Harald Gruber 1 (European Investment Bank, Luxembourg) Pantelis Koutroumpis (Athens Business School)
The paper assesses the scope for competition inducing infrastructure regulation in furthering the diffusionofinnovation. The paper uses data on the adoption of broadband services comprising a global panel of 167 countries. The effects of different regulatory provisions are assessed. The result of this paper allows qualifying different elements of the regulatory debate on the consequences of access requirements, including mandatory unbundling.
Total 100 100
In the first quarter of 2008 - according to the National Register of Economic Organizations compiled by the Hungarian Central Statistical Office (HCSO) - 4,049 companies with 10 or more employees were registered in the field of business services, while 2,714 were registered in Slovakia (Bajzikova - Sajgalikova - Wojcak - Polakova, 2009: 5-6.). In order to design a statistically representative sample of firms, 200 companies were selected from Hungary and 100 companies from Slovakia using a multi-stage stratified sampling method. The basic economic activity of the firms classified by the NACE code was used as the stratification variable. This sampling method ensured equal probability for all companies belonging to the population surveyed to be selected in the sample and reflected the heterogeneity of the organisational population as well. In other words, the sampling structure reflects the composition of the companies operating in various (e.g. “new” and “mature”) economic activity branches. The sampling lower treshhold was companies employing at least 10 persons. Firms with 0 to 9 employees were excluded, a based on previous research experience, these firms are hardly available for surveys. Also, because the division of labour within these firms is rather underdeveloped, making it difficult to find and compare the forms of organisational innovation with bigger firms (Valeyre et al., 2009).
Another unique ramification for practitioners is related to network externalities. Since both the direct and indirect network effects are found to be significant, this sug- gests both the internal organization software used by a firm, as well as competitors ’ and supply chain partners’ use of software, impact the CRM adoption process. Thus, supply chain dependent firms should not only focus efforts on exploring how CRM fits the firm’s internal technology information needs, as Chan  suggested, but also how it in- tegrates with external partners in the supply chain. Going beyond current research, the results of our study also appear to suggest that positive network externalities aid in the diffusionof CRM innovation if supply chain personnel understand the software’s im- pact on the industry and its use by competitors. Perhaps the supply chain manager’s role in adopting technology should include educating subordinates regarding competi- tors ’ usage of the same technology.
Mode of communication (MC) Communication has advanced significantly from the times of manual typewriters, telegrams and window placards. According to the re- searchers, such as; Baker, (1995), Cooper, (1999), Cooper, (2005) Dahnil et al. (2014), Hameed, et al. (2012a), Gopalakrishnan and Bierly (2001) and so forth the newest trend in communication that aids in a diffusionofinnovation is social media advertising. That is, the cautious utilisation of social media sites like Facebook, MySpace, YouTube and Twit- ter to draw the consumer in their trusted network. Buyers make online profiles and orga- nisations make “fan pages” or Twitter accounts that user might “like” or associate with it. The second alternative is email; Internal organisation communication depends on email; in only an era, email has supplanted paper as the mode of communication. The website is additionally one of the options for Critical communication. A few organisations go beyond and utilise their website to host user discussion forums, reports, videos and to post blog
Table 2 provides empirical evidence of the regional diffusionofinnovation capabilities 9 , over the time span 1980-2001. Absolute value data about patent applications are not that suitable for comparative purposes, due to cross-regional dimensional differences. In order to investigate the diffusionofinnovation capabilities the data about patent applications need to be somehow normalized. Different alternatives could apply to the case. First of all we ruled out population statistics, in that their link with innovation variables is too weak and difficult to assess 10 . A variable related to the dimension of the production system would be more appropriate to our analysis. The alternatives are thus either the regional number of firms or the number of workers. The former seem to be inappropriate as there can be a bias towards those areas characterized by a large number of small and medium-sized firms, with the consequent underestimation of dimensions in areas characterized by a lower number of large firms. 4
2 Graduate Institute of Industrial and Business Management, National Taipei University of Technology, Taipei, Taiwan 3
Graduate School of Creative Industry Design, National Taiwan University of Arts, New Taipei City, Taiwan
This study aimed at exploring the critical factors for enterprises to adopt broadband mobile applications. The results are expected to guide enterprises to strengthen their competitiveness. Further, since the broadband mobile applications were integrated with many characteristics of information communication technologies, this study combined the Technology-Organization-Environment (TOE) framework and DiffusionofInnovation Theory in an effort to establish a comprehensive view and to increase the level of understanding. The Structural Equation Modeling and AMOS were applied for analysis; which discovered that the adoption of broadband mobile applications by enterprises is significantly affected by technological, organizational and environmental contexts. This paper also identified eleven critical factors from technological, organizational and environmental aspects, as well as two vital control variables. Based on the research outcome, this paper conducted an in-depth discussion and drew conclusions. Finally, the research implications were provided.
3.2 National Macroeconomic Conditions
Characteristics of the national environment influence geographic spread of organizational innovation. The level of infrastructure development is an important aspect in this regard. For instance, firms in a country with better transportation and communication system enhances competitiveness of the respective country’s products on export markets. Consequently, growers are hypothesized to more incentive to participate in a standardization scheme meant to fulfill a specific export market. Organizational innovations diffuse not only between nation-states, but also within them (True and Mintrom, 2001). Therefore, poor communication infrastructure makes it less likely getting access to information about export requirements and the likelihood of interaction between potential adopters. In a study about diffusionof ISO certificates, Neumayer and Perkins (2005) find a positive correlation between infrastructure and intensity of certification. Commin and Hobjin (2004) find a positive between real GDP and technology adoption, showing that rich economies not only invent new technologies but also have leading position in the adoption of these innovations. So diffusionofinnovation can be seen much as a trickle down effects where richer economies leading the adoption. Governance consists of the traditions and institutions by which authority in a country is exercised (Kaufman et al., 2009). Governance in a country shapes the functioning of its institutions, hence governance level prevailing in a country affect diffusionof organizational innovation. Herzfeld et. al. (2011) find higher penetration of GlobalGAP certificates with better conditions of ‘rule of law – a governance indicator.
Returning to the question of how SMEs confront the innovative process and the possible dynamic path described above, cluster technology plays a key role in reducing both uncertainty and information costs for SMEs, as described above. Therefore, it could be said that both LFs and SMEs follow different paths with the same goal of evading the pernicious effects of risk and cost on their industrial activity. If cluster technology guarantees non-exclusion from technology, firms will have less incentive to innovate and will innovate less. If the new innovation will be available to everyone tomorrow, why make the effort to innovate today? More important still, if SMEs tend to move in markets where conditions of competitive equilibrium (p=mc) prevail, how can sunk costs such as investment in routine R&D be recovered? Two forces tend to inhibit innovation: the guarantee of non-exclusion cluster technology offers its members and p=mc conditions in markets where SMEs usually participate. Under the influence of these forces, firms maximize diffusionofinnovation (its use), but minimize its
process of , special attention is given to attributes and behavioral rules as well as the social and environmental system.
 introduce a descriptive grammar as well as an evaluation framework for empirically grounded agent-based models in the public health domain. It exhibits one of the most extensive frameworks in the literature to assist in designing and modeling of such systems. In this context, a grammar for a systematic and consistent description is proposed. This can guide the modelers early in the model development process just as the ODD protocol . The use of the grammar intends to improve communication between the model development team and the policy-makers and will help to ensure that everyone is in agreement about the goals and intended uses of the model. The grammar is divided into seven broad categories: (1) basic model description; (2) model agents; (3) use of data and theories; (4) model context, (5) model outcomes; (6) policy aspects; (7) communication aspects. Each category is further divided into various descriptors with guiding questions for assistance. Furthermore, based on the literature review and expert knowledge, an evaluation framework for developers, funders, policy-makers, modelers, and scientists is presented. The evaluation framework is designed to cover the important aspects of designing, implementing, testing, and disseminating policy-relevant agent-based models, especially for tobacco control regulatory and policy e fforts. It can be used to assess the model development processes as well as its outcomes. The framework is structured into five major sections: (1) resources; (2) activities; (3) outputs; (4) outcomes; (5) environment. Each of the sections can be selected for evaluation. The presented case of the framework is based on .
3. IMPACT OF R&D EFFECTS IN A TRANSFORMATION STAGE
The theoretical and empirical research, basically suggests that interregional differences, in other words interregional disparities can be explained by cumulative causation analysis (Atalık 2002). In this chapter, it is aimed to examine some effects of R&D on the development level for some European regions, notably for the clustered economic landscape in Europe, strengthens or weakens over a certain time and to what extent economic integration influences the development. Nevertheless, the real difficulty for this attempt has been the availability and reliability of the data on R&D at the regional level in Europe (Eurostat Data). In this article, the relationship of GDP with Gross Domestic Expenditure on R&D per capita, R&D personnel by occupation (researchers), and the patent applications are taken into account in regional and national scale, beside convergence process for the same period in the transformation/expansion stage.
The im p o rta n t influence of te m p eratu re and p re s su re change on th e fo rm a tio n an d m otion Gibbs functions g ( V T ) and g ( V , T ) has been stressed. To be com patible w ith q u asi-h arm o n ic theory, pair- force m odels m ust em ploy forces fitted to the q u a si h arm o n ic b eh a v io u r of the perfect crystal. T he lack of d a ta needed to fit m odified forces n ea r defects m akes these p ro ce d u re s im p ractical fo r im perfect crystals. Indeed, it is not clear th a t any seriously q u an tita tiv e calcu latio n can be c a rrie d th ro u g h at p resen t fo r any category of cry stal. T his p a p e r de scribes an e x p lo ra to ry study of the surfaces g ( V , T ) and g ( V T ) directed m ainly, b u t not en tirely, to w ards the case of ionic crystals, in which the optic m odes play an im p o rta n t p a rt. It is suggested that the fu tu re developm ent of defect calcu latio n s m ay m ost usefully be d irec ted tow ards a fu rth e r study of these surfaces th ro u g h o u t are as of the V, T plane relevent to experim ental defect studies.
MS Se-landia ( Stapersma , 1996 ).
In 1925, when steam was absolutely dominating the market of merchant ships, Popular Mechanics Magazine writes: ”Commercially, the advantages of motor ship are very great. Boats driven by Diesel motors save 75 % on space needed to carry fuel, this way more space is made available for cargo, with appreciable effect on the earning power of the ship. The fuel bill of a motor ship is small compared with that of a steamship: a motor ship of average size will consume 15 tons of fuel a day, where an oil-burning steamer would need 30 tons. A motor ship can carry 20 % more cargo than a steamship of the same size, because a vast amount of space in the engine room of a steamship is taken up by boilers, which are not needed by the motor ship. Water-ballast tanks, holding a non-paying element on the steamship, are absent
2.1 Innovation as an Interactive Process
Technological change is a complex process that is not yet fully understood. This complexity stems partially from the diverse set of phenomena that are subsumed under the term innovation. Bienaymé (1986), for example, distinguishes between product innovations; innovations destined to resolve, circumvent or eliminate a technical difficulty in manufacture or to improve services; innovations for the purpose of saving inputs (e.g. energy conservation, automation); and, innovations to improve the conditions of work. These very different phenomena have made generalization difficult (Malecki 1997). For a long time thinking about technological change and innovation has been guided by linear models - in the 1950s and 1960s by the technology-push and then the need-pull model. In the former, the development, production and marketing of new technology [defined in the sense of Mansfield et al. (1982) as consisting of a pool or set of knowledge] was assumed to follow a well defined time sequence which began with basic and applied research activities, involved a product development stage, and then led to production and possibly commercialisation. In the second model, this linear sequential process emphasized demand and markets as the source of ideas for R&D activities. These models that have guided the formulation of national R&D policies in the past have come under increasing attack in recent years for several reasons, not the least of which is the absence of feedback loops between the downstream (market-related) and upstream (technology-related) phases ofinnovation. Intensifying competition and shorter product life cycles are necessitating a closer integration of R&D with the other phases of the innovation process.
Notwithstanding a lack of formal working groups, there are informal institutional cooperations that are crucial to implementing the Detailed Master Plan. The opera- tion exists in two ﬁ elds. First, there are work placements from other institutions in the One Stop Center of the City of Kigali and vice versa for coordination. In case no one is directly placed in the department, counterparts are involved in all coordination: ‘With regards to other agencies, for example, civil aviation authori- ty, RDB, REMA, we have even people placed internally within One Stop Center. Energy, Water and Sanitation Authority (EWSA) we have somebody placed here so whenever we need an updating of what is going on, we have a direct link in all these institutions’ (i-head of OSC 2014b: 6). Although work cooperations had existed before the Detailed Master Plan, there were rarely any work placements. Cooperation has, thus, intensiﬁ ed, due in part to the extent of urban projects. Second, employees connect independently. International experts deem informal networks necessary for fulﬁ lling work objectives. There has to be a ‘clear […] inter- face’ (i-Affordable Housing Unit 2014: 7), because the knowledge of the plan only exists in the OSC of the City of Kigali. These connections are important to reach the work objectives (Ibdn: 3).
This mechanism of knowledge creation and diffusion in space has been affected by two important changes: the first one is the ’technological revolution’, which has determined an increase in the innovation pace. The second change is the devel- opment of the ICTs which have made easier, faster and cheaper the transfer of blueprinted knowledge across places. This is determining an increase in the easi- ness ofdiffusionof knowledge, even if, in order to use the blueprints, it is always necessary to have people able to understand and implement them and even if the spread of the ICTs can also have effects on innovation and its spatial concentration. This article investigates the effect that the interaction between the creation and the spatial diffusionof technology brings on regional disparities. We will show that an increase in the pace ofinnovation can engender regional income disparities; we will also show that if, afterwards, the speed ofdiffusion also increases enough, these disparities can fade out. The paper will not, at this stage, address the problem of which effect will eventually prevail in the real World.
method at a large number of equally-spaced discrete locations in the physical domain under investigation. The method is detailed for two-dimensional rectangular cases. The approach is based on solving Equation 1 by evaluating the ratio between the solutions of the steady state components of J and the corresponding energy density gradients ∇w. One assumption in the derivation of the diffusion Equation 2 is that the variations per mean free path of w, J, and thus D, must be small. However, the solutions of a full wave-based method, as proposed here, implicitly include the interference effects due to the wave nature of sound propagation and therefore, the results are not as smooth as the diffusion equation would demand. In order to reduce this effect, calculating the energy density and the intensity in broader frequency bands, as indicated in Section 3.1 , contributes to smoothing the results, as well as the local spatial averaging, performed according to Section 3.2 . After the calculation and local averaging, the sound energy density gradient is computed as presented in Section 3.3 . In Section 3.4 , the gradient and the acoustic intensity are then averaged over the narrow dimension of the street. Before obtaining the diffusion coefﬁcients, a smoothing process over the acoustics intensity and sound energy density is applied according to Section 3.5 . Finally, the diffusion coefﬁcients are obtained according to Section 3.6 . Additionally, the variations per mean free path of the energy density and the acoustic intensity are not expected to be smooth along the narrow dimension of a street canyon. Therefore, the methodology presented in this section is only employed for computing the diffusion coefﬁcients along the direction of the biggest dimension of the street.
Nigeria is no exception in this respect. The key district in Kenya is Nairobi, which is the capital and the primate city. It is followed by Mombassa, which is Kenya’s second largest city and home to Kenya’s largest seaport. The key districts encompass or are part of the primate city in many other African countries as well, including Ethiopia (Addis Ababa) and South Africa (Johannesburg). The overall pattern suggests that primate cities tend to be the key districts for economic development in Africa. This finding resonates with findings on the importance of primate cities for development. Ades and Glaeser (1995) and Henderson (2002) point out the importance of primate cities in general, while Storeygard (2016) empirically highlights the importance of primate cities in Africa. In addition, Henderson et al. (2017) document high spatial inequality in late-developing countries, with one or a few urban areas being much more economically developed than the rest of these countries. The finding that primate cities are the key districts suggests that they are not only characterized by higher local economic activity but that they also tend to cause more spatial economic spillovers than other districts.
Total telecom 250.2 213.5
Source: EITO (2000)
T h e re could be structural reasons that prevent the European economy from assimilating inform a t i o n t e c h n o l o g y. These may reside in a lack of skilled workers to operate IT, as well as org a n i s a t i o n a l rigidities that weaken the incentives for companies and public sector institutions to adopt IT. A survey of the adoption rate of equipment for accessing the information and communication infrastru c t u re (see F i g u re 7) shows that Europe is also lagging behind the US in the adoption of PCs, the pre d o m i n a n t mode of access to the Internet. There f o re it is not surprising that Internet usage is lagging in Europe too. F i g u re 8 also shows that there is a huge diversity in the adoption of IT equipment within Europe. The average number of 35 PCs per 100 inhabitants varies from a maximum of 66 for the Netherlands to a low of 15 for Greece. Likewise, Internet access has also a very large variation across EU countries. Europe is also behind in the diffusion on fixed telecommunications lines (see Figure 7). However, with overall penetration rates of more than 50 lines per head, all households and firms are connected, and differences in diffusion may not have important implications. Europe is also ahead of the US in the diffusionof enhanced data rate telecommunications access, such as ISDN. Finally, Europe is definitively leading in the diffusionof mobile telecommunications. As Figure 9 shows, in this sector the variation across EU countries is also less pronounced than for PCs and Internet access. Around the EU average of 65 lines per 100 inhabitants, there is a maximum of 75 for Austria and Sweden and a minimum of 50 for France. What is also interesting is that the usual ranking of high tech industries with Scandinavian countries in the lead and Southern European countries lagging, does not apply with the diffusionof mobile telecommunications.