive mechanisms, which represent deviations from rational judgment, help entrepreneurs simplify their decision-making and carry out decisions in a timely manner. As a result, a growing stream of research in entrepreneurship focuses on the cognitive differences between entrepreneurs and non-entrepreneurs when faced with risk and uncertainty. The purpose of this dissertation is to contribute to this latter stream of research by examining how individuals differ in their cognition and behaviors in situations of risk and uncertainty in a controlled environment. More specifically, the dissertation explores how entrepreneurs and non- entrepreneurs differ in their behavioral susceptibility to prior outcomes, increasing degrees of risk, risk perception, and predictive information. The empirical analyses are based on data from a laboratory experiment that I designed and conducted in October 2014. Individuals participating in the experiment were selected based on their entrepreneurial intentions, with a high degree of comparability and a limited impact of prior entrepreneurial experience. The data include measures of behavior in situations of risk and uncertainty with real monetary incentives, risk perception, and a number of individual characteristics, including personality traits, cognitive biases, and demographics.
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Eine deutschsprachige Kurzskala zur Messung des Konstrukts Need for Cognition: Die Need for Cognition Kurzskala (NFC-K)

Eine deutschsprachige Kurzskala zur Messung des Konstrukts Need for Cognition: Die Need for Cognition Kurzskala (NFC-K)

Zur weiteren Validierung wurde zudem ein positiver Zusammenhang zwischen Deliberation und der NFC-K angenommen. Personen unterscheiden sich darin, wie sie Entscheidungen bevorzugt treffen. So gibt es zum einen Personen, die intuitive Entscheidungen präferieren; andere Personen wiederum bevorzugen den reflektiven Entscheidungsmodus. Letzterer wird auch als Deliberation bezeichnet und beschreibt Entscheidungspräferenzen, welche Kognitionen in Entscheidungen stärker miteinbeziehen (Betsch, 2004). Da das Konstrukt NFC die Freude an kognitiver Aktivität beinhaltet, wird ein Zusam- menhang mit der kognitionsbasierten Entscheidungspräferenz der Deliberation angenommen. Im Rahmen der Entwicklung des PID (Betsch, 2004), dem Inventar zur Erfassung von affekt- und kogniti- onsbasiertem Entscheiden, wurden Zusammenhänge zwischen der Subskala Need for Cognition des Rational-Experiential Inventory (REI, Epstein, et al., 1996) festgestellt. In der vorliegenden Arbeit wurde der Versuch unternommen, diesen Zusammenhang mit der NFC-K zu replizieren. Wie angenommen wurde eine signifikante Korrelation zwischen den beiden Konstrukten gefunden (r = .22; p < .001), in der gleichen Größenordnung wie mit der 16-Item-Form (r = .29; p < .001).
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Irreversible investment with embodied technological progress

Irreversible investment with embodied technological progress

Figure 21 shows the dynamics of the total stock of capital in the deterministic case. It exhibits the usual echoes effects. Since the optimal effective stock of capital is constant, the positive effect of the tax credit accumulates over time. Considering the total capital stock in a stochastic framework with disembodied technological progress, Figure 22 leads to a dynamics consistent with investment occurring infrequently and in bursts. Due to tax credits, the initial investment is higher. Since in this case technological progress reduces the energy requirements of all installed machines, the tax credit unambiguously results in higher initial investment and higher capital over the whole period. However, the positive effect of the credit tax is less striking when one takes into account the fact that technological progress is embodied in new machines. In fact, the effective total stock of capital is barely increased in the model of embodied technological progress under uncertainty (Figure 23); also note that firms leave their scrapping policy almost unchanged (Figures 25 and 27).
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CO2 Emissions Embodied in Austrian International Trade

CO2 Emissions Embodied in Austrian International Trade

A correlated issue of concern is related to climate protection agreements that have a limited geographic scope such as the Kyoto Protocol. Industries in countries with binding emission reduction targets have to compete with exports from countries without mandatory emission reductions. Due to the lower costs involved (through lower carbon prices due to absent pricing mechanisms), there is an incentive to shift carbon-intensive production to non- participant countries, an effect known as carbon leakage. Production relocations improve the competitiveness position of the relevant industry, and, at the same time, reduce the countries’ emission budget if carbon embodied in trade is not accounted for. Carbon leakage, however, could imply a rise in the international emission budget if production shifts address countries with less carbon efficient installations and, in particular, less stringent environmental legislation. This could put climate protection policies at risk. The effective scope of carbon leakage is not generally clear and depends on the case and, particularly, on the fuel mix to which the industry relocates. Knowledge on the energy intensity of
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Adolescent boys, embodied heteromasculinities and sexual violence

Adolescent boys, embodied heteromasculinities and sexual violence

During his reflexive deliberations about this situation, Zack (like Sam) developed and defined his major concern and what he cared about above all; to construct a heteromasculinity li[r]

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Embodied neurofeedback with an anthropomorphic robotic hand

Embodied neurofeedback with an anthropomorphic robotic hand

As stated above, in NF-MIT the motor percept is self-constructed by mental imagery whereas in MVF it is bottom-up induced by the sensory input. Whereas in MVF, much of the cognitive workload can be offloaded onto the mirror, more mental effort is required in NF-MIT 23 . Given the fact, that stroke-induced motor impairment seldom comes in isolation, but is typically accompanied by cognitive impairment 24 , sensibility loss 25,26 or MI ability impairment 27 , the question thus is which patients are actually still able to perform MI with their paretic body side 28,29 , and when is a bottom-up motor percept induct more applicable. Whereas in NF-MIT the patient is supported by a neurofeedback signal, which helps to perform the mental act and facilitates imagery-induced motor cortex activation 30,31 , no neurofeedback signal can typically be provided in MVF. The aim of the present study was therefore to develop a new NF-MIT that integrates the positive aspects of MVF. Inspired by the RHI, we developed an anthropomorphic robotic hand to visually guide the participant’s MI act and deliver embodied neurofeedback. We predicted that an embodied feedback signal closely resembling the mental act performed should be more intuitive for neurofeedback operation than non-embodiable feedback and therefore should also lead to a better NF-MIT performance 18 . As an artificial hand is known only to induce SoO, if it is placed in an anatomically-congruent position 32–34 , we tested the hypothesized benefit of embodied feedback by comparing neurofeedback delivered by the artificial hand in a congruent position with that delivered in an incongruent position. We also asked whether NF-MIT performance and SoA depend on the validity of the neurofeedback signal. This was done by including a sham feedback condition in which the provided feedback was not based on real-time brain activity.
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Cognition through the (st-)ages

Cognition through the (st-)ages

Conversely, adult-induced glutamatergic lacZ expression appeared to be somewhat limited to the HPC with no apparent lacZ expression in the amygdala, and resulted in decreased contextu[r]

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Extended Carbon Cognition as a Machine

Extended Carbon Cognition as a Machine

information retrieved from the database “transparently, as it were”. Where did these numbers and quantities come from? Local environmental managers put them into the database – but they were supposed to put them into the database according to specific criteria, i.e. judgements: partially these criteria were inscribed into the database itself – ESDR contained definitions about each category such as for, e.g., car travel data; they were also made verbally explicit during training for the local agents and in PowerPoint slides produced for these training sessions. Local agents were expected to think according to these criteria, and in the spirit of a GFQ approach, to implement these criteria. As we are dealing with a corporate setup and contractual work relations these expectations can be considered orders. The order by the EMS-Team was that local environmental managers should submit numbers that fit in. Thus, the recognition that numbers did not fit, should have taken place at the local site – such numbers should have not been reported or they should have been altered such that they would fit. Hence, I argue, we can conceptualise these humans and the database as enacting a shared cognitive process of qualculation. Note, the parity principle is met here for the connection between Frederik, the database and the local managers: the database and its information is readily available and information retrieved from it is automatically endorsed as representing the corporate reality. The point is that the corporate reality is what the numbers say, not what the numbers represent. In the firm, real carbon emissions do not matter as much as their actual construal in the database. The situation shown above was dealing with the construal, rather than with the reality. For Frederik’s extended system of cognition the question was, “which numbers to enter”, rather than how much carbon had been actually emitted. For him it was important that the corporation’s carbon memory was operative and trustable. Compare this to the 2010 film Inception with the subheading your mind is the
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Anzeige von Innate Neonatal Face Preference - An Embodied Phenomenon?

Anzeige von Innate Neonatal Face Preference - An Embodied Phenomenon?

This study also exemplifies wider debates in cognitive science. Does cognition occur primarily in internal models of self and world which are somehow matched to the sensorimotor flux and used to control that flux from outside it? Or is cognition largely embedded in the embodiment of the agent and the form of the sensorimotor flux itself? Can the causative structure of behavioural and cognitive events and processes be functionally localised in space, such within a brain region? Or is a systems approach required to understand what may be fundamentally distributed networks of causality without a central controller? What is the appropriate way to use abstraction and concreteness in cognitive modelling? We will present our results in the light of their relevance for these broader discussions within the field, in the hope of showing how bridges between developmental psychology and developmental robotics may be built, a process crucial to the
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Spatial, social cognition and team performance

Spatial, social cognition and team performance

 H 1: The better the spatial cognition in team mental model, the higher the team performance will be. 4.2 Social Cognition and Team Performance Social cognition is the study of how people process social information, especially its encoding, storage, retrieval, and application to social situations. The social cognition refers to interaction among social groups. The information/decision-making perspective shows that high levels of diversity in group cognition have positive effects on group performance (Jehn, Northcraft, and Neale, 1999; Polzer, Milton, and Swann, 2002; Williams and O’Reilly, 1998). Whereas the social categorization perspective suggests that low levels of diversity in group cognition are beneficial (Cohen and Bailey, 1997; Mohammed and Dunville, 2001; Williams and O’Reilly, 1998), as does the literature on shared mental models (Cohen and Bailey, 1997; Mohammed and Dunville, 2001; Williams and O’Reilly, 1998). Groups need to have social cognition, in order to participate actively in achieving a target; otherwise, they may fail to do so. For example, in cross functional groups, it is important to have an understanding of the patterns of interaction among groups, their likings and disliking, their beliefs, their attitudes. Social cognition helps in understanding groups, their dynamics and facilitates working among them. This social cognition is not limited to the knowledge of the liking and disliking of the group members rather we extend it to the understanding of the likings and disliking etc., which will subsequently help in determining the synergy of the group. This study, therefore, emphasizes its importance as part of the cognition where group members need to have understanding of the patterns of social interaction of the individuals and developing synergistic social interaction patterns by continuously interacting formally and informally in groups.
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