Moreover since Rio, the actors in education have become broad and include government, university, NGO, business, teachers, media, indigenous, consumer and community groups. Many international and regional meetings were held to discuss the implications of educationforsustainabledevelopment, such as Eco-Ed (Toronto 1993), SustainableDevelopmentEducation and Awareness (Prague 1995) Envi- ronment and Society (Thessaloniki 1997). Just as educators and NGOs discussed what was meant by educationforsustainabledevelopment or educationfor sustainability, debates raged over the meaning of sustainabledevelopment itself and what a sustainable society would look like. The Wellbeing of Nations, a country by country index of quality of life and the environment, captured the dilemma of sustainabledevelopment: „Nobody knows how to meet these new demands. There is no proven recipe for success. In fact, no one has a clear sense of what success might be. Making progress towards ways of living that are desirable, equitable and sustainable is like going to a country we have never been to before with a sense of geography and the principles of navigation but without a map or compass. We do not know what the destination will be like, we cannot tell how to get there, we are not even sure which direction to take“ (Prescott- Allen 2001, pp. 1f.).
Chemnitz University of Technology, Faculty of Economics and Business Administration
Suggested Citation: Breßler, Julia; Kappler, Susann (2017) : A Systematic Review of EducationforSustainableDevelopment, Chemnitz Economic Papers, No. 007, Chemnitz University of Technology, Faculty of Economics and Business Administration, Chemnitz
Educationforsustainabledevelopment has enormous potential due to its capacity to train the young generation to give rise to a vision of sustainability that can offer a link between economic progress, social welfare and respect for cultural diversity. By improving the access to quality education, by reorienting existing education programs towards sustainabledevelopment, by providing public information designed to draw attention to the risks that we all assume, from the individual, community, society and ending at global scale, by promoting it at all levels of education, whether formal or informal, highlighting the principles and values on which a sustainable society is based, by promoting „lifelong learning‟ and the list goes on, we can make substantive changes within the individual and social structure of the new generation, so that sacrifices made today are for the benefit of tomorrow.
4.2. Social Network Analysis of EducationforSustainableDevelopment (This Section Summarizes the Main Findings of )
For this article, we not only analyzed Twitter data, but also drew on data conducted with an own survey concerning the implementation of ESD in community education at the German municipal level. In total, our adjusted dataset consists of the individuals and their networks in five municipalities. Hence, the data of these five municipalities depict the whole networks concerning the implementation of ESD. In general, the dataset is made up of 1306 persons and 2195 connections. Data was conducted with a questionnaire using traditional techniques of social research and network analytical items. We applied QAP (Quadratic Assignment Procedure) correlations to test the validity of the collected data and the response behavior. QAP is a permutation test that keeps the dyadic data structure intact and can be applied to many kinds of models  (p. 564). In particular, QAP is used to test the statistical significance of observations obtained with SNA, which are not independent of one another. Results of QAP tests were used, for instance, to test the correlation of the name generators, i.e., questions to elicit the names of the persons responsible for implementing ESD. For instance, our analyses show that persons that are named as providers of problem-solving approaches are likewise often indicated as developers of new ideas. Influential network adherents in ESD realization further tend to play an important role in the distribution of ideas. In addition, good cooperation and trusting relationships correlate strongly.
From an opening standpoint that inclusion implies previous exclusions, this paper reviews the slow emergence of inclusive processes of EducationforSustainableDevelopment (ESD) in the South African education system. It explores how the histo- rical colonising process and modernist trajectories in the emerging nation state were exclusive and driven by interventi- onist forms of education while there was an uneven provision of education by race and for learners with disabilities. Today, national provision for special needs is being mainstreamed in new policies of inclusive education, shaping education provisi- on with a broader inclusivity agenda. An emerging and more inclusive landscape for ESD is explored as co-engaged processes of transformation as an inclusive engagement of citizens intent on constituting the futures they want through deliberative pro- cesses of learning-led change. Here inclusive processes of social cohesion are strengthened and empowerment is promoted. The article reports two cases of learning materials for more inclusi- ve ESD in South Africa. It describes how the broad scope of ESD and inclusion in South Africa developed around redress following the cultural exclusions of colonial history and the need for social cohesion as intervention-led processes for effec- ting social change.
Educationforsustainabledevelopment has now grown or- ganically within learning processes. Political pressures to achieve targets both at a national and international level have resulted in a series of short-term initiatives without any re- cognition that the concept is still contested and lacking in clarity and focus. There is also a belief expressed by a previous education minister in England that sustainabledevelopmenteducation is all about changing people’s behaviour, to drive less, to be more energy efficient and to recycle more goods. Development and global issues have been perceived as an add on and not integral to the ministries sustainable develop- ment education plans and priorities. The implementation of a parallel strategy on ‘international education’ reflects this lack of understanding about what is meant by educationforsustainabledevelopment.
It is, rather, a process that runs counter to the swift pace of learning to which most students are now remorselessly acculturated, an acculturation from which educationforsustainabledevelopment has never seriously broken free under the influence of the disciplines that have led the way in its conceptualisation, i.e. eco- nomics and the environmental and social sciences. A discipline of slow learning is called for as a means of attuning to nature. ‘The natural world is really slow,’ writes Jerry Mander (1991, p. 86). ‘Save for the waving of trees in the wind, or the occasional animal movement, things barely happen at all. To experience nature, to feel its subtleties, requires human perceptual ability that is capable of slow- ness. It requires that human beings approach experience with patience and calm.’ Vernacular learning in nature also involves experiencing the inhospitable, the unappealing, the uncomfortable. ‘It is this endurance of everything that nature throws at us,’ writes the Lakeland philosopher shepherd James Rebanks (2016, p. 226), ‘that shapes our relationship with this place. We are weathered like the mountain ash trees that grow here.’ That ‘weathering’ can be about experiencing nature in winter cold and storms. It can also be about understanding and coming to terms with the cycle of birth, growth, decay and death that afflicts all elements in the natural world, including ourselves. Cycles of birth and death are central to an ecological worldview. Death denial arguably foments our planetary crisis of unsustainability. We consume and rush for a reprieve from loss and death, to dull the experience of the world as it in fact is (Griffin, 1995, pp. 51–52).
It is estimated that 70 % of people live in rural India which is close to nature and sometimes amidst of nature. Indian society is traditionally bound and no education system could be think- able without keeping in mind the immediate society. Thus, the education system in India blends its school and higher educa- tion curriculum with the traditional practices which are pro-en- vironmental. However, the modern India, sometimes, in the state of confusion which does not know how development could be made without destruction. Hence, there are move- ments and agitations by the local citizens who coexist with the nature and their livelihood comes from the nature. It is inter- esting that Indian traditional practices, not only encourages pro-environmental behaviour in its daily life, but also sustain- able development. With time and rapid development, environ- mental issues and concerns are erupting. No sooner than, India has realized the long fetched destruction, policies and recom- mendations are made to create environmental awareness and instil environmentally responsible behaviour among citizens. In this regard, education served as a vehicle and a top-down approach has been maintained. Introducing environmental education and studies in teacher education curricula is among one of those momentous initiatives. If a future teacher is aware, he/she will be able to inculcate responsible behaviour among the students. Thus, the curriculum has been consciously craft- ed to update trainee-teachers about the global environmental issues and make them act locally towards better tomorrow. As part of its efforts to create greater environmental awareness and inculcate responsible behaviour, India has kept up with global trends ushering numerous policy reforms that call for environ- mental education and educationforsustainabledevelopment (Supreme Court of India, 2003; National Commission for Edu- cation Research and Technology, 2005; National Council for Teacher Education, 2009; National Council of Teacher Educa- tors, 2005) aimed at overhauling the education sector to help create a strong environmentally sensitive citizenry (Almeida, 2015). The pedagogies of the different school subjects, as per NCF 2005 and NCFTE 2010, have been framed to keep the environmental concepts and issues in the curriculum. As gen- der plays the social construct in Indian society, it is felt neces- sary to recognize the contributions of women folks in different movements to stop environmental degradation. Moreover, the daily chores, beliefs and practices in society should not be left isolated. The practicum and activity based curriculum designed for teacher education programmes help to identify and pro- mote the pro-environmental behaviour. However, environ- mental educationforsustainabledevelopment, designed for different levels of academe, has long way to go. In this regard,
Seggern, Janne von; Singer-Brodowski, Mandy: Why context matters for educational policy - analysing interactive practice in the governance of EducationforSustainableDevelopment in Germany - In: ZEP : Zeitschrift für internationale Bildungsforschung und Entwicklungspädagogik 43 (2020) 4, S. 25-29 - URN: urn:nbn:de:0111-pedocs-212627 - DOI: 10.31244/zep.2020.04.04
Reflection upon our experiences and findings tends to lead us assume that ESD practices will eventually be implemented in German chemistry teach- ing if the prospective teachers are allowed to learn about respective pedagogies. We can, however, assume that the current implementation rate is still low, be- cause learning about ESD in connection to chemistry teaching is not yet a focus of chemistry teacher training in Germany. Unfortunately, hard evidence on the current state of concepts believed in and/or practiced by teachers in German chemistry classrooms is not yet available. Research in this field is still needed; one such study is under way. However, the fact that almost none of the stu- dent teachers brought any developed concept of sustainability in connection to chemistry topics from the school to the university is sobering. This would seem to indicate that such issues are not prominent topics in current chemistry class- rooms in German secondary schools. This also means that pre-service chem- istry teacher training programs must also be supported by training in the area of in-service chemistry teacher training with respect to sustainability and ESD. Single parts of the course module described above are currently being used for this purpose, e.g. in-service chemistry teacher training workshops about the WebQuest on Green Chemistry and the lesson plan on evaluating plastics. Perhaps these can contribute further to reducing deficits in in-service teachers’ general knowledge about sustainability concepts and ESD in the same fashion as they did for pre-service teachers in this case study.
All textbooks examined deal with development issues, but only one gives a definition of the resource curse thesis (Diercke Latin America). The definition links resource wealth, bad governance and economic stagnation. While corruption plays an important role, other indicators developed by Bridge (2004), such as the rapid consumption of mineral windfalls (leading to inflation and appreciation of the exchange rate), the siphon of financial and human resources away from other economic sectors and the negative impacts of the mineral boom on the performance of other export sectors, are missing. In sum, only two of the five indicators discussed by Bridge (2014) are taken into consideration. The resource curse, as presented in the analyzed textbooks (e.g. volumes about Latin America and Sub-Saharan Africa), primarily refers to the paradox of resource wealth and weak performance of economic development. In this frame, students should discuss if resource wealth is a boon or a bane for the country. In consequence, the complexity and the background of the situation and resulting (resource) conflicts become difficult to understand. Textbook authors could argue that they have to adjust scientific theories to student’s knowledge in the frame of didactical reduction. Nevertheless, the theory should be accurately defined, and in the studied textbooks the definition of resource curse is incomplete.
While Section 2 of this paper focused on the conceptual basis of sustainabledevelopmenteducation at the University of Graz, i.e., the supply side, it is also important to consider the demand side, i.e., the expectations of students who study in the respective programs. Therefore, we conducted a quantitative survey among students in environmental systems sciences and sustainabledevelopment programs at the University of Graz at the bachelor’s and master’s level. The survey aimed at grasping the students’ perspective on the teaching concept, and its results are presented in Section 4. The survey was carried out as an online survey in June 2018 using the tool LimeSurvey. All students of relevant programs received an invitation to participate in the survey and were asked to rank different factors/elements/characteristics of their study program regarding importance (how important is the respective factor to them). In addition, open-ended questions allowed gathering more detailed information and explanations. One hundred sixty five students participated in the survey; 111 (45 male, 66 female) of them were at the bachelor’s and 54 (32 male, 21 female) at the master’ level (of which, 15 studied in an international joint program). The mean age of bachelor’s level students was 22.7, and the mean age of the master’s level students was 25.9. The sample overall was a good reflection of the student population in the surveyed programs. In total, 27 items were used to collect student opinions; 14 items included rather general aspects of the study program, such as contents and didactical features; two items referred to the preparation for a future academic or other professional career; five items focused on the acquisition of different types of competencies; and six items aimed to grasp the importance of different course formats. Respondents were asked to rate the importance of all these items on a 5-level Likert scale (1 = very important/5 = very unimportant). Data were analyzed by simple descriptive statistics: non-parametric Mann–Whitney U tests were applied to test for differences between groups (bachelor’s vs. master’s students; students in a local master’s program vs. students in a joint international master’s program). In addition, students were asked to provide answers to open format questions regarding strengths/weaknesses, respectively advantages/disadvantages, of their particular study program.
A moderate-constructivist learning setting forms also the basis for the second phase of the project. In this phase, the students formed small groups with their compatriots, and chose one particular aspect of QOL according to their interests and coupled this aspect with the ideas of sustainability. After agreeing on a specific inquiry, they conducted research on their topic (e.g., mobility against the background of climate change, nutrition against the background of the over-fishing of the oceans, etc.). The results were frequently discussed via Facebook with the corresponding group from the other country. This paper does not discuss those research results, but instead focuses upon the effect of the students’ research on their awareness of the importance of environmental aspects for QOL, and on their willingness to act towards more sustainable lifestyles. The project was completed by jointly creating a final document with specific suggestions on global, regional and personal levels for more sustainable lifestyles. During this phase, special emphasis was given to combining the students’ research results with individual options to act towards more sustainable lifestyles.
poking about in a fog, incoherently and haphazardly. One needs at least an intuitive idea of what one is looking for. Without such pre-concepts, one cannot even formulate a reasonable question or identify a problem [...]. Heuristics may help determine the agenda, keep it under a common focus, attract attention to interdependencies in this field, but they cannot determine specific recommendations and proposals. (Homann, 1996, 38f) The non-descriptiveness of sustainabledevelopment as a guiding princi- ple can be perceived as a deficiency; sustainability can be discounted as an empty formula, even a container term (Eblinghaus & Stickler, 1996). Conversely, it may also be seen as an opportunity, even a precondition, to fulfil its function (Brand, 1997). The different interpretations to which this guiding principle lends itself give it a broad range of points to integrate. The term’s lack of precision and its non-descriptiveness can make for a highly creative, diverse, yet dynamic field, which is oriented to a certain direction. In open societies, open notions are likely to resonate; this is precisely what is seen in the current debate on sustainable de- velopment. Sustainabledevelopment forms a favourable backdrop for reacting to the complex issues that contemporary society is facing in an adequate, manage- ably complex and not over-simplifying manner (Rauch, 2004).
Since the “Agenda 21” as the central paper of the Rio Earth Summit by the United Nations in 1992, education is considered the basic requirement forsustainabledevelopment. Especially the young generation is capable of integrating new paradigms in their mindset as a foundation for making behavioral choices that lead to a more sustainabledevelopment path. Conducive competency-oriented pedagogical, didactic and institutional strategies  have been developed and discussed so broadly that “EducationforSustainableDevelopment” (ESD) has turned into a technical term. However, in 2014, after more than a decade of intense campaigning work forsustainabledevelopment, only 43 % of Germans 18+ had some idea about what the term “sustainability” might mean . While educational frameworks have been rewritten in Germany in order to integrate sustainabledevelopment into formal education, a survey with above-average students in 2014 showed that only about 50 % had any associations with the term . Surprisingly, those associations were lacking any connection with the industrial sector, which, as a major stakeholder in many areas of human living, has a crucial role to play in sustainabledevelopment. The sector employs 24 % of the European workforce  and represents 25% of the final energy consumption in the EU 27 , while emitting 28.5% of the greenhouse gases .
under insupportable conditions (consumption area of clothing), and asked them to observe their thoughts, feelings and body sensations. Other elements such as the task to go shopping in a mindful way turned out to be suitable for the context of the training and were kept in the curriculum and given more time if needed and possible. Thus, based on those findings and changes, the structure and timing of each session was refined again. While initially the training with secondary school students (grade 10, aged 15ñ16) and adults was identical, it became clear during 2 test runs that the school training required more fundamental and specific changes of the initial blueprint. This was due to the special preconditions of the target group (adolescents) and the setting (implementing the training into the school context). For example, it showed effective to include a higher frequency of switching between sitting and standing/walking, as well as to allocate time during sessions to reflect on certain questions in written form as a preparation and basis for group discussions. The adaptation process was inspired by a literature review on mind- fulness programmes and formats especially for children and adolescents (e.g., Broderick & Frank, 2014; Kaltwasser, 2008; Meiklejohn et al., 2012; Rechtschaffen, 2016). Result: The BiNKA Curriculum
The 2030 Agenda of the United Nations comprises 17 SustainableDevelopment Goals (SDGs) and 169 sub-targets which serve as a global reference point for the transition to sustainability. The agenda acknowledges that different issues such as poverty, hunger, health, education, gender equality, environmental degradation, among others, are intertwined and can therefore only be addressed together. Implementing the SDGs as an ‘indivisible whole’ represents the actual litmus test for the success of the 2030 Agenda. The main challenge is accomplishing a more integrated approach to sustainabledevelopment that encompasses new governance frameworks for enabling and managing systemic transformations. This thematic issue addresses the question whether and how the SDGs set off processes of societal transformation, for which cooperation between state and non-state actors at all political levels (global, regional, national, sub-national), in differ- ent societal spheres (politics, society, and economy), and across various sectors (energy, transportation, food, etc.) are indispensable. In this editorial, we first introduce the 2030 Agenda and the SDGs by providing an overview of the architec- ture of the agenda and the key challenges of the current implementation phase. In a second step, we present the eleven contributions that make up the thematic issue clustering them around three themes: integration, governance challenges, and implementation.
3. Vocational Education and Training (VET)
Defining VET as a sector within the education system poses a number of difficulties. For the most part, general and academic education is seen as that which builds analytical skills, knowledge and critical thinking, while VET develops craftsmanship, practical experience and practical problem-solving. However, this simple distinction does not hold up to scrutiny. Critical thinking and analytical skills are needed for a good plumber or electrician who must routinely make judgments in order to solve problems. Equally, a good surgeon needs a large set of practical skills to masterfully operate on a patient. These simple distinctions can also lead to confusion and academic drift of vocational institutions (Neave, 1978) or a vocationalisation of higher education (Williams, 1985).
Extractive economic institutions are different from inclusive institutions in
every aspect and they are, according to D. Acemoglu, designed by the politically powerful elites to extract resources from the rest of society.
Consolidated democracy and efficient markets depend on fundamental factor of growth, especially inclusive institutions which secure greater satisfaction of basic needs of population, primarily healthcare and education (Jakšić & Jakšić, 2014). D. Acemoglu writes: “correlation is not causation of the type: higher GDP causes more democracy, and it leads toward deeper explanation, more fruitful one, how higher GDP causes democracy. Explanation lies in institutions, wider network of empowered institutions (good governance).” (Acemoglu & Robinson, 2006, pp. 55, 59).
Whilst accepting that youth employment and entrepreneurship are important, recent theoretical work on skills has sought to get beyond the simplicity of the human capital orthodoxy. Rather, a new account of skills and economic development is being developed, drawing on institutional, evolutionary and complexity economics traditions. This focuses on how firms individually, sectorally and economy-wide develop capabilities to succeed (Nübler 2014; Hidalgo/Hausmann 2011). It places emphasis on how the state and intermediary organisations (e.g., local economic development or sectoral skills bodies) can help build the collective competitiveness and capacity of an industry (Kruss et al. 2015). It understands success as being emergent, responsive and purposive rather than centrally planned or left to the vagaries of the market (Wedekind 2018). This complements a political economy of skills tradition (Brown/Green/Lauder 2001; Allais 2012; Busemeyer/Trampusch 2012), which argues that skills are acquired and utilised socially and not individually. It highlights the roles played by a range of actors and the importance of national skills regimes that evolve historically out of stakeholder negotiations, situated within wider national and international political economies.