• Workflow Model Agility: Since the businessprocess will be executing for a long time, the business situation may change while the process is running or revisions of a later stage may even invalidate the results of an earlier state due to issues identified only at a later point in the process which were not apparent at an earlier time. Another issue arises from the fact that research and development processes are conducted in a particular way due to their creative and autonomic nature (see 1.2): Often, a long development processes is divided into stages, phases or milestones, which will be reached by meeting certain criteria after a certain time. However, constraints which become apparent at a later stage of the process may necessitate changes that require verifying and adjusting development done to reach the previous milestone. This means that steps which were already considered finished have to be done again at a later stage in the process. As a result, long-running autonomous processes must be able to adapt to such new situations without manual outside interference by allowing the inclusion of contingencies in the businessprocess model without excessively increasing the complexity of that model or including modeling elements simply for technical reasons in the model. It allows the resulting workflows to flexibly react to changes and allows workflow designers to increase agility by preparing the workflows for potential future changes.
BusinessProcess Management (BPM) is the discipline of handling organizational processes for the sole purpose of analyzing, designing, implementing and continuous improvement. In details, this definition evolved over the years ever since a spark back in the eighties lead to focus on the enhancement of the already existing business processes. Approaches like Total Quality Management (TQM) and processes improvement provided industries with more cost efficient, quality processes. Consequently, boosting the levels of revenue and customer satisfaction. A decade later, researchers started to shift focus onto Processes Re- engineering, given the fast growth of information technology and its potentials. Moreover, the research then took a deep look into the existing processes and searched for new ways to fundamentally redesign them to match the innovative changes in the field and the organizational goals. Nowadays, contemporary BusinessProcess Management (BPM) sits on combining both approaches where in turns both processes effectiveness and efficiency are important vom Brocke & Rosemann (2014).
A more comprehensive attempt to develop a “Quality of Business Processes (QoBP) framework” focusing on process modeling was made by Heravizadeh et al. . Businessprocess quality is defined in terms of 41 quality dimensions which are derived from related work, e.g. in the field of software engineering. Insofar, the approach lists quality characteristics, but does not provide a singular definition of quality which would, for instance, enable quality measurement. This also means that there is no way to clearly establish why each quality dimension is important, in which way it contributes to overall quality or if the listed quality dimensions are sufficient to explain overall quality. In our approach, we intend to address these issues by first providing a well-founded fundamental quality definition, and then deriving contributive characteristics in a second step. The QoBP approach has been presented in more detail in . In this context, quality has been defined as non-functional but distinguishing characteristics of a businessprocess. We do not concur with that view as we define fundamental businessprocess quality under consideration of a business objective to be achieved. In our view, this better suits the ISO quality definition. However, we concede that non- functional characteristics are difficult if not impossible to evaluate in economic terms, so the two approaches to quality can be seen as complementary.
Businessprocess modeling is a creative task that allows humans to represent process knowledge in a formal way. However, modeling practices permit people to end up with wrong models, i.e., models that are not sound or not safe. Safeness assures that no ac- tivity is enabled more than once at one point in time. The idea of soundness is to make sure that all tasks can participate in a process instance, every process instance eventually terminates, and when it terminates there is no running activities in a process [Wes07]. An abstraction step performs generalization of a process model fragment—a connected sub- graph of a graph representing a process model. As a result, the problems existing in the model might be unintentionally concealed. Thus, the abstracted process model might be- come correct, while the original model was not. In Figure 1(a) an example of a process model fragment with multi-merge control ﬂow pattern [RHAM06] is shown (i.e., model is not safe). After fragment generalization the problem is hidden. Similarly, an abstraction step might generalize a process model with a deadlock to a sound one (see Figure 1(b)). The given examples clearly illustrate that abstraction can substantially change the process logic, not only because insigniﬁcant fragments are generalized, but also because modeling errors can get hidden. To avoid confusing situations we allow abstraction of only correct, i.e., sound process models.
Bereits beim Einstieg in das Themengebiet des BusinessProcess Outsourcings fällt auf, dass die Begrifflichkeiten in diesem Themengebiet jeweils andere Deutungen aufweisen können. In der Fachliteratur lassen sich für viele Begriffe in diesem Zusammenhang, wie Geschäftsprozess, Outsourcing oder auch BPO, von den jeweiligen Autoren verschiedene Interpretationen feststellen. Aus diesem Grund ist es notwendig für diese Arbeit eine klare Abgrenzung der Begrifflichkeiten vorzunehmen. Somit werden im Folgenden die Begriffe Outsourcing, BusinessProcess bzw. Geschäftsprozess und Business Prozess Outsourcing klar definiert und abgegrenzt.
Dieses Beispiel zeigt, dass Green BusinessProcess Management nicht nur die strukturelle Gestaltung von Geschäftsprozessen, sondern explizit auch die Ausführungsumgebung und die jeweilige Implementierung in den Mittelpunkt stellen muss. In der Umsetzung müssen deshalb beide Herangehensweisen, Top-Down und Bottom-Up, berücksichtigt werden. Der Bottom-Up Ansatz geht von einer gegebenen Infrastruktur aus und hat das Ziel, diese durch eine geeignete Modellierung der Geschäftsprozesse möglichst effizient zu nutzen. Die Modellierung eines automatisierten Geschäftsprozesses kann beispielsweise sicherstellen, dass Abfragen an Datenquellen nicht nach jeden Prozessschritt, sondern gebündelt erfolgen. Dadurch können Aufwände für die Kommunikation eingespart werden. Der Top-Down-Ansatz hingegen beschreibt die Abbildung von Prozessaktivitäten auf spezifische Ressourcen oder Typen von Ressourcen, welche die gegebene Aufgabe möglichst effizient abarbeiten. Im Bereich von IT-Systemen können beispielsweise skalierende Ressourcen eingesetzt werden, welche sich der tatsächlichen Nutzlast der Aktivitäten eines Prozesses anpassen. Sind die Ressourcen nur wenig ausgelastet, können Teile davon abgeschaltet werden. Werden mehr Ressourcen benötigt, können diese flexibel hinzugeschaltet werden.
The literature reports different technology-focused approaches for enabling user-centered task management. These range from simple work organization in personal to-do lists [BDG+04] to task-centric support in email environments [BDHS03] and business-process oriented task management allowing proactive information delivery and process know-how reuse [HRD+06]. While these studies target at concrete real-life problems, they do not consider generic users’ intentions to engage with information technology at an increased level of complexity, i.e. towards tailoring software artifacts related to personal task management. Studies on technology adoption and use in social context [Suc87, OG94, Nar93] clearly exemplify that peoples’ intentions to use information technology are strongly influenced by their individual interpretation of this technology and by the social environment in which this technology is used. An important role thereby plays the collaboration between people with different technological skills and business domain expertise. Technology is seen as a necessary but insufficient prerequisite for user empowerment in organizations [Nar93]. Therefore the only possible approach for estimating opportunities for end-user driven businessprocess composition through user-tailored task management is through exploiting what are the actual users’ work practices, benefit expectations and intentions related to EUD in the domain of task management, and what organizational prerequisites are there to support such EUD activities.
To evaluate our approach we consider the usecase of applying for a restaurant business permit combined with a construction permit. An entrepreneur would like to enlarge the facilities chosen for her restaurant, as well as make changes to existing building structures. Fig. 7 shows the BPA subset consisting of seven business processes and their interrelations. E.g. businessprocess p 1 , the restaurant business permit application, triggers three business processes p 2 , p 3 , p 4 ; the applications for the restaurant permit, the construction permit, as well as the building conversion permit. It is common in the public sector that some of the public administration processes are executed several times by diﬀerent roles. The construction permit application process p 4 , triggers multiple instances of the expert’s report process, as depicted by the multiplicity of the throwing event. Another peculiarity is the catching event of the ﬁnal construction permit evaluation process, which requires between four and six messages from process
The improvement of business efficiency through Businessprocess management
BusinessProcess Management (BPM) represents a constant process in which employees of the BPM department, constantly analyze company’s business processes and enhance the same, improve or change them using BusinessProcess Improvement (BPI) and BusinessProcess Reengineering (BPR). The main goal of every company is the maximization of investment. However, other stakeholders of the company have also become increasingly important. Because of this, increasing business efficiency does not only mean cost reduction and profit increase for investors or owners of the company. Under the term increasing business efficiency, we mean the overall increase in the performance of business operations, including those elements that do not have direct connection with company’s profit. Besides costs reduction and profits increase, increasing business efficiency includes the increase in the utilization of company resources, improvement of working conditions and customer satisfaction, as well as reduction of the negative impact of company’s business on the environment. This study examines the possibility of increasing the efficiency and effectiveness of domestic companies, the improvement of business processes through BPM, BPI, and BPR. The research results point to the conclusion that domestic companies do not have enough knowledge related to this field, that companies do not devote enough attention to BPM, BPI, and BPR, and that there is an opportunity to increase the competitiveness of domestic companies by improving business processes.
This work should be beneficial for the researchers in the area of predictive process monitoring. As we have seen, sev- eral works in this area often describe the prediction tasks under study simply by using a (possibly ambiguous) natural language. In this light, the presence of our language comple- ments this area by providing a means to formally and unam- biguously specify/describe the desired prediction tasks. Con- sequently, it could ease the definition of the task and the com- parison among different works that propose a particular pre- diction technique for a particular prediction task. Similarly, as for the businessprocess analyst, the presence of our language should help them in precisely specifying and communicating the desired prediction tasks so as to have suitable prediction services. The presence of our mechanism for creating the cor- responding prediction model would also help practitioners in automatically obtaining the corresponding prediction model. In the following, we provide a discussion concerning the research questions described in Sect. 1 as well as the lan- guage requirements in Sect. 3 . Furthermore, we also provide a discussion regarding the usability aspect. Finally, this sec- tion also discusses potential limitations of this work, which might pave the way towards our future direction.
The article presents besides some theoretical basis of BusinessProcess Reengineering (BPR) and BusinessProcess Management (BPM) part of results of research focused on these problems. Presented results show contributions of process management from the point-of-view of the Czech managers. This year we prepare similar research in relevant sample of Slovak enterprises. Inquires show that the implementation of components of process management is an important base on which the decision- making about changes during processes may be built. This way they contribute to meeting the targets of the company and its successful position on market, which is possible only with processes that are carried out as fast and efficient as possible and with minimum costs and high quality.
Diese Master Thesis erarbeitet ein Konzept und ein Prototyp einer BusinessProcess as a Service (BPaaS) Plattform. Diese Plattform wird in der Cloud betrieben und unterst¨ utzt Unternehmen bei der Abwicklung von unstrukturierten Business Prozessen. Zentrales Artefakt ist der Ad Hoc Prozess. Der Ad Hoc Prozess ist ein Ansatz, wie unstruktu- rierte Business Prozesse ohne vorangehende Prozess Modellierung unterst¨ utzt werden k¨ onnen. Dabei bedient sich dieser Ansatz so genannten Activity Patterns, welche wie- derkehrende Muster in Business Prozessen darstellen. Beispiele von Activity Patterns sind die Ausf¨ uhrung einer Aufgabe oder die Herbeif¨ uhrung einer Entscheidung. Zu- dem wird eine Implementierung des vorgeschlagenen Ansatzes in Form eines lauff¨ ahigen Prototyps vorgelegt. Dieser Prototyp basiert auf der Camunda BPM Plattform. Nebst der Abwicklung von unstrukturierten Business Prozessen unterst¨ utzt der Prototyp auch das automatisierte On-Boarding (Erstellen eines Zugangs) eines Unternehmens auf die BPaaS Plattform.
directional translation between (1) a business requirements view on the process space of an enterprise and (2) the actual process space of this enterprise, constituted by the multiplicity of IT systems, resources, and human labor. Semantic BusinessProcess Management (SBPM) is a novel approach of increasing the level of automation in the translation between these two spheres, and is currently driven by major players from the ERP, BPM, and Semantic Web Services domain, namely SAP . One core paradigm of SPBM is to represent the two spheres and their parts using ontology languages and to employ machine reasoning for the automated or semi-automated translation. This talk introduces the core concepts of SBPM, outlines the representational requirements, and discusses the fit of SBPM and ontologies in general to ERP-centric IT landscapes in enterprises and value chains.
ance checking refers to the question if the observed process behavior complies with rele- vant rules. Ramezani et al. identify 55 control flow oriented compliance rules formalized in terms of Petri Net patterns that can be used to check mined models if they comply with these patterns (Ramezani et al., 2012). Van der Werf et al. scrutinize how information from the organizational contexts can be connected to recorded data in event logs to check com- pliance rules that are independent from individual process instances (van der Werf et al., 2012). Accorsi and Lehmann incorporate the data perspective to identify information leaks in businessprocess models (Accorsi and Lehmann, 2012). Caron et al. suggest a rule-based compliance checking and risk management approach (Caron et al., 2013). Van der Aalst et al. introduce a conceptual model for online auditing using process mining techniques (van der Aalst et al., 2011) whereas Jans et al. discuss opportunities, challenges and limitations for using process mining in the context of audits (Jans, 2012; Jans et al., 2010). They also present several case studies (Jans et al., 2011, 2008). Conformance checking aims to iden- tify deviant behavior in a process. It requires the existence of a model that is used for com- parison. Rozinat and van der Aalst introduce an approach to compare mined process mod- els to a reference model (Rozinat and van der Aalst, 2008). They use concepts like fitness and appropriateness to identify deviations. A similar approach is used by Adriansyah et al. who introduce a cost-based fitness analysis (Adriansyah et al., 2011). Van der Aalst and de Medeiros present a two-step approach (van der Aalst and de Medeiros, 2005). A reference model is mined in a first step and subsequent executions recorded in the event log are then used to identify any deviations compared to the previously mined model. Bezerra and Wainer analyze the event log to detect anomalies (Bezerra and Wainer, 2013). Yang and Hwan present a framework and case study to identify fraud in the healthcare sector (Yang and Hwang, 2006). Van der Aalst presents a case study using data from a Dutch govern- mental institution (van der Aalst, 2005).
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For years, improving processes has been a prominent business priority for Chief Information Officers. As expressed by the popular saying, “If you can’t measure it, you can’t manage it,” process measures are an important instrument for managing processes and corresponding change projects. Companies have been using a value-based management approach since the 1990s in a constant endeavor to increase their value. Value-based businessprocess management introduces value-based management principles to businessprocess management and uses a risk- adjusted expected net present value as the process measure. However, existing analyses of this issue operate at a high (i.e., corporate) level, hampering the use of value-based businessprocess management at an operational process level in both research and practice. Therefore, this paper proposes a valuation calculus that brings value-based businessprocess management to the operational process level by showing how the risk-adjusted expected net present value of a process can be determined. We demonstrate that the valuation calculus provides insights into the theoretical foundations of processes and helps improve the calculation capabilities of an existing process-modeling tool.
BPMSoftware unterstützt alle Aktivitätsbereiche des Ge schäftsprozessmanagements von der Modellierung über die Implementierung und Ausführung bis hin zur Analyse und Optimierung von Prozessen (EABPM, 2009, S. 242). Historisch haben sich verschiedene Typen von BPMSoft ware entwickelt, deren unterschiedliche funktionale Spekt ren in den letzten Jahren zunehmend in sogenannten BPMSuiten integriert wurden. Seit den 1990erJahren wurde von einer informationszentrischen Sicht auf die Au tomatisierung von Prozessen durch sogenannte Workflow Systeme gewechselt, deren Prozessmodellierung auf die technischen Aspekte, das heisst die Erstellung detaillierter ausführbarer technischer Prozessmodelle ausgerichtet war (IAO, 2010, S. 8). Für die fachliche Prozessmodellierung aus Sicht der Anwender entstanden spezialisierte Werk zeuge. Themen wie Risikomanagement, Governance und Qualitätsman agement erhöhten die Relevanz dieser auf die Dokumen tation und Visualisierung fokussierten fachlichen Prozessmodellierungswerkzeuge. Zur Abgrenzung der beiden Welten etablierten sich auf der technischen Seite Begriffe wie WorkflowEngine oder BusinessProcess Engi ne, die für die Ausführung und Steuerung automatisierter Prozesse stehen. Die Trennung von fachlicher Modellie rung auf der einen Seite und technischer Modellierung für die Implementierung auf der anderen Seite wurde über verschiedene Modellierungsebenen gelöst, wobei die Durchgängigkeit von der fachlichen zur technischen Modellierung nicht automatisch gegeben ist (IAO, 2010, S. 8). Auch der Einsatz von Notationen – wie BPMN (Busi ness Process Mangement Notation), EPK (ereignisgesteu erte Prozessketten) oder UML (Unified Modeling Langua ge) – in der Prozessmodellierung kann diese Problematik nicht vollständig auflösen. Vielmehr kam es viele Jahre zu Über führungsproblemen zwischen grafischen und aus führbaren Prozess modellierungssprachen. Neue Versionen von BPMN versprechen diese Lücke zu schliessen, indem sie die fachliche und technische Ebene in einem Modell miteinander verbinden. So sollen BPMN 2.0 kompatible Prozessmodelle von den Process Engines automatisch ausgeführt werden können.
One problem arising in this context is that process schema changes may be in conflict with the previous process instance changes. For existing approaches dealing with adaptive processes this problem has not been addressed so far since an ad-hoc change of a single process instance always leads to a new process schema version [19, 33]. Thus, once a process instance has been individually modified, it may be no longer adaptable to future businessprocess changes or – more precisely – to future process schema changes at the type level. However, doing so is far away from practical requirements, in particular when dealing with long-running process instances. As an example take a medical treatment process in a hospital. Even if a process instance related to a particular patient is individually modified (e.g., by performing an unplanned lab test) it should also take benefit from future businessprocess optimizations (i.e., changes at the process type level). Otherwise, the process oriented information system will not be accepted by users.
A series of actions is necessary to use our extension for event processing and businessprocess monitoring in the EPP. First, the user has to define the available event object types by name and its content description (see Definition 1). These event object types are determined by the real-world event sources that the EPP is connected to. The EPP is able to upload event object type descriptions defined as XML Schema. Second, event types must be correlated to group event objects to process instances. This is usually done by using one or more attributes defined in the content description of an event object type. In the introduced example in Section 2, this grouping to process instances could be based on the driver’s identification and the truck she drives. It is also possible to define such a group based on the booking number of the transportation order that each event object references. Subsequently, the BPMN model must be created. In this BPMN model, each BPMN element that we want to monitor should include the definition of its state transitions including the event object types referenced in its PEMP as specified in Section 4.
automated businessprocess optimization . Consider, for instance, process abortions: if a process instance cannot be completed, it should abort as early as possible to avoid unnecessary consumption of resources. Next-generation PAISs might re-arrange control flow to foster this behavior based on the execution logs of past instances. However, this must be done in a way to maintain the overall efficacy of the businessprocess. Thus, a semantic link between business objectives and businessprocess models is required. Scenario 2 (Identification of BusinessProcess Variants). The management of businessprocess variants has emerged as an important businessprocess management (BPM) issue [6–8]. However, criteria to determine whether two process models are variants of the same reference process remain a “missing link”. In this respect, modeling business processes in a way that enables tracing to common business objectives can provide an effective characteristic to assess the “equivalence” of process variants. Scenario 3 (Benchmarking). Qualitative benchmarking deals with good practices to identify opportunities for process improvement . This often meets the resistance of practitioners as the equivalence of process alternatives regarding their outcome is doubted. Formalizing efficacy can help to alleviate this issue. Similar considerations apply to more recent approaches like process performance management .
Duplicated process models is a common issue in businessprocess management and modeling and in particular relevant when process models are organized in model repositories . Matching businessprocess models and estimating their similarity has thus been an important research topic and has many applications, ranging from analyzing conformance to reference models , tracing and identification of process variants  to process model search and clone detection . In this paper, we address the latter problem of finding process models which share a certain degree of similarity, which is known as model clone detection in the literature [11,12]. Note that such model clones can origin from homologous development , where a process designer reuses and modifies an existing model to generate a new process model. As a result, the original and new model usually share a high lexical similarity. In contrast, in heterologous development , process models are created independently of each other but implementing similar functionalities. Thus, such models are not necessarily syntactically similar, i.e., can differ in the number of activities and gateways or in their structure. Finding such semantic clones is in particular hard for businessprocess models due to the large number of modeling purposes and practices, e.g., block- and graph-oriented process modeling styles. While differing modeling styles can be found in different businessprocess modeling languages, multiple paradigms can even exist in the very same language. A well-known representative for such a language is BPMN.