The last approach to test the reliability of synaptic transmission was with a ‘loose- patch’ extracellular approach. For these experiments, an MNTB neuron in a brain slice was only loosely patched without obtaining a gigaseal, and no break-in into the neuron was performed, such that the recordings were effectively extracellular. In some recordings, action potentials of both the calyxofHeld (termed ‘prepotential’), as well as the postsynaptic principal neuron could be observed. An example is shown in fig- ure 3.7 F and G. In this recording, stimulation of the calyceal input fibers produced three peaks in response to each event. The first one was the stimulation artifact (la- beled ‘artifact’), followed by the prepotential (labeled ‘pre’), and then followed by the postsynaptic action potential (labeled ‘post’). The advantage of this method is that the interior environment of the postsynaptic cell is left undisturbed. For whole cell recordings, a common concern is that the perfusion of the neuron with artificial intracellular fluid might change the firing properties of the neuron, which would result in inaccurate measurements of failure rates. However, even when the postsynaptic neuron was left intact, transmission failures could be observed in the calyxofHeld / MNTB synapse when the slice was driven at in vivo type activity levels. Figure 3.7 F shows a loose-patch recording of a rested brain slice. Consistent with the data shown above, the synapse was very fail-safe when a 300 Hz / 20 pulse train was tested, i.e. each prepotential was followed by a postsynaptic action potential (figure 3.7 F). How- ever, when the slice was conditioned with 60 Hz spontaneous activity, a substantial amount of failures could be observed in response to the same 300 Hz test train (fig- ure 3.7 G). Postsynaptic failures are indicated by a single asteriks. In one case, neither a prepotential nor a postpotential could be observed (marked by a double asterisk), suggesting that for this event the failure must have occurred in the calyceal input fiber. The red lines in figure 3.7 E show the average reliability of transmission measured with this technique (red line and closed squares: unconditioned synapses, n = 6; red line and open squares: conditioned synapses, n = 6).
The calyxofHeld synapse is a fast and reliable relay in the auditory brainstem. It forms between a globular bushy cell and a principal neuron of the medial nucleus of the trapezoid body. Each principal neuron is typically contacted by a single, giant, axosomatic terminal called the calyxofHeld. The accessibility of this giant terminal for patch-clamp slice recordings has allowed it to become a model system for studying mammalian synaptic transmission (1). During whole-cell patch clamp recordings of the principal neurons a prespike can be detected, which reflects the presynaptic action potential (AP) (2). This prespike is an example of ephaptic synaptic coupling (3), as it is generated by presynaptic membrane currents involved in calyceal AP generation leading to a change in the cleft potential, which is then detected in the postsynaptic cell. The shape of the prespike can thus be informative about the shape of the intracellular calyceal action potential and the local presynaptic membrane currents flowing at the release face. Indeed, analysis of the in vivo shape of the prespike has been used to infer differences in calyceal spike depression in a mouse model for the neurodevelopmental disorder Angelman syndrome (4). However, despite the wealth of knowledge about the calyceal AP and its underlying voltage-dependent ion currents, the relation between the postsynaptically recorded prespike waveform and the presynaptic ion currents during the calyceal AP has not yet been studied. Here, we therefore revisit simultaneous voltage clamp recordings from the calyxofHeld and its postsynaptic target (5) to evaluate the generation of the prespike. These recordings helped to define a simple biophysical model of the prespike and to better delineate the electrical properties of the synaptic cleft and the subcellular localization of presynaptic ion channels.
In this study the release site model as initially proposed by Vere-Jones in 1966 (Vere-Jones, 1966) was used to determine quantal parameters and the number of calyces and their release sites contacting complex glial cells in the MNTB. With this model some assumptions go along. 1.) A finite number of release sites. 2.) Maximally one docked vesicle per release site. However, it can be possible that the number of release sites is infinite. The model then allows unlimited supply of vesicles to the releasable pool from a reserve pool. This model is called vesicle-state model and has been used to explain exocytosis at chromaffin cells (Heinemann et al., 1993). The release-site model and the vesicle-state model predict different synaptic responses under certain conditions. For example if the vesicle-state model is correct and refilling of vesicles is Ca 2+ -dependent, a transient overfilling of the synaptic vesicle pool can occur during recovery from synaptic depression (Weis et al., 1999), but no such overfilling is possible for a release-site model. Several publications could not show experimental evidence for overfilling at the calyxofHeld (von Gersdorff et al., 1997; Wang and Kaczmarek, 1998; Weis et al., 1999; Wu and Borst, 1999; Sakaba and Neher, 2001) although the refilling process was shown to be dependent on Ca 2+ (Wang and Kaczmarek, 1998; Sakaba and Neher, 2001). Based on these facts the release-site model was applied in this study.
Experiment 2 was carried out in a commercial tomato greenhouse in Viladecans (Barcelona, North East Spain). Canopy characteristics were: LAI of 5.46 and TRV 10468 m 3 ·ha -1 . In this case, the sprayer
had two vertical booms with flat fan nozzles spaced 0.35m working at a pressure of 2 bar. A similar air assistance system to the first experiment was fitted up with the possibility to change the air blower unit: blower A consists of a motor engine turbine that generates 20 m·s -1 air speed; and
A system currently being developed by the IPR, Karlsruhe, named AccuRo- bAs is a new concept for achieving a robot assisted craniotomy with the use of a CO 2 laser. Outlined in the initial works by Burgner et al. , the work demonstrates a potential for achieving very high accuracy, thin craniotomy cuts over complex trajectories. A cut is suggested to be only 400µm wide. The use of a laser also provides a significant medical ad- vantage that the system does not require physical contact with the patient, therefore ensuring the sterilised nature of the operations site. However, this work in progress has three significant disadvantages. Firstly, there is not presently any method for detecting when the laser cutting achieves break- through of the bone. This means the system in it’s current state has too great a risk for causing permanent brain injury by cutting too deep. Secondly, the system is very slow. CO 2 laser ablation of bone is a pulsed process, with up to 200Hz, each pulse removing a volume from a half ellipsoid with 200µm diameter, but with only 50µm depth. A complete ablation can take an hour or more. Work by Mehrwald et al.  attempts to reduce this processing time of bone ablation by pre-ablation soaking or coating of the bone with mixtures of glycerin or a glycerin water mix. The higher melting point of the glycerin results in a larger ablation volume per pulse. Unfortu- nately, it is not yet known if an improvement in the overall processing time can be achieved or if the required soaking time (up to 10mins) is counter beneficial.
2. German Banks and Disclosures of Loan Loss Provisions
The German economy is well known for its bank-based system (Haselmann et al. 2018) where banks play a key role in capital allocation. The German banking sector includes a few large banks with a strong presence on the international capital markets, including the equity market (e.g., Deutsche Bank) and the debt market alike (e.g., the Landesbanks); these banks use IFRS for their financial reporting. Capital market pressure from equity and debt investors is likely to shape those banks’ reporting behavior. Therefore, we focus on the group of banks which are small in size, have mostly local business, and do not access the capital markets. Instead, these banks are privately held and largely funded by deposits (most of them being community-owned savings banks, credit unions or cooperative banks). These small banks account for approximately 63% of the German banking system in terms of employees and around 53% of banks’ balance sheet volume (Deutsche Bundesbank 2018). They have substantially fewer incentives for voluntary disclosure, and additional disclosure requirements will thus have a potentially greater impact on their information environment.
Blick auf die Leinwand: Prärie und Pferde, Cowboys und Colts, Banditen und Indianer . 23
In Batman Begins lässt sich ein ähnliches Muster wieder erkennen: Statt in der Prärie und mit Pferd gegen Banditen und Indianer kämpft der Held hier in einer Großstadt gegen Verbrechersyndikate und Korruption und ist dabei mit diversen technischen Geräten ausgestattet. Zwischen der Zivili- sation und der Natur, als einsamer Held und gleichzeitig als Hüter der Gerechtigkeit, im Kampf mit den ‘wilden’ Elementen und doch selbst Teil der Wildnis wird auch Batman, mit Erhart gedacht, inszeniert und trans- portiert so einen bestimmten Mythos von Männlichkeit. Der männliche Held zeichnet sich nach Söll und Weltzien unter anderem durch seine ‘Hypermaskulinität’ aus und diese wird vor allem durch körperliche Attri- bute und athletische Anlagen konstruiert. 24
As covered in the previous chapter, the required application here sees the meeting of two distinct areas. Firstly, the continually emerging and develop- ing area of medical robotics, and secondly the well grounded area of Mobile Robotics including all of its required study of kinematics, control mecha- nisms and studies of its operating characteristics in areas such as overcom- ing friction, or overcoming system noise inputs. To date there is no applica- tion that has attempted to bridge the gap between these two areas, and as such the state of the art in this chapter provides a series of short overviews of research projects from the first area, previous research attempts for per- forming Robotic and Computer Assisted Surgery for Craniotomies or other closely related medical applications. The emphasis here is on the ability to transfer the precision of the preplanning into the operating room. Included is this summary is a third area that is similar to this bridge, that being hand- held surgical robots or steady hand assistants. While not all of these robots do not attempt to perform Craniotomies with a planning transfer solution, they are worthy of study for their similarity with lessons to be learned in areas such as engineered sterilised solutions etc.
In view of the higher price level of miniaturized Raman and MIR instruments (>10 K US$) compared to NIR systems (∼1 K US$) only the last mentioned spectrometers can be taken into consideration for private use in the near future, whereas hand-held Raman and MIR spectrometers will be restricted to industrial, military and homeland security applications and public use by first responders, customs or scientific institutions. Thus, based on high- volume manufacturability and further reduction of costs, numerous companies target with NIR instruments a non-expert user community for consumer applications. Especially from this last-mentioned development a tremendous potential for everyday life can be expected ranging from food testing to detection of fraud and adulteration in a broad area of materials. The presentation will shortly describe instrumental features of novel hand-held Raman, MIR and NIR spectrometers and discuss selected qualitative and quantitative case studies.
Motive des Helden auf seiner Reise beschreiben wird. Der Held verkörpert gute Kräfte. Er ist eine außergewöhnliche Figur, der große Hürden mit Selbstaufopferung und Verlusten überwinden muss, der sich den Konflikten mutig entgegenstellt. Trotz einiger Fehler strebt er das Überwinden seiner Schwächen und den Sieg über eine Gegenmacht an. Es ist das Verlangen über sich hinauswachsen zu wollen und etwas von Bedeutung machen zu können, z.B. für ein besseres Leben in der Gemeinschaft. Problemen zu erkennen, Verantwortung zu übernehmen, den Versuchungen zu widerstehen und das erreichte Glück mit anderen zu teilen, ist der Lohn für die Strapazen und die Verwandlung auf der Reise des Helden. Der Antiheld ist das Gegenteil. Wo der Held positive Impulse verkörpert, um positive Taten oder positive Veränderungen zu vollbringen, ist der Antiheld die Verkörperung der amoralischen Impulse, die die Veränderungen der Schwächen (Instinkt und Begierde) ablehnen. Eine Art Umklammerung und Festhalten an den Eigenschaften, die ihn ausmachen, um sich somit erst recht aus den Unterdrückungen und Belastungen befreien zu können. Dadurch kann er Selbstverwirklichung und freie Entfaltung anstreben. Es ist eine Unabhängigkeit, die nur ihm oder seinen nahestehendsten Personen von Nutzen ist. Es sind die negativen, egoistischen Impulse, die eventuell zur Selbstzerstörung oder ihn tiefer in sein Dilemma führen. Würde die Formel des Monomyhtos auf den Antihelden angepasst werden, dann lautet sie: „Bindung – Rückfall – Entfremdung“ 50 . Während der Held einen Aufstieg in seiner Reise erlebt, erlebt der Antiheld einen Abstieg.
unconstitutionality in two years. However, as the above described political parties have so far failed to unite on the appropriate constitutional solution and as this requires a qualified majority in the Parliament, which is hard, if not impossible to obtain, the ruling has still not been complied with. While the statute of limitation expires in November this year, the snap election ought to take place in mid-April, on the basis of an unconstitutional electoral law. Does that pose a constitutional problem that could throw the very constitutionality of the snap election into question?
In summary, the confidence that we can have in any technique used to value a privately held firm is limited at best. As Miles (1993) observed in his axioms, “appraising, by any method, is not a highly accurate process.” Furthermore, usefulness of dividend discount models could be called in question in valuing closely held firms, most o f which do not pay dividends. Also, some prefer to believe that they can find usable market data from multibillion dollar firms to apply to firms with a size of less than $25 miUion, and avoid the advice provided by Pratt (1986), Plutchock (1985), Longenecker (1983) and others as to what “comparable” means in trying to find price-eamings ratios to apply in valuing small businesses. The good news is that appraisal accuracy could well be improved by the use of relatively simple models that show smaller errors and fit the requirements of closely-held firms. Harper and Rose (1993) found that “adjusted book value, capitalized earnings and past transactions produced lower error estimates of share values.. An application of these tech niques should provide greater accuracy because their research was conducted on small, closely-held firms.
kunst (S. 359-373). Überzeugend zeigt Held auf, wie erst die Renaissance den modernen Begriff des individualistischen, vom Zwang der Notwendigkeit befreiten Künstlers (artista) prägt, der im Gegensatz zum zwar die techne vollendet beherrschenden, aber doch lediglich Gebrauchsgegenstände herstellenden artifex steht. Institutionell schlägt sich dies im wegfal- lenden Zwang zur Zunftzugehörigkeit und in der Gründung von Kunstakademien für eine künstlerische Elite nieder. Die Aufwertung der mathematischen Konstruktion in den bildenden Künsten verhalf diesen zum Rang der artes liberales. Held stellt dar, wie die Entdeckung der Zentralperspektive in der Renaissancemalerei nur scheinbar objektiv das Betrachtete abbildet, tatsächlich aber durch den subjektiv gewählten „Augenpunkt“ bestimmt wird: die Vielzahl der Perspektiven gilt ihm als Symbol für den Reichtum der Weltsichten in der Renaissance und zugleich ihrem Respekt vor anderen Ansichten.
In Film und Fernsehen ist das Böse allgegenwärtig. Egal, welches fiktionale Programm wir betrachten, ob es sich um einen Hollywoodfilm oder um die Folge einer Soap- Opera handelt, in jedem Programm sind sie zu finden, die unfairen, die lügnerischen, die gewalttätigen – kurz gesagt die bösen Charaktere. Zwar finden wir in Unterhal- tungsformaten Helden die wir mögen, bewundern, mit denen wir uns identifizieren, aber auch der tugendhafteste Held scheint langweilig zu werden, wenn es keinen Wi- dersacher gibt, an dem dieser seine Stärke messen und beweisen kann. Wenn wir al- lerdings einen genaueren Blick auf die aktuellen Formate werfen, die uns heutzutage im Fernsehen präsentiert werden, dann könnte man zu dem Schluss gelangen, dass es eventuell die tugendhaften Figuren selbst sind, die uns langweilen. In Breaking Bad fasziniert uns die Transformation eines unbescholtenen krebskranken Manns zu ei- nem kaltblütigen Drogenbaron, wir drücken Emily aus der Serie Revenge die Daumen für ihren Rachefeldzug und bei den Sopranos verfolgen wir einen Mafiaboss, der sich keiner Gewalttat zu schade ist. Den Zenit dieser Batterie unmoralischer Serienfiguren scheint jedoch der Serienkiller Dexter zu bilden, der sich in der gleichnamigen Serie ungeniert zu seiner Lust am Töten bekennt. Die Charaktere, die in üblichen Filmen und in der Realität den Feind und das zu bezwingende Übel darstellen, werden uns hier also als Helden präsentiert. Und doch scheint es, dass wir diese abtrünnigen Figuren nicht nur aus einem distanzierten Interesse verfolgen, sondern die Serie scheint uns tatsächlich dazu zu bringen, diese Figuren zu unterstützen, mit ihnen mitzufiebern oder ihnen für ihre Grausamkeiten gar Erfolg zu wünschen. Wir wünschen uns, dass Walter White der Polizei entkommt, wir haben Angst, dass Dexters dunkles Geheimnis entdeckt wird und wir mögen denken, dass jeder, noch so tugendhafte Charakter, der sich unserem Helden in den Weg stellt bestraft werden muss. Es scheint fast, als iden- tifizieren wir uns mit dem Bösen.
measures, especially when it comes to employees who are in management positions such as senior managers. Considering the nature of the present business environment, compensation still seems to be one of the major indicators of a successful management career (Eddleston, Baldridge & Veiga, 2004). However, monetary compensation and promotions are not all that individuals seek from their careers (Gattiker & Larwood, 1988; Korman, Wittig- Berman & Lang, 1981; Sturges, 1999). Less substantial and less measurable subjective outcomes, such as a balance between personal life and working life and doing meaningful and purposeful work, are often more significant to individuals (Finegold & Mohrman, 2001; Hall, 2002). Therefore, in the era dominated by careers without boundaries, the consideration of subjective career success has become especially important, as researchers are of the belief that in the pursuit of highly diverse and unique career paths, it is individuals’ sole responsibility to define and evaluate their own career success with reference to self- defined aspirations, values, needs, standards and career stages (Arthur & Rousseau, 1996; Betz & Fitzgerald, 1987; Gattiker & Larwood, 1986). Therefore, receiving pay increases and promotions that generally accompany senior managers’ career does not necessarily mean that these senior managers feel successful. Different aspects need to be taken into consideration, especially their subjective perception of their own career success (Hall, 2002; Korman et al., 1981). Career success has become a priority and is of interest both to individuals and organisations. Therefore in support of the foregoing, organisations pay much more attention to individuals’ inner subjective definitions and experiences of success (as defined by their career orientations). This is done as a means of predicting these employees’ organisational commitment, career satisfaction, motivation and performance. Such a focus has become a prominent trend within the business environment today (Coetzee, Bergh & Schreuder, 2010; Havran, Visser & Crous, 2003; Kanye & Crous, 2007; Lumley, 2010). Organisations have also increasingly been paying attention to attracting, engaging and retaining their key employees (i.e. senior managers) as potential organisational leaders (Arthur et al., 2005; Baruch, 2004; Kock & Burke, 2008).
The innovation that is the cryptocurrency is still very much in the early stages of adoption. As a result, there are many issues that have to be surpassed, particularly if a central bank will legitimately look at including Bitcoin, for example, in its reserve mix. A central bank must determine if it sees Bitcoin as a currency or a tradable asset. Most early adopting jurisdictions consider cryptocurrencies as assets and, as such, there are capital tax implications for their sale and purchase. One could reckon that given the insignificant amount, the paper recommends that the Central Bank of Barbados should hold to reduce its risk exposure, that matching orders for the block purchase of the “asset” in exchange for any other reserve currency may be cumbersome to the bidding party in the said juris- dictions. Though current market participant preferences say otherwise (Glaser et al., 2014 ), a juris- diction and, by extension its central bank, that legally recognises cryptocurrencies as a currency could do more than reduce the already declining cost of transactions when disposal is necessary, but it could also attract more foreign direct investment in the country for active and, hopefully, le- gitimate participants. Notably, the cost of transmissions over the Blockchain fell approximately by 80% over the past year (2015).
broadband emission guarantees a good spectral overlap between different diodes, which can be further enhanced by a narrow spectral filter. Nevertheless, the collection efficiency of the light is limited by the low directionality of the emission (Θ≃ 90 o −120 o ), and the temporal response of LEDs is restricted to about 2 ns by the spontaneous emission rate. This solution may be viable at lower repetition rates but is not suitable for a system run- ning at 100 MHz, where subnanosecond optical pulses have to be generated to allow for efficient temporal filtering. Laser diodes, on the other hand, can be modulated with giga- hertz frequencies and are in this regard better candidates. QKD experiments have been mostly implemented with EEL as they emit polarised light with a typically high contrast above 1:100. While precise positioning of the diode to adjust the polarisation direction is convenient with a TO-package, the alignment and bonding procedures would become extremely cumbersome with the bare chips. Additionally, the elliptical profile of the out- put beam limits the coupling efficiency into an integrated spatial mode filter supporting circular modes. DFB lasers exhibit the same issues, and are furthermore not suited for our application as their narrow spectral width of several tens of megahertz strongly limits the overlap probability of separated chips. Vertical-Cavity Surface-Emitting Lasers (VCSEL), on the other hand, fulfil all the requirement imposed by the BB84 protocol and our design rules simultaneously. Here four top-emitting diodes fabricated on the same substrate can be used to generate the four different states and are likely to exhibit uniform emission prop- erties due to highly similar growth conditions. Most VCSEL arrays are designed with a standard pitch of 250 ➭m, thereby offering compatible integration with other micro-optics components. Their low energy consumption on the order of a few milliwatts combined with high modulation speeds up to 40 GHz [49, 50] is a particularly attractive feature for optical interconnects and embedded systems. Finally, the circular Laguerre-Gauss pro- file of the laser beam enables efficient coupling into fibres for, e.g., Local Area Networks (LAN) applications or into waveguides for more compact architectures. We therefore opt for this solution, and agree upon an emission wavelength of 850 nm to take advantage of state-of-the-art VCSEL architectures while guaranteeing a low absorption in air and high detection probability with standard Silicon-APDs on Bob’s side.
The PIRL is a mid-IR laser scalpel meant to be used in minimal invasive surgery. Its pulse duration and wavelength are the key elements of its benefit. Due to the picosecond pulse duration, there is a significantly reduced shockwave excitation and thermic interaction in the surrounding tissue during the cutting process. This leads to less damage in the surrounding tissue . The heat produced by the PIRL during the cutting process is much smaller than an Erbium:YAG Laser. An investigation was performed by Jowett et Al. where ex vivo porcine skin was ablated in a 5-mm line pattern with an ER:YAG laser and the PIRL. The results show, that the maximum peak rise temperature in skin surface was 2.05°C for the PIRL and 18.85°C for the Erbium:YAG Laser . The PIRL’s temperature rise leads to the prevention of unnecessary tissue coagulation or carbonization. Additionally, fig. 1 shows that the PIRL’s hot spot is smaller than the one produced by the Erbium:YAG laser, due to reduced photothermal excitation, which leads to less area damage.
Mel Duncan: If we have enough volunteers: First of all, our people are not volunteers, they are being paid full-time and that's key. Typically, their services last two years. We never lack for re- cruits. We typically will have 10 applicants for every position that we have available. We do lack for money to pay them. The week before last, I was involved with a number of members of the US congress who wrote President Obama in advance of the Peacekeeping Summit at the UN to insert UCP as part of that discussion. You may remember a week ago Monday, President Obama did gain commitments of thirty thousand more armed peacekeepers. That's a thirty percent in- crease. And think what we can do with thirty thousand unarmed civilian protectors. And so, in terms of just accompanying those women in South Sudan, if we had instead of a hundred and fifty people on the ground, which is historically the largest sustained deployment of UCP, ten times that many, they could just be deployed.
Das Bewusstsein, mit welchen Kosten die vorhandenen Materialverluste verbunden sind, konnte in sehr hohem Maße geschärft werden. Wichtig war es ein Verständnis für die Zusammenhänge bei den Mitarbeitern zu schaffen. Auf dieser Grundlage hat das Team selbstständig Maßnah- men zur Reduzierung der Materialverluste erarbeitet. Das Beratungsprojekt bei der Rudolf Held GmbH & Co KG ist Teil des Netzwerkes „Kompetenzaufbau für zukunftsfähige Unternehmen“. Der Erfahrungsaustausch mit anderen Unternehmen im Rahmen der Netzwerktref- fen brachte dem Unternehmen weitere Vorteile. Eigene Problemstellungen wie die fristgerechte Auftragsabwick- lung sowie die zeitnahe Absprache von Produktion und Vertrieb wurden mit Hilfe der Methode „Kollegiale Bera- tung“ bearbeitet.