dose-response-relationship

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Dose-Response-Relationship between Number of Laser Burns and IOP Reduction in Cyclophotocoagulation : an Animal Study

Dose-Response-Relationship between Number of Laser Burns and IOP Reduction in Cyclophotocoagulation : an Animal Study

Purpose. The relationship between number of laser burns of cyclophotocoagulation (CPC) and intraocular pressure (IOP) reduction is unknown. This animal model was established to reveal a possible dose-response-relationship between the number of applied laser burns and the IOP lowering effect. Methods. 30 chinchilla bastard rabbits were divided into 5 groups and treated with either 1, 5, 10, 20, or 30 CPC burns, respectively. IOP was followed up for 1 week. IOP reduction of a single 30-burn treatment was compared with a fractionated treatment (three sessions; one week in between; 10 burns/session). Results. IOP reduction increases nonlinearly with the number of CPC burns (max. −6.1 ± 1.4 mmHg). Fractionated treatment shows similar IOP reduction with less complications and more constant results compared to single session treatment. Conclusions. The study reveals a complex relationship between IOP reduction and the number of CPC burns. Fractionated CPC gives comparable IOP reduction at a higher degree of safety.
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Dose-Response-Relationship between Number of Laser Burns and IOP Reduction in Cyclophotocoagulation : an Animal Study

Dose-Response-Relationship between Number of Laser Burns and IOP Reduction in Cyclophotocoagulation : an Animal Study

Received 10 February 2014; Revised 10 June 2014; Accepted 10 June 2014; Published 29 June 2014 Academic Editor: Mitsuru Nakazawa Copyright © 2014 Lars Wagenfeld et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. Purpose. The relationship between number of laser burns of cyclophotocoagulation (CPC) and intraocular pressure (IOP) reduction is unknown. This animal model was established to reveal a possible dose-response-relationship between the number of applied laser burns and the IOP lowering effect. Methods. 30 chinchilla bastard rabbits were divided into 5 groups and treated with either 1, 5, 10, 20, or 30 CPC burns, respectively. IOP was followed up for 1 week. IOP reduction of a single 30-burn treatment was compared with a fractionated treatment (three sessions; one week in between; 10 burns/session). Results. IOP reduction increases nonlinearly with the number of CPC burns (max. −6.1 ± 1.4 mmHg). Fractionated treatment shows similar IOP reduction with less complications and more constant results compared to single session treatment. Conclusions. The study reveals a complex relationship between IOP reduction and the number of CPC burns. Fractionated CPC gives comparable IOP reduction at a higher degree of safety.
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Dose-response relationship of locomotor training in patients with spinal cord injury : preliminary results

Dose-response relationship of locomotor training in patients with spinal cord injury : preliminary results

training leads to a better walking outcome in patients with incomplete spinal cord injury (SCI), who are. initially unable to walk independently (i.e. B and C according to the Internat[r]

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Estimating of dose-responce relationship of Shinkansen railway noise using noise mapping

Estimating of dose-responce relationship of Shinkansen railway noise using noise mapping

The dose-response relationship of traffic noise is key data to understand the total amount of traffic noise impact on residents and to develop the environmental noise standard in Japan. To estimate the dose-response relationship, the noise exposure levels at the house of respondents of the questionnaire survey have to be accurately estimated. Up until now, in Japan, the dose value has been estimated using measurement-based noise levels. There could be any number of reasons why they used measurement-based noise levels as dose value. It is thought that the main reason is the Environmental Quality Standards for Shinkansen Superexpress Railway Noise [1]. The noise levels are measured and evaluated using the peak noise level. The peak noise levels ( , ) of each of the Shinkansen trains passing in both directions for 20 successive trains are measured. After that, the Shinkansen railway noise is evaluated by the energy mean value of the higher half of the measured peak noise levels. Furthermore, the noise levels for dose value have not been considered the noise attenuation by houses because of the unestablished digital national base map. Recent years have seen rapid progress in establishing such detailed digital national base map on a scale of one to 2,500 by the Geospatial Information Authority of Japan and in establishing transportation noise mapping techniques. In this paper, we propose a noise mapping technique of Shinkansen-railway by using a point sound source model and re-estimate the dose-response relationship of Hokuriku Shinkansen Superexpress railway noise.
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Acute effects of aerobic exercise on cognitive attention and memory performance: an investigation on duration-based dose-response relations and the impact of increased arousal levels

Acute effects of aerobic exercise on cognitive attention and memory performance: an investigation on duration-based dose-response relations and the impact of increased arousal levels

20 min and 15 min of treadmill running at 60–70% of age-predicted maximal heart rate, respectively. Compared to visual tasks, more consistent results on cognitive performance were reported for verbal learning [ 10 , 19 , 20 ]. Sng et al. [ 10 ] created an exercise stimulus consisting of 15 min of moderate intensity walking and assessed the Rey Auditory Verbal Learning Test (RAVLT) before and during exercise, as well as 20 min after exercise cessation. They showed that the group which exercised before the RAVLT scored significantly better than the group exercising during the RAVLT (p = 0.006) and the group that exercised after the RAVLT (p < 0.0001). The RAVLT is designed to evaluate verbal memory and follows a list-learning paradigm. Yet, it remains questionable if comparable effects can be obtained using a visual learning paradigm and if these possible effects follow a duration-based doseresponse relationship.
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Authors' response

Authors' response

Our article [1] presents our first investigations of dabiga- tran reversal, including the preliminary dose-finding work required to proceed with in vivo studies. Using a similar porcine model of trauma, we now have initial in vivo results [4]. A prothrombin complex concentrate dose of 50 IU/kg was effective in reducing total blood loss and increasing survival. This indicates that our ex vivo data are applicable in vivo .

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Authors' response

Authors' response

Our article [1] presents our first investigations of dabiga- tran reversal, including the preliminary dose-finding work required to proceed with in vivo studies. Using a similar porcine model of trauma, we now have initial in vivo results [4]. A prothrombin complex concentrate dose of 50 IU/kg was effective in reducing total blood loss and increasing survival. This indicates that our ex vivo data are applicable in vivo.

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Revisiting Okun's Relationship

Revisiting Okun's Relationship

We turn now to the effect of labour market variables in explaining differences in the unemployment rate across countries and over time. The signs and significance of most these variables are robust across the different specifications. The results given in column (1) in the lower part of Table 3 show that there is no significant relationship between the (equilibrium) unemployment rate and union coverage (defined as the proportion of work- ers covered by collective bargaining) but we find a significant and, as expected, positive relationship between the unemployment rate and union density (defined as the proportion of workers who are union members). Furthermore, wage coordination has a significant negative effect on unemployment while the UI replacement rate has a significant posi- tive effect. Employment protection legislation has no significant effect on unemployment.
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Konfliktlösung zwischen Landwirtschaft, Naturschutz und Torfabbau – das “Klappkonzept“ in der Esterweger Dose / Niedersachsen

Konfliktlösung zwischen Landwirtschaft, Naturschutz und Torfabbau – das “Klappkonzept“ in der Esterweger Dose / Niedersachsen

Dem Torfwerk Moorkultur Ramsloh wurde auf rund 400 ha am Ostrand der Esterweger Dose der Abbau von Torf genehmigt. Der Abbauplanung liegt das „Klappkonzept“ zugrunde, dass die notwen- dige Kompensation auf zentrale Bereiche des Moores verlagert und für die neuen Abbauflächen eine für die dortigen Grundeigentümer unverzichtbare landwirtschaftliche Folgenutzung gewährleistet. Die für zentrale staatliche Flächen in den alten Genehmigungen festgeschriebene Folgenutzung Landwirt- schaft wurde durch das Torfwerk finanziell abgelöst.

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Customer Relationship Vulnerability: A New Concept in Relationship Marketing

Customer Relationship Vulnerability: A New Concept in Relationship Marketing

5.2. Managerial Implications The findings also imply that service or product providers should be concerned with high CRV when implementing CRM initiatives. Relationship marketing research acknowledges that some customers are more profitable to a service or product provider than others. In this context, more profitable is not necessarily the amount of sales these customers bring to the provider; but how much the company make on every dollar invested in them. Understanding whether a customer can maintain relationships with service or product firms is particularly essential for maximizing cost efficiency. Peppers et al. (1999) argued that it is critical for managers to determine which customers cost their company money. Building and maintaining relationships with customers with high CRV may generate costs beyond what the service or product firm wants to incur. To illustrate, imagine a company with a customer base of 5 million, and as part of a CRM initiative, the company is planning on spending one dollar on each customer. Given the magnitude of the CRM-immune customer segment (i.e., a quarter of the customer base), the company can save up to $1.250 million of the CRM costs, by simply avoiding this segment. This figure demonstrate that marketers should focus more on customers with low and moderate CRV.
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Entity-Relationship-Modell

Entity-Relationship-Modell

• stellt die Wechselwirkung oder Abhängigkeit zwischen Entitäten dar; • Beziehungen können Eigenschaften besitzen und demnach auch. Tabellen (Relationen) darstellen;[r]

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The new concept of dose adjustment in tree crops

The new concept of dose adjustment in tree crops

1 Universitat de Lleida-Agrotecnio Center.RG in AgroICT & Precision Agriculture. Lleida. SPAIN 2 Generalitat de Catalunya. Dep. Agriculture, Livestock, Fisheries, Food & Nat. Env. Lleida.SPAIN e-mail: splanas@eagrof.udl.cat Key words: Dose adjustment, Spraying pesticides, Tree orchards, LIDAR Introduction

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Grenzen der Wissenschaftlichkeit bei der Grenzwertfestlegung: Kritik der Low-Dose-Forschung

Grenzen der Wissenschaftlichkeit bei der Grenzwertfestlegung: Kritik der Low-Dose-Forschung

Da solche Schäden auch durch andere Einflüsse, chemische Noxen etwa, bewirkt werden können, sind sie nie eindeutig auf Strahlung zurückzuführen.. Es bedarf daher großen statistischen Auf[r]

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Intermediate-dose cytarabine plus mitoxantrone versus standard-dose cytarabine plus daunorubicin for acute myeloid leukemia in elderly patients

Intermediate-dose cytarabine plus mitoxantrone versus standard-dose cytarabine plus daunorubicin for acute myeloid leukemia in elderly patients

Conclusion In conclusion, the results of the AML 60þ trial indicate that eld- erly AML patients benefit from a dose escalation of cytarabine in induction therapy by significantly higher CR rates and similar tolerability compared with a standard 7 þ 3 approach. In our trial, this did not translate into a survival advantage, most likely due to differences in consolidation treatment of the respective treatment arms. In combination with an effective consolidation strategy such as high-dose cytarabine or allogeneic transplanta- tion, our current results favor the use of intermediate dose cytara- bine in induction for patients with a curative AML treatment approach.
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A Relationship between Carbonic Anhydrase and Rubisco in Response to Moderate Cadmium Stress during Light Activation of Photosynthesis 

A Relationship between Carbonic Anhydrase and Rubisco in Response to Moderate Cadmium Stress during Light Activation of Photosynthesis 

Introduction The Calvin cycle plays a very important role in the environmental stress susceptibility and in the stress adaptation of higher plants. Weigel (1985a and b) claimed this cycle to be the main target of cadmium toxicity. The “effect of multiplication”, defined by Krupa and Baszyriski (1995), defines heavy metal toxicity as the result of a number of direct and indirect effects - from functional to structural disorders. Individual changes can be small, but when they reach the photosynthetic ap­ paratus they cause severe disturbances in photo­ synthesis, even at low heavy metal content in chlo­ roplasts. It seems to be evident that plant response to heavy metal stress includes various adaptation mechanisms (Krupa and Baszyriski, 1995). These mechanisms are expected to differ in their effi-
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Nonprofit Donor Relationship Management : An Evaluation of Blood Donor Relationship Marketing Strategies

Nonprofit Donor Relationship Management : An Evaluation of Blood Donor Relationship Marketing Strategies

Against this background, donors are confronted with a continuously growing direct mailing volume from diverse organizations (Diamond & Iyer, 2007; Feld et al., 2013). They all compete for the limited attention of the receiver (e.g., Lhoest-Snoeck, van Nierop, & Verhoef, 2014). However, since the marketing budget of nonprofit organizations is limited; they need to optimize their marketing performance (Bacile, Ye, & Swilley, 2014; Sargeant, Jay, & Lee, 2006; Thomas, Feng, & Krishnan, 2015). Therefore, an extensive body of academic literature examines how direct mailings could be developed even more successful in the nonprofit context. Besides the well documented approaches of segmenting and targeting of donors (e.g., Rupp, Kern, & Helmig, 2014) as well as the improvement of contents and design elements of direct mailings (e.g., Bekkers & Crutzen, 2007; Diamond & Iyer, 2007; Feld et al., 2013), another promising approach is the optimization of direct mailing frequencies (Schweidel & Knox, 2013; Van Diepen, Donkers, & Franses, 2009). Studies provide evidence that optimizing the frequency of direct mailings over a defined time period affects the retention success in general (e.g., Elsner, Krafft, & Huchzermeier, 2004; Piersma & Jonker, 2004). Moreover, the optimization of the frequency of direct mailings can lead to cost saving opportunities (Sargeant, 2001) and may strengthen the relationship between an organization and its stakeholder, since donors only receive those direct mailings they need to show the desired behavior (Schumann, Petty, & Clemons, 1990).
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Citizen Relationship Management (CRM)

Citizen Relationship Management (CRM)

Dar¨uber hinaus ist zu bedenken, daß der Kunde l¨angst nicht mehr K¨onig im Hinblick auf pr¨agende unternehmerische Entscheidungen ist. Die Sitten am Hofe des Unternehmensmanagements bestimmen prim¨ar Shareholder-Value und Profit. Das Citizien Relationship Management kann also nicht einfach die Customer- Rolle ¨ubernehmen, wenn es vom Customer Relationship Management lernen will. Es muß vielmehr den Customer++ in den Mittelpunkt r¨ucken. Im Analogiebild formuliert: Die Shareholder-Rolle ist einzubeziehen.

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A LiDAR crop scanner for managing pesticide dose adjustment

A LiDAR crop scanner for managing pesticide dose adjustment

Figure1. (a) The off-the-shelf systems of a tractor mounted LiDAR Crop Scanner, (b) cumulative probability of the LiDAR beam transmission, (c) local differential probability of the LiDAR beam interception. Figure 2. (a) PACE dose adjustments: pre-blossom label dose, (b)PACE dose adjustments: post-blossom label dose,

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Diagnosis of osteoporosis in statin-treated patients is dose-dependent

Diagnosis of osteoporosis in statin-treated patients is dose-dependent

these findings, the present study also demonstrates an underrep- resentation of osteoporosis in statin- treated patients, but only in patients on low dose statin therapy and not on high dose treat- ment of at least 1 year. Therefore, the increase of the dosage of statins was related to an overrepresentation of osteoporosis. A retrospective cohort study by Ward et al also omitted specifying the type of statin when comparing the fracture incidence of 6967 patients taking statins vs an equal number of controls. About one third of the patients received maximum dosages for simvas- tatin, pravastatin and atorvastatin, which were defined as 80 mg, and 40 mg for rosuvastatin. Although statins seem to decrease the risk of femoral neck fractures, there was no difference in
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Lokale Kontrolle und Lebensqualität nach normdosierter Low Dose Rate-Brachytherapie des Prostatakarzinoms

Lokale Kontrolle und Lebensqualität nach normdosierter Low Dose Rate-Brachytherapie des Prostatakarzinoms

Einbezogen werden 100 Patienten mit histologisch gesichertem Prostatakarzinom (T1c-2b; T= Tumor), die im Zeitraum März 2000 bis November 2002 an der Universitätsklinik Ulm eine Low Dose Rate-Brachytherapie erhielten. Das mittlere Diagnosealter betrug 67,3 Jahre und die durchschnittliche Nachbeobachtungszeit 57 Monate, in der die PSA (= prostataspezifisches Antigen) -Entwicklung, das Auftreten von Rezidiven sowie eingetretene Todesfälle registriert worden sind. Die Daten wurden von der Universität Ulm zur Verfügung gestellt, sowie durch ergänzende Angaben von Patienten und nachbehandelnden Ärzten vervollständigt. Die Auswirkungen auf die Lebensqualität wurden anhand eines zusätzlichen IPSS (= Internationaler Prostata Symptomen Score) -Fragebogens sowie erweiterter EORTC (= European Organisation for Research and Treatment of Cancer) QLQ-C30 (= Quality of Life Questionnaires) erhoben.
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