socially advantaged districts, as students there can be expected to be somewhat better informed and to have better private (and school-related) information sources, meaning that external information may be less fruitful (Betts, 1996; Hastings et al., 2016). Furthermore, the effect of providing information on returns might be reduced in rural areas, where the supply of HE institutions and majors is clearly limited, meaning that the social and economic costs related to geographic mobility may restrict students’ choice set. However, reducing the potential influence of such confounders at different levels helps to identify the underlying mechanisms and effectiveness of a treatment for the group under consideration. Finally, we have to admit the rather small sample size of our study, especially at the school level (the level of our randomization) but also at the individual level. Especially the group of treated men is small; even more so after differentiating by job attribute preferences. This obviously leads to imprecise estimates. Despite this, the estimates among men still reach conventional levels of statistical significance. Apparently, the treatment effect is strong enough to be visible even under such adverse circumstances. With our robustness checks, we showed that our results are stable even with different specifications of the sample and the dependent variable. We are thus confident that the limitations of our data did not lead to biased results. Further experimental studies would, however, benefit from larger sample sizes to increase the robustness of findings but also to allow for investigating effect heterogeneity (e.g., concerning the interaction between gender and social or migration background).
In general, the term overeducation refers to a job match in which the educational level of the worker clearly exceeds the educational requirements of the job. In the terminol- ogy of labour economics, this is often considered a vertical skill mismatch, as opposed to horizontal mismatches (workers choosing jobs with requirements outside the scope of their fieldofstudy/apprenticeship). A widespread occurrence of this phenomenon can seriously impair the competitiveness of an economy. From a macroeconomic per- spective, an overeducation status of qualified workers reflects a waste of scarce hu- man capital. From a microeconomic perspective, it can affect a worker’s job satisfac- tion. In turn, a skill mismatch can reduce overall work motivation, expressing itself in more frequent absenteeism and higher turnover of the workforce (Tsang and Levin, 1985; Sicherman, 1991; Sloane et al., 1999). Moreover, overeducation is associated with earnings losses (e.g. Daly et al., 2000; Bauer, 2002; Boll and Leppin, 2016). However, before being able to tackle the problem successfully, it is essential to un- derstand the driving forces of overeducation at the individual level. In international comparison, the relevance of these driving forces might vary between countries and regions. Against this background, the aim of this paper is to identify possible determi- nants of overeducation for young (20-35 years) highly-educated (tertiary level) work- ers in EU-28 countries. We make use of the 2016 wave of the European Labour Force Survey (EU-LFS), a quarterly household sample survey that covers approximately 1.8 million individuals aged 15 years or older. This data set provides rich information on the respondent’s demographic background, labour status, employment characteris- tics and educational attainment. It allows us to assess and compare the impact of a large variety of potential determinants, both separately for single countries and in a cross-country estimation. In doing so, our focus is on the role of a so far relatively neglected impact factor, the choiceoffieldofstudy.
d) do children prefer toys the more sexually congenial they were designed and the more they are attributed to their own sex?
In general, up to 90% of the perceived information is visually conveyed (Schub von Bossiazky, 1992). Yet, eye-tracking provides the opportunity to capture perceptual processes with technical equipment. Eye-tracking employs infrared cameras measuring where, how long and in what sequence individuals focus on specific objects. Nowadays eye-tracking is used in a wide range of areas, for instance in neuroscience, marketing, computer science and industrial engineering (Duchowski, 2002). A small number of empirical surveys demonstrate that the application of these instruments is promising for the analysis of visual perceptions in the fieldof gender marketing for toys (Escudero et al., 2013).
process that covers almost all universities and colleges. Norwegian students apply to a field and institution simultaneously (e.g. Teaching at the University of Oslo). In their application, they can rank up to fifteen choices. The applicants are scored by a central organization based on their high school GPA. Applicants are then ranked by their appli- cation score after which places are assigned in turn: The best ranked applicant gets her preferred choice; the next ranked applicant gets the highest available choice for which she qualifies, and so on. This process creates credible instruments from discontinuities which effectively randomize applicants near unpredictable admission cutoffs into different fields ofstudy. At the same time, it provides us with strategy-proof measures of individuals’ ranking of fields.
Abstract: Why do individuals choose different types of post-secondary education, and what are the labor market consequences of those choices? We show that answering these questions is difficult because individuals choose between several unordered alternatives. Even with a valid instrument for every type of education, instrumental variables esti- mation of the payoffs require information about individuals’ ranking of education types or strong additional assumptions, like constant effects or restrictive preferences. These identification results motivate and guide our empirical analysis of the choiceof and payoff to fieldofstudy. Our context is Norway’s post-secondary education system where a cen- tralized admission process covers almost all universities and colleges. This process creates credible instruments from discontinuities which effectively randomize applicants near un- predictable admission cutoffs into different fields ofstudy. At the same time, it provides us with strategy-proof measures of individuals’ ranking of fields. Taken together, this allows us to estimate the payoffs to different fields while correcting for selection bias and keeping the next-best alternatives as measured at the time of application fixed. We find that different fields have widely different payoffs, even after accounting for institutional differences and quality of peer groups. For many fields the payoffs rival the college wage premiums, suggesting the choiceoffield is potentially as important as the decision to enroll in college. The estimated payoffs are consistent with individuals choosing fields in which they have comparative advantage. We also test and reject assumptions of constant effects or restrictive preferences, suggesting that information on next-best alternatives is essential to identify payoffs to fieldofstudy.
Much less well-documented is the role of the educational fieldof a person, which constitutes an important element for predicting labor market outcomes (van de Werfhorst and Kraaykamp, 2001; Hansen, 2001) and hence might also be a determinant of overeducation. Several reasons motivate this view. First, fields ofstudy differ in their occupational focus. Fields like medicine or engineering with their quite narrowly defined job profiles might require more occupation-specific skills, raising the chances of graduates to find appropriate jobs in the corresponding occupational groups (Reimer et al., 2008). The high job-specificity protects graduates of fields like medicine, law, or architecture from educational mismatch (Ortiz and Kucel, 2008). Second, credentialism theories suggest that in a world where the true personal abilities are unknown, the chosen fieldofstudy can also act as an ability signal to employers. Obtaining a degree in fields like maths, natural sciences, or technical disciplines, which enjoy the reputation of imposing high intellectual demands on their students, could convince employers of the extraordinary talent and/or motivation of applicants (Barone and Ortiz, 2011). This could give them preferred access to positions with high skill requirements, possibly also outside the occupational groups associated with their subjects. Third, fieldchoice might be triggered by individual gender role orientations and social origin (Polachek, 1978; Bradley, 2000), such that field-specific labor market outcomes are not purely causal effects but to some part driven by selection into fields. More specifically, gender norms might impact decisions on family formation and marriage and via this channel impact educational choices (Chiappori et al., 2009; Attanasio and Kaufmann, 2017). Beyond horizontal segregation, also vertical segregation relates to gender norms. Whereas women still bear the lion’s share of household chores, they are underrepresented in managerial positions throughout Europe. For example in April 2015, the EU-average of women’s share among senior executives of the largest nationally registered companies listed on the national stock exchange amounted to 13.7% and their share among nonexecutive directors stood at 22.5% (European Union, 2016, p. 26). Both the choiceof “female” occupations at the beginning of the career and the typically “female” decisions in its subsequent stages can be associated with the underutilization of formal education in the current job. Furthermore, having graduated as a female in a male dominated field could convey a negative productivity signal to employers, relative to male graduates in the same field, resulting in ceteris paribus higher overeducation.
plines, which enjoy the reputation of imposing high intellectual demands on their stu- dents, could convince employers of the extraordinary talent and/or motivation of appli- cants (Barone and Ortiz 2011). This could give them preferred access to positions with high skill requirements, possibly also outside the occupational groups associated with their subjects. Finally, fieldchoice might be triggered by individual gender role orienta- tions and social origin (Polachek 1978, Bradley 2000), such that field-specific labour mar- ket outcomes are not purely causal effects but to some part driven by selection into fields. More specifically, gender norms might impact decisions on family formation and mar- riage and via this channel impact educational choices (Chiappori et al. 2009, Attanasio and Kaufmann 2017). On the other hand, having graduated as a female in a male domi- nated field could convey a negative productivity signal to employers, relative to male graduates in the same field, resulting in higher overeducation. Hence, in countries with highly gender segregated higher education (e.g. Scandinavian countries; Carlsson 2011), women graduating in gender-averse fields should be particularly penalized.
The register data also includes information on socioeconomic background characteristics. We have information on several pre-determined variables which are observed before the admission decision: each parent’s education, each parent’s earnings, whether at least one parent is foreign born, and parent’s age at the time of their child’s birth. Summary statistics for these variables are found in Appendix Table A2. In the first column, we present means for our estimation sample. This sample is limited to fields ofstudy in years and school regions where demand exceeded supply, so that there was a competition for slots. The third column shows means for the sample of individuals with a non-competitive program as their first choice. The means from the two samples are fairly similar. The table also reports on the characteristics of the students. If anything, average GPA is higher for the non-competitive sample. This is due to the fact that programs like Natural Science have applicants with relatively high GPAs, even though they are less likely to be oversubscribed and subject to a competition.
Research limitations/implications – Like all research, it has limitations. The ﬁrst one derives from the selection criteria of the periodicals to be analyzed. The cut referring to the journals of greater impact excludes most of the national articles. These studies may contain important contributions to the knowledge of the national publication pro ﬁle. In addition, the choice to analyze the journals disregards other types of work, such as books, scienti ﬁc events, dissertations and thesis and reports. The choiceof articles published in journals is based on the fact that these are a “certiﬁed knowledge”, as the studies are peer-reviewed, and in the case of the Qualis “A” stratum, a review of exogenous quality is supposed on this production. Despite its ﬂaws, this system can be considered reliable to evaluate scientiﬁc knowledge ( Bedeian, 2004 ; Shugan, 2007 ). The analysis of the most recent articles may have been hampered by a temporal issue. In addition, the choiceof keywords, a necessary step, leaves out other studies. Another limitation refers to the fact that the articles have been analyzed and classi ﬁed by the authors, which presupposes the use of their value judgments, at least to some extent. Other limitations refer to the bibliometric techniques employed. The main authors referenced in the studies were demonstrated, that is, those authors who have been used as a theoretical reference for studies of interorganizational networks. However, the circumstances under which these citations occurred
Therefore, the oviposition behaviour of D. virgifera virgifera adults was studied in large multiple choicefield cages at two field sites under European conditions between 2009 and 2011. Between 8 and 22 large gauze cages (ca. 4.5 x 2 x 2 m) were placed into each of the two study fields, each cov- ering three different crops. Totally 10 different crops were used in different combinations. About 50 newly emerged female and 50 male adults were released in each cage (usually in mid-July) of each year. As a result of oviposition of D. virgifera virgifera in the different crop habitats within the multiple choicefield cages, a new generation of beetles emerged the following year when maize was planted over the entire experimental area. These beetles were captured in separated smaller cages placed over the area of the previous large multiple choice cage. The number of emerging adults largely differed between the previous crops before maize, indicating that oviposition was influenced by the crop habitat. As expected, the largest proportion of oviposition appeared to have happened in maize. To some extent also Sorghum (Millet) was more used for oviposition than other crops. Final quantitative analyses are on-going.
gift card sales via eBay’s BINBO. Relying on the history of similar posts, we use the typical wording and set the initial ask prices between 119 and 130 percent of the gift cards’ nominal values (e.g., for a 100 Euro gift card we set the BIN price equal to 119 Euros). The choice to set the BIN price above the cards’ face value comes across as a surprise, however, there are two rea- sons for this. First, as mentioned already, setting the BIN price above the face value is the common practice in the market for gift cards, and there- fore serves the purpose of mimicking a typical seller. Second, this limits the number of actually executed transactions, since rational buyers should not accept the excessive BIN prices. While some subjects do accept the BIN price, we exclude those observations from the sample and concentrate only on the rational offers that do not exceed the card’s nominal value. Finally, to eliminate any variation in the sellers’ response to offers, we let all offers ex- pire without a single answer from the seller (though we answered clarifying questions that some buyers were sending us).
estimates as estimates of the causal impact of university subjects ( Altonji et al. , 2012 ). In particular, there is evidence that individuals choosing STEM fields perform better in both cognitive and verbal tests than individuals choosing other fields ( Arcidiacono , 2004 ). Thus, OLS estimates are likely to overestimate the earnings returns to STEM subjects. Only few analyses attempt to address selection into fields ofstudy. Webber ( 2014 ) uses a simulation approach and various assumptions about selection on unobservables to ar- gue that large disparities in lifetime earnings between fields of studies remain even after addressing selection. Arcidiacono ( 2004 ) employs a dynamic discrete choice model and finds that most of the differences in wage returns to fields ofstudy persist after controlling for selection, albeit they decrease in size. While structural models are very valuable to understand how individuals make sequential educational choices and can account for ed- ucational costs, they generally impose strong simplifications. In their recent review of the literature Altonji et al. ( 2012 ) state that “given the complexity and pitfalls of estimation based on dynamic structural models, we expect careful studies using IV strategies or OLS with rich controls to continue to play a critical role in the literature going forward”. To the best of our knowledge, the only papers using an instrumental variable or a regression discontinuity approach to deal with selection into fields ofstudy are Berger ( 1988 ) and
Considering a continuous waveform (FMCW), follows an indicative system design for NESTRAD as shown in Table 1. C-band is chosen for its sensitivity to sea-surface roughness and cloud penetrating capabilities. Ka-band would also pro- vide a very good sensitivity to ocean roughness, but un- fortunately is much more affected by bad weather condi- tions (Danklmayer, 2009) than C-band and hence not a good choice for a reliable early warning tool. Vertical polarization is chosen given the higher RCS with respect to horizontal polarization. Beam steering capabilities allow the coverage from nadir to low grazing in elevation and from −60 ◦ to +60 ◦ from broadside in the azimuth direction, thus covering a cir- cular sector approximately 120 ◦ wide. From Table 2 we can see that in the far range a SNR of 13 dB can be achieved at broadside, corresponding to an acceptable 10 dB SNR at 60 ◦ off broadside. Even though azimuth resolution in the far range appears to be poor (2000 m), it is still acceptable to re- solve tsunami shadows, the latter having spatial extensions of thousands times tens of kilometers. This huge spatial scale will also be of great advantage for resolving the shadows, i.e. changes in the RCS of few up to 5 dB, since averaging over large areas is possible and thus will reduce uncertainties due to local statistical variation in ocean backscatter to a large extent. Finally it has to be stated that it is not yet clear how much bad weather situations with rain, turbulent and strong winds and huge seas will affect or limit the detection capabil- ities of the radar. However, since the performance shown in Table 2 is based on minimum power requirements, the sensi- tivity of the system can be easily enhanced by increasing the power, which is absolutely no problem on airships.
This set of …ndings opens several important avenues for future research. First, to complete the descriptive map of marriage-market correlates of …eld-of-studychoice, future research could relate …eld-of-study homogamy of couples to marital stability (as Schwartz and Han, 2014, do for educational homogamy) and other family outcomes (such as intra-household bargaining and child investment). Measures of personality traits could be used to explore the possibility that these are correlated with …eld-of-study choices and that FSH is in part based on such traits. Information on both …eld-of-study and income, which is not available in our data, is needed to investigate the extent to which FSH is due to similar earnings potential within …elds ofstudy. Data covering both …eld-of-study choices and earnings can also be used to systematically measure the household income inequality consequences of FSH (as Greenwood, et al., 2014, have done for educational homogamy in the US, and as Eika et al., 2014, have done for FSH in Norway) and to investigate the sensitivity of household income to labor-market shocks. Such sensitivity may be high for the many homogamous couples working in the same industry, where both partners face common industry- and skill- speci…c labor demand ‡uctuations.
other important outcomes. This paper focusses on family outcomes.
Fieldofstudy can inuence family outcomes in various ways. First, it may aect partner choice as the chosen eld inuences the pool of potential partners at an age at which many partnerships are formed. An indication of this is the strong assortative matching by eld ofstudy ( Eika et al. , 2014 ). Second, because elds ofstudy dier in the impact they have on career opportunities, they may inuence decisions on whether and when to form a family. Using Scandinavian data, Hoem et al. ( 2006 ) and Lappegård and Rønsen ( 2005 ) nd that eld ofstudy serves as a better predictor of permanent childlessness and rst-birth rates than the level of education. Third, through their eects on own earnings and partner quality, eld ofstudy may aect the educational achievement of one's children (e.g. Black and Devereux , 2011 ;
dividuals increase their focus on the attributes in which the available options differ more. 2 We report evidence of such focusing effects from a controlled experimental test and to the best of our knowledge, our study is the first attempt to directly test this key assumption. To obtain an idea of how the focus-weighted utility suggested by K˝ oszegi and Szeidl (2013) affects choices, consider a store offering different payment schemes to a consumer considering whether to purchase a durable good. Initially, the consumer is offered the options of either paying $100 upfront or paying using a dispersed payment scheme in which she pays $60 upfront and $50 in one month. The store would like the consumer to choose the dispersed payment scheme, as it earns an additional $10 (assume a zero interest rate for simplicity). A focusing-prone consumer attaches more weight to payments in one month as that payment difference between the two options ($50) is larger than the today payment difference ($40). Assume that given these two options, the consumer elects to pay upfront. Now, suppose that the store introduces a new payment scheme: Pay nothing upfront and instead pay $120 in two months. Clearly, this new option is not likely to be optimal, yet it attracts further attention to the upfront payment (the maximal difference in upfront payment among the options increases from $40 to $100), which makes the dispersed payment scheme seem more attractive compared to paying everything upfront. Consequently, a preference reversal may occur such that the consumer now prefers the dispersed payment scheme to the upfront payment, despite that these payment options have not changed. Moreover, the store earns an additional $10. The experimental strategy in this paper follows the logic of this example: We attempt to induce, within-subject, choice inconsistencies between two options by manipulating a third option in a way that alters how much focus the different attributes receive.
Arsenic has influenced human history for thousands of years according to its extremely high toxic potential and can therefore be entitled as the king of poison. Arsenic uptake causes acute as well as chronic intoxications, even at very low doses. Acute arsenic poisoning mostly manifests after accidents with pesticides or homicidal intensions, while chronic intoxication is mainly derived from oral ingestion of arsenic-enriched drinking water (MELIKER & NRIAGU 2007). Resulting effects of chronic poisoning are complex and depend on the prevailing chemical form, whereas both in- organic species As(V) and As(III) are much more reactive than methylated organic forms (HOPENHAYN 2006, WHO 2003). Inorganic As is supposed to act genotoxic, carcinogenic and teratogenic (WHO 2003). Due to its similarity to phosphate, As(V) can interact with up to 200 enzymes, most of them being part of the adenosine-tri-phosphate (ATP) synthesis pathway or the DNA synthesis and repair system (ABERNATHY et al. 1999, ISLAM 2008). Reduced inorganic As(III) is considered even more toxic to human organism, which results from its high affinity for reactive thiol groups of enzymes (KNOWLES & BENSON 1983). The principal organ of As meta- bolism is the liver, where inorganic As is methylated to dimethylarsinic acid (DMAA) and monomethylarsonic acid (MMAA), before it is excreted via urine. The half-life of inorganic As compounds in the human body is 2-40 days after resorption, but a continuously uptake results in enduring enrich- ment in liver, kidneys, heart, lungs and ectodermic tissues (POMROY et al. 1980). Chronic exposure to increased concentrations of inorganic As, especially As(III), is known to entail severe diseases and its carcinogenic character promotes an increased appearance of cancer (skin, lung, bladder and liver) in affected populations, which was observed in various case studies in Bangladesh, Taiwan and China (e.g., CHEN et al. 1992, KAPAJ et al. 2006, SMITH et al. 2000). Another characteristic expression is arsenicosis, a collective term for skin lesions like keratosis, hyperkeratosis and pigmentary abnormalities of the extremities (AHMAD et al. 1997).
The results of this study depict that Pakistani graduates give due consideration to factors like, growth opportunities, occupational charm, societal inspiration, self-esteem and few work related factors, while opting any one of the profession among medical, management, agriculture, engineering, and pharmacy as career. The outcome of mean analysis revealed that Pakistani students give valuable consideration to growth opportunities (m=3.18, sd=0.59), occupational charm (m=2.98, sd=0.61), societal inspiration (m=2.30, sd=0.55), self-esteem (m=3.06, sd=0.62) and work related factors (m=2.71, sd=0.71) while evaluating different professions to select any one of them as their career. Among the factors, societal inspiration seems highly influential as compared to other factors. The result empirically suggest that Pakistani students are under great influence of their parents, siblings, friends, teachers, etc. and they give due consideration to their inter-personal & social relations in the selection of any profession as career. Interestingly, growth opportunities seem weaker factor as compared to other factors that reflect lack of understanding of Pakistani students towards their career progression and future planning. Instead, Pakistani students prefer to attain job irrespective of any other preferences due to today’s tight economic conditions. Later, they keep eye on monetary and non-monetary benefits associated with any job (profession) as compared to devise long-term career strategy and to foresee future progression. These outcomes draw interesting theoretical and practical implications. The second objective of the study was accomplished but gender differences were limited in their applicability to the social influence only. In countries like Pakistan which are high on the masculinity and collectivist dimension as it pertains to their national culture (Hofstede, 1980), it can be understood that the females are more prone to social influences and take inspiration from their parents, friends, family, and teachers while deciding for their career as compared to male counterparts.
The design of contract C allows the disadvantaged individuals to bear a lower burden of the cost of the Welfare State in terms of the difference between taxes paid ex ante and expected benefits to be obtained ex post. The fulfillment of this latter objective unavoidably implies redistribution.
In our experiment, we designed the three contracts in a very simple way. In addition to the analytical advantage of devising a very parsimonious scheme, this delivers the practical advantage of reducing experimental subjects’ cognitive mistakes. However, the relation between the classes and the contracts allows us to identify, in most cases, self-interest and ideological motivations behind people’s choices: Rich and poor are clearly advantaged by a specific contract—the actuarially fair and the progressive contract, respectively—while the middle class is indifferent. Since middle class earnings are not modified by the tax-and-transfer reshuffling according to their performance, by studying the behavior of the middle group we are able to elicit the pure taste for solidarity. Table 1 underlines these issues. It reports the expected income for each class under each contract (computed on our lab society of 21 subjects) and it compares the redistributive power of each contract showing that the Individualistic Welfare State makes the poor even poorer in relative terms, while the Prioritarian State strongly reduces relative differences.