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How physicians affect patients' employment outcomes through deciding on sick leave durations

How physicians affect patients' employment outcomes through deciding on sick leave durations

2014 ). Sick employees are obliged to inform their employer as soon as they become incapacitated for work. In most cases, sickness certificates are issued by general practitioners, who act as gatekeepers in the Austrian health care system. Hospitals or specialists certify sick leaves only in rare circumstances. The certificate itself contains mainly the starting date of the sick leave as well as its expected duration as declared by the GP. The latter is only binding in one way, meaning that the actual absence must not exceed the recommended duration, but may fall short of it in case the employee decides to return to work earlier. If this is the case, the firm has to notify the insurance fund immediately. Sickness certificates do not reveal a specific diagnosis, as law does not grant employers the right to learn about diagnoses.
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If Sick-Leave becomes More Costly, Will I go back to Work? Could it be too soon?

If Sick-Leave becomes More Costly, Will I go back to Work? Could it be too soon?

[Table 7 about here] We formerly estimate the size of this potential displacement effect by running a slightly modified version of our difference-in-difference specification in equation (1) which now uses working accidents as the dependent variable and where individuals are classified as private or public sector employees, with the data collapsed accordingly for each quarter. Table 8 reports the coefficients and the associated percentage change this represents for three outcomes: the number of spells per 1,000 workers, the average duration of each spell, and total number of days lost due to working accidents per employee each quarter. These estimates confirm the information suggested in the earlier graphs with a huge increase in work-related accident incidence (+69%) combined with very little change in absences (-2.8%) resulting in days lost due to such events jumping by over a half (56%). To understand the magnitude in benefit displacement this could correspond to, we must first point out that public sector employees were absent far less often for accidents at work than for being sick, at 0.086 and 1.26 days per quarter before the reform, respectively. Still, since we estimated that each public sector employee was taking on average 0.048 more working accident days after the reform, and the gains from the reduced sick leave we estimated stood at 0.127 days per worker (taking our more conservative estimate in column (3) from Panel B in Table 5), we find that about 38% (0.048/0.127) of absences are potentially displaced across benefits. Therefore, this means that the overall 10% policy effect we estimated on absences should probably be scaled down by almost two-fifths of its value after considering possible switching behavior to the working accidents benefit scheme. This negative spillover effect is a phenomenon never before observed in the sick leave literature and its large size suggests that it should always be considered when evaluating the effectiveness of any policy restricting access to benefits in any context.
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If Sick-Leave Becomes More Costly, Will I Go Back to Work? Could It Be Too Soon?

If Sick-Leave Becomes More Costly, Will I Go Back to Work? Could It Be Too Soon?

20 [Table 7 about here] We formerly estimate the size of this potential displacement effect by running a slightly modified version of our difference-in-difference specification in equation (1) which now uses working accidents as the dependent variable and where individuals are classified as private or public sector employees, with the data collapsed accordingly for each quarter. Table 8 reports the coefficients and the associated percentage change this represents for three outcomes: the number of spells per 1,000 workers, the average duration of each spell, and total number of days lost due to working accidents per employee each quarter. These estimates confirm the information suggested in the earlier graphs with a huge increase in work-related accident incidence (+69%) combined with very little change in absences (-2.8%) resulting in days lost due to such events jumping by over a half (56%). To understand the magnitude in benefit displacement this could correspond to, we must first point out that public sector employees were absent far less often for accidents at work than for being sick, at 0.086 and 1.26 days per quarter before the reform, respectively. Still, since we estimated that each public sector employee was taking on average 0.048 more working accident days after the reform, and the gains from the reduced sick leave we estimated stood at 0.127 days per worker (taking our more conservative estimate in column (3) from Panel B in Table 5), we find that about 38% (0.048/0.127) of absences are potentially displaced across benefits. Therefore, this means that the overall 10% policy effect we estimated on absences should probably be scaled down by almost two-fifths of its value after considering possible switching behavior to the working accidents benefit scheme. This negative spillover effect is a phenomenon never before observed in the sick leave literature and its large size suggests that it should always be considered when evaluating the effectiveness of any policy restricting access to benefits in any context.
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The Effectiveness of Medical and Vocational Interventions for Reducing Sick Leave of Self-Employed Workers

The Effectiveness of Medical and Vocational Interventions for Reducing Sick Leave of Self-Employed Workers

Our data suffer from the problem that short sickness spells may not be reported. If the self-employed worker knows that she/he will recover before the end of the deferment period, there is no direct incentive to report the sickness to the insurance company (even though the company requests to report all spells). Therefore, we set the start of our duration model for recovery to ten days after reporting sick and drop the 136 spells with a sickness duration less than ten days. Short spells are often due to the flu or less serious injuries, and the insurance company never intervenes within the first few days of sickness. Furthermore, we censor durations after 548 days (one and a half year). This avoids that we have to model outliers and less than 1% of the medical track interventions and 5% of the labour track interventions start after 548 days. Sensitivity checks (see Subsection 5.3) show that both choices do not substantially affect our estimation results.
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Labor Market Effects of US Sick Pay Mandates

Labor Market Effects of US Sick Pay Mandates

A main source of controversy related to government mandated sick leave is the possibility that such policy would hurt employment or wage growth. At first sight, it seems obvious that an ex- pansion in sick leave coverage would lead to moral hazard and higher labor costs for employers (Ziebarth and Karlsson, 2010). When employees earn one hour of paid sick leave per 30 hours worked—ignoring administrative costs—this would equal a wage increase of 1/30 or 3.3% per week for full-time employees. This static calculation assumes that all employees would fully exhaust their annual sick leave credit and would have worked sick with full productivity (or taken unpaid leave) in the counterfactual scenario. However, empirically assessing and directly measuring labor produc- tivity under the two scenarios is extremely challenging (if not impossible). The effects of the policy also mostly likely differ by type of job and industry. To our knowledge, there exists no credible em- pirical causal evidence on how work productivity changes when employees gain access to paid sick leave. It seems likely that sick employees cannot maintain full work productivity when working sick and that employees on sick leave will compensate for lost productivity after recovery. Hence, the calculated static wage increase of 3.3% appears to be an upper bound for marginal firms.
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The Duration of Unemployment Benefits in Europe

The Duration of Unemployment Benefits in Europe

Unemployment assistance is granted for an unlim- ited time in Belgium, Finland, France, Germany, Ireland and Austria. Portugal and Spain continue to pay it for a limited period after unemployment benefit runs out. After the abolition of unemploy- ment assistance, Germany would join countries such as Denmark, Great Britain, Italy and Sweden.

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Labor market effects of U.S. sick pay mandates

Labor market effects of U.S. sick pay mandates

verse labor markets, our findings have a broad range of common support and arguably high external validity. Moreover, many treatment regions reduce the likelihood that unobserved shocks confounded postreform labor market dynamics systematically. Opponents of sick pay mandates are mainly concerned with negative employment or wage effects. We do not find much evidence that employment and wage growth have been substantially and signif- icantly dampened by mandating employers to allow employees to earn paid sick leave. This may be a function of how the U.S. laws are designed. In fact, they seem to be more incentive-compatible than their European counterparts and minimize shirking behavior, a main concern of opponents. The reason for this incentive-compatibility is that paid sick days are personalized and employees “earn” them. For every 30 to 40 hours worked—that is, for every week a full-time employee works—employees earn one hour of paid sick leave. This means that employees earn about one day of paid sick leave for every two months worked, up to (typically) seven days per year. Unused sick days roll over to the next year. Because earned sick days represent a personalized insurance credit for future health shocks (similar to health savings accounts) that are likely to occur (e.g., flu or disease of child), we expect shirking to play a minimal role for most employees.
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Being on Sick Leave – Possible Explanations for Differences of Sick-leave Days Across
Countries Privatization

Being on Sick Leave – Possible Explanations for Differences of Sick-leave Days Across Countries Privatization

However, the existing literature mentions a certain number of possible determinants of sick- leave differences across countries. These determinants will be incorporated into this analysis. At first one might consider the objectively given health situation of the population as a determining effect on sickness absence. But there seems to be no study in which this is suggested to be the case. (This could be different if countries of largely diverging per-capita income and health-care provision levels were analysed. But all studies mentioned in Table A.1 relate to industrial coun- tries.) In many studies the determining effect of the unemployment rate (specifically: of its change) has been established. The employment of women and older persons also seems to con- tribute to sickness absence. Many studies stress the importance of institutional regulations which determine the degree of generosity to which sick-leave absence is granted or made possi- ble. But there is no study, to our knowledge, which establishes systematically a relation between a measure of generosity to the amount of sickness absence in a country-comparative context, with the exception of a preliminary study by Osterkamp (2002).
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Bastian Sick und die Grammatik. Ein ungleiches Duell

Bastian Sick und die Grammatik. Ein ungleiches Duell

Im Wintersemester 2006/2007 fand am Institut für Germanistik der Universität Kassel ein Hauptseminar mit dem Titel »Der Dativ ist dem Genitiv sein Tod« statt. Ziel des Seminars war es, ausgehend von den grammatikbezogenen Kolumnen von Bastian Sick »über aktuelle gramma- tische Phänomene des Deutschen nach- zudenken und dabei zu Beschreibungs- und evtl. auch zu Erklärungsvorschlägen zu kommen« (Seminarankündigung). 1 Die auf der Grundlage der einschlägigen grammatischen Fachliteratur erarbeite- ten und teilweise auf Korpusrecherchen basierenden Beschreibungs- und Erklä- rungsvorschläge der Studierenden wur- den dann mit Sicks Ratschlägen und Lö- sungsvorschlägen verglichen, um deren empirische Solidität und theoretische Ko- härenz beurteilen zu können. Unterhal- tungswert, Aspekte von Sprachkritik und -pflege, mögliche didaktische oder sozio- logische Implikationen bzw. Konsequen- zen standen nicht zur Diskussion. Die aktuelle Debatte in Info DaF (siehe Maitz/Elspaß 2007 und Roggausch 2007) und die Diskussionseinladung von Wer- ner Roggausch bieten mir die Möglich- keit, einige Ergebnisse unserer grammati- schen Analysen zu präsentieren und auf diese Weise einen kleinen Beitrag zur Debatte und eventuell auch zur öffentli- chen Meinungsbildung zu leisten.
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Methods of estimating the mean duration of enterprises and the mean additional duration of enterprises in Lodzkie Voivodship

Methods of estimating the mean duration of enterprises and the mean additional duration of enterprises in Lodzkie Voivodship

720 3. Mean duration and mean additional duration of enterprises In a duration analysis it is assumed that the enterprise duration is a particular type of non- negatively determined continuous random variable 𝑇, (𝑇 ≥ 0), which defines the time passing from the moment of the foundation to the moment of a particular event, usually its closing down. It is a reasonable assumption that at the moment of the establishment of a given enterprise it is not possible to answer the question how long it is going to operate on the market. Bearing in mind that the length of enterprise duration may vary – it changes depending on the type of enterprise, in terms of time and location – hence the objective is not the calendar time but the enterprise’s own time (0; ∞). Moreover, it is assumed that the entity can be a focus of the analysis only once – Frątczak et al. (1996: 23-25); Markowicz (2012: 34-37); Jackowska (2013: 16-28); Frątczak et al. (2014: 37-40).
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Duration of export relationships of Philippine MSMEs

Duration of export relationships of Philippine MSMEs

When it came to the determinants of export intensity and the propensity of SMEs, the study of Manzano, Tuaño, and Villamil (2014) focused on finding the determinants, both of export propensity and intensity of SMEs. The study identified that apart from labor productivity, the decision to export by firms depends on other qualities such as the ownership structure. They say that relatively larger firms are more likely to participate in foreign markets and have higher export value because they have production and cost advantages over smaller firms. Thus, SMEs are less likely to export than large ones as they have fewer resources to surmount the sunk costs involved in breaking into the export markets. On the other hand, large firms have the resources to develop marketing channels, new product testing, and standard compliance procedures, which are essential when penetrating export markets. However, studies published over the years did not look into trade duration or the ability of exporters to persist in their trade relationship once established. In an international economic theory perspective, trade relationships are expected to last.
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Love your Leave, Don't Leave your Love! Paid Parental Leave and Children's Living Arrangements

Love your Leave, Don't Leave your Love! Paid Parental Leave and Children's Living Arrangements

7 hypothesis (Cancian and Meyer 2014) posits that additional income makes a woman more independent, reducing the need to pool resources, and thus increasing the probability of single motherhood. On the other hand, an increase in income raises the relative financial attractiveness of a woman or relax the household budget constraint leading to an increase in household welfare and lower financial stress. These mechanisms then may reduce the risk of single motherhood. From the perspective of collective bargaining models (Lundberg and Pollak 1996, 2007), an increase in income raises women’s bargaining power generally, and specifically, the “divorce threat point” (Manser and Brown 1980), i.e., the relative well-being outside of marriage. The overall effect of changing bargaining power is ambiguous. Changing divorce threat points may increase the probability of single motherhood if the expected utility outside of a current relationship is higher than the expected utility from the current union. However, instead of separation, women may also use the increase in relative bargaining power to negotiate more favorable terms concerning the private consumption by spouses, time spent with or resources spent on children, or the division of household labor, cooperatively within the existing partnership (Lundberg and Pollack 2007). If, for instance, women negotiate more paternal involvement in child rearing, fathers’ investments in their children increase. Similarly, mothers may use the extra resources to invest more in their children, and particularly their daughters (Lundberg, Pollak and Wales 1997). Such investments may increase the consumption value of children for both parents and improve union stability.
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A new measure of equity duration: The duration-based explanation of the value premium revisited

A new measure of equity duration: The duration-based explanation of the value premium revisited

This interpretation hinges on the assumption that equity duration is largely independent from other firm risk that has been found to determine a share’s returns, such as market beta, B/M ratio and firm size. Although the correlation analysis in section 3.2 supports this view, this in- dependence has to hold in stock return regressions as well. Multiple regressions of stock returns on the equity duration and the Carhart (1997) firm risk characteristics allow to disentangle the explanatory power of equity duration from these risk effects. The results are shown in the fourth row. As expected, including the Carhart (1997) risk proxies reduces the duration coeffi- cient, as well as its significance. Still, the relation between stock returns and equity duration is pronounced, indicating that higher returns of short-duration stocks are indeed a consequence of a company’s average cash-flow maturity. The results also show that in the presence of equity duration, the B/M ratio coefficient loses its statistical significance. This is yet another sign of the close relation between these two risk proxies: As the univariate regressions show, equity duration is more related to stock returns than the traditional Fama-French factor B/M ratio. In joint regressions, equity duration then takes up most of the explanatory power of the B/M ratio, such that the small B/M ratio coefficient is a consequence of this close connection. Put differently, equity duration partly subsumes the B/M effect. This empirical result matches the connection between B/M ratio and equity duration as presented in section 2.1. Hence, the B/M ratio might be re-interpreted as a simple proxy for a more fundamental cash-flow risk factor. To summarize, equity duration is not only closely related to the traditional Fama-French factor B/M ratio, but it has also a higher explanatory power for stock returns. This suggests that equity duration might be an alternative to the B/M ratio to capture the value premium. To test this hypothesis, we re-estimate the Carhart (1997) specification, but replace the B/M ratio by the equity duration. The results, displayed in the last row of the table, confirm this view: compared to the standard Carhart (1997) specification, all risk proxies exhibit a stronger relation to stock returns, with the exception of market beta. This is also true for the two alternative measures of the “value” factor.
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Estimating the Effects of Potential Benefit Duration without Variation in the Maximum Duration of Unemployment Benefits

Estimating the Effects of Potential Benefit Duration without Variation in the Maximum Duration of Unemployment Benefits

dierent but they were both targeted at older workers who were laid o for economic reasons after a long working career. Due to rather strict eligibility criteria, a relatively small share of all UI recipients qualied for these payments. In the empirical analysis, we focus on workers who became unemployed after a relatively short job spell, usually at the end of a xed-term contract. As a result, the share of individuals entitled to higher benets based on a long working career is very small in our data (less than 2%). Second, the benet level was increased for the oldest unemployed who receive extended benets after exhausting their regular UI benets. This age group is excluded from our analysis. Third, the maximum length of a temporary full-time job qualifying for partial benets was reduced from four to two weeks, which may have increased part-time unemployment somewhat. In the empirical analysis we consider workers who received full-time benets after a job loss. Some of them moved from full-time benet into partial benets at a later point (3.1% in our estimation sample), in which case the period of partial benets is treated as a part of the overall unemployment spell. Finally, there was also an earlier reform on March 1, 2002, which increased the benet level of all UI recipients. Since all these other changes aected all UI recipients in the same way, they should not distort our analysis that is based on a dierence-in-dierences setting.
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Maternal employment effects of paid parental leave

Maternal employment effects of paid parental leave

(b) Next, we test whether women who value success at work react stronger to the new policy. 28 Because the traditional social norm of staying at home after childbirth was particularly binding for this group, they might adjust faster to the change in circumstances than others. The results support this reasoning (see the appendix): mothers who value success at work return to work faster and respond significantly stronger to the end of the new benefit. (c) Third, personalities respond differently to changes in social norms. One might expect that women with a more external locus of control respond stronger to changes in social norms. We test whether mothers who agree with the statement that "others make the crucial decisions in my life" respond stronger to the reform by adding an interaction term of this characteristic with the reform effect to the empirical specification (see the appendix). The insignificant results agree with this presumption. (d) Finally, we compare the reform response between East- and West-German mothers. Given the socialist heritage of East Germany, social norms there are more in favor of maternal employment and early return to work. If a shift in social norms occurs after the reform it should be visible particularly in West Germany. The estimation results show (see the appendix) that the reform effects around month 12 are economically but not statistically significantly larger in the West. This confirms the plausibility of a shift in social norms after the
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Etiopathology of Europe's Sick Man: Worker Flows in Germany, 1959-2016

Etiopathology of Europe's Sick Man: Worker Flows in Germany, 1959-2016

Based on changes in our new worker flow rates, we identify five distinct episodes in the history of the German labor market: The Wirtschaftswunder episode (1959-1973) character- ized by negligible inflow rates compared to the U.S. Inflow rates were lower by a factor of 6 while outflow rates were only lower by a factor of 2. The subsequent inflow shift episode (1973-1980) marks the beginning of the German unemployment dilemma with an unprece- dented threefold increase in inflow rates in the presence of only mildly decreasing outflow rates. This inflow shift predates and at least partly conflicts with what the literature on technology-led structural change has described as “a surge in unemployment duration and a stable separation rate” Hornstein et al. ( 2007 , p. 22). The surge in outflow rates did happen but later than commonly assumed. 1
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Duration Model of Enterprises - Analysis of Territorial Groups

Duration Model of Enterprises - Analysis of Territorial Groups

n – number of units of observation at time t . i The initial value of the survival function is 1 and it decreases at subsequent points of time t , at which at least one analysed event, has occurred. When i using the K-M estimator, the probability of survival can be estimated at any time. The statistical relevance of the differences in survival models built for groups can be measured with an adequate non-parametric statistical test, taking into consideration the presence of censored data. The hypothesis that the survival functions for groups are equal (Gehan, 1965; Klainbaum & Klein, 2012) is verified by means of the Gehan test (Namboodiri & Suchin- dran, 1987; Domański et al., 2014).
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Commuting Time and Sick-Day Absence of US Workers

Commuting Time and Sick-Day Absence of US Workers

effect of commuting on sick-day absenteeism, with an elasticity of around 0.016. We investigate gender differences in this relationship, and find that it is statistically significant only for male workers. The results presented in this paper may be of interest for firms and policy makers. For firms, sick-day absenteeism is costly, as it directly affects the firm’s labor cost. Thus, firms should investigate to what extent reducing the commuting of their workers results in decreases in their costs as a consequence of a reduction in sick-day absenteeism. However, reducing the commuting of their workers may be probably achieved at the expense of higher compensation costs (Shapiro and Stiglitz, 1984) for the commuting of their workers (i.e., higher wages so that workers use their own cars rather than public transport, for instance), which may lead to an increase in the firm’s labor cost. Given these two opposite effects on labor costs, firms could investigate the optimal compensation for the commuting of their workers that minimizes labor costs. From the point of view of policy-makers, improvements in infrastructure that allow for faster and/or shorter commutes may be beneficial for both firms and workers, which justifies national and local governments investing in the improvement of transportation networks and services.
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Von <i>Sick of ...</i> zu <i>Sick with ...</i> zu <i>Walk with ...</i> Die narrative Anerkennung individuellen Leidens und Lebens in der Medizin(ausbildung)

Von <i>Sick of ...</i> zu <i>Sick with ...</i> zu <i>Walk with ...</i> Die narrative Anerkennung individuellen Leidens und Lebens in der Medizin(ausbildung)

Vor diesem Hintergrund entwickelte sich das Bedürfnis, die offenen Fragen und den abschließenden studentischen Wunsch von Sick with ... im Rahmen von LET ME aufzugreifen und die dort gemachten ersten Schritte in Richtung nar- rativer Anerkennung des Patienten in einer weiteren Veranstaltung fortzusetzen. Zeitgleich bestand von Seiten unseres forumms, einer Kommunikationsplattform rund um das Krankheitsbild der Multiplen Sklerose, ein besonderes Interesse an neuen Formen der Auseinandersetzung mit der MS, weswegen die Nachfolge- veranstaltung von Sick with… diese Erkrankung zum zentralen Gegenstand ha- ben sollte. Ausgangs-, Dreh- und Angelpunkt dieser Veranstaltung sollte die Frage darstellen, ob (und wie[weit]) man das individuelle Leben und Leiden eines anderen Menschen verstehen müsse und verstehen könne? Beim Rückblick auf Sick with… zeigte sich, dass diese Frage dort nur zum Teil beantwortet und auch nur zum Teil gestellt wurde. So wurde zwar ausführlich über das verstehen müssen und die ent- sprechende ärztliche Verpflichtung diskutiert, die meist nicht beachteten 80- 90% der Patientengeschichte (s.o.) zu berücksichtigen. Das verstehen können eines anderen individuellen Lebens und Leidens wurde jedoch nicht problematisiert, zu- mindest nicht außerhalb der zeitlichen („keine Zeit“) und fachlichen („nicht mein Aufgabenbereich“) Einschränkungen des Berufsalltags. Damit steuerte Sick with… einer kritischen Vereinfachung entgegen, die man mit Fritz Breit- haupt als Trugschluss des „akkurate[n] Verstehen[s]“ bezeichnen könnte: die Annahme es gebe eine „absolute Gleichartigkeit zwischen mir und dem ande- ren“, die es erlaubt, meine eigenen Wahrnehmungen „auf den anderen zu über- tragen“ (Breithaupt 2009, 22). Denn wenn sich Medizinstudierende vorstellen sollen, wie es ihnen als Rollstuhlfahrer erginge, um dadurch (besser) verstehen zu können, wie es einem anderen Individuum ergeht, das tatsächlich im Rollstuhl sitzt, dann impliziert die Aufgabenstellung eine „Ähnlichkeit“, die zur „Über- schätzung von Ähnlichkeit [verleitet]“ (Breithaupt 2009, 20).
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Effects of sensory feedback on duration reproduction

Effects of sensory feedback on duration reproduction

other (additionally presented) modality. It has been argued that the modality appropriateness hypothesis might be a too simplistic explanation of multisensory integration, as it has been shown that if in a spatial localization tasks visual signals are degraded, the typically found visual dominance in the task can be reversed, so that participants rather trust an auditory signal over a degraded visual signal (Alais & Burr, 2004). Also, it was shown that an auditory click was perceived as earlier in time when it was preceded by a visual flash and as later when it was followed by a flash, similar (but smaller in amount) to capture effects shown for visual stimuli by auditory events (Fendrich & Corballis, 2001). Moreover, it has been demonstrated that the brain might combine information from different senses in a probabilistic way, rather than simply choosing information from only one sensory input and neglecting the other. One well known model is the Maximum Likelihood Estimation (MLE) model (Alais & Burr, 2004; Ernst & Banks, 2002; Ernst & Bülthoff, 2004) which uses Bayesian statistics to quantitatively account for multisensory integration. The MLE model suggests that an ideal observer will combined two independent, sensory signals in a linear-weighted fashion, such that the combined estimate has highest reliability (Ernst & Banks, 2002). The optimal weights used for the multimodal integration are proportional to the reliability (i.e., the inverse of its variance) of each estimate. Therefore, the modality that provides less variable information in a given situation will have a higher weight and a greater influence on the final percept. With an ideal observer, the MLE estimate is the best estimate among any linear-weighted combination, because it is least variable and maximally reliable. The winner-take-all estimate suggested by the modality appropriateness hypothesis (Welch & Warren, 1980) would be less optimal since it only takes information from one modality while neglecting others (Alais et al., 2010; Ernst & Bülthoff, 2004; Ernst & Di Luca, 2011; Vilares & Kording, 2011). This increased reliability in cue integration, enhances object discrimination and identification, and facilitates a reaction to the external world (Vroomen & Keetels, 2010).
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