The main starting point of this study is to find out most important and least important determinant related to price premium from the perspective of the target respondent. So it has been found in this study as the results shows that uniqueness, social image, and corporate social responsibility, awareness, quality, and country of origin are the most strongest to least strongest predictors of the customer’s willingness to pay price premium respectively. All these brandimage dimensions have significant effect on the price premium whether strongly predicting or weakly predicting the price premium. These all determinants are also having significant impact on customer’s willingness to pay price premium in the study of (Anselmsson et al., 2014).Three brandimage dimensions are standing out in comparison to the remaining particularly as strong price premium determinants: Uniqueness, Corporate Social Responsibility, and Social Image. This finding of the research study is certainly highlighting the idea of the brand-equity theory (Hoeffler and Keller 2002) that is both aspects such as rational and emotional are very important. BrandImage determinant uniqueness is the strongest predictor of customer’s willingness to pay price premium for female stitched clothing of all three brands. There is a strongest link between the price premium and perceived uniqueness and it is quite interesting. Because if this matter is look upon in the perspective of traditional strategies, the differentiation in the products is often introduced to avoid the competition of price among competing brands (Porter, 1985). So it can be said that customers are more willing to pay for the brands that have unique features or functions. Uniqueness is tangible aspect if related to the brand equity theory as it allows the consumers to look different among others
In tourism and hospitality industry, the construct of tourist experience has been typically approached by service providers, destination marketers and organization to design and create expe- riences for consumers in order to make their experience mem- orable and get their intention to revisit a particular destination. However, it has been argued that consumer’s interaction with des- tination service providers’ results in the co-creation of distinctive experiences ( Prahalad & Ramaswamy, 2004 ). The earlier thinking was that service providers decide on the offerings for the mar- ket, but this has changed to include consumers’ needs and desires. Tourism marketers now develop the products, services keeping in mind consumer satisfaction and build a unique brandimage or identity differentiating their tourism products from competitors. In tourism industry, the destination can thus be viewed as a product. This approach is also considered as a way in which organizations and service providers marketing a destination bring to light “new sources of competitive advantage” ( Prahalad & Ramaswamy, 2004 ). Visiting a particular tourist destination is typically motivated less by the elaborated physical characteristics of the site than by the powerful mental and emotional image or “pre-experience” the tourist has for the expected experience at the destination. Tourists ﬂocked to the bridges of Madison County in rural Iowa to immerse, at least temporarily, in the romantic fantasy involving the ﬁlm’s two lovers more than to see the actual details of the bridge. In essence, what tourists primarily seek and consume at destinations is engaging experiences accompanied by the goods and/or service components of the destinations. Hence, entire tourist destinations are beginning to be positioned as “experiences” ( Richards, 2001 ). Experience has served as a key construct in travel and tourism research as well as destination positioning. Central to McConnell’s (1989) concept of tourist experience, is the tourist’s quest for an authentic experience and tourism destinations are viewed as a means to stage the authenticity that cannot be found in the tourist’s daily life. Searching for self identity as a tourist was an early clas- siﬁcation criterion in the phenomenology of tourist experiences ( Cohen, 1979 ).
-Reliability and Validity Analysis
This study used AMOS statistical software to carry out confirmatory factor analysis and structural equation modelling for the dimensions of the variables. The measurement model had undergone testing for model fitness, reliability, and validity. In order to verify the relationship between each dimension and item, the study focused on the dimensions of brandimage, identification, and personality in conﬁ rmatory factor analysis. According to Fornell and Larcker (1981), a composite reliability value (CR) over .60, and an average variance extracted (AVE) over .50, respectively, demonstrate that the scale has good convergent validity and reliability. Hatcher (1994) proposed that if the confidence values formed by covariance and standard error do not include 1, then it indicates good discriminant validity between the dimensions. Convergent validity and reliability of brandimage, identification, and personality shown in Tables 1, 2, and 3 (see Appendix-I, II, & III). The study found that all factor loadings on the scales were greater than .50. Each item also reached the level of signiﬁ cance, with the CRs between .785 and .911 and the AVEs between .634 and .719, which indicated that the three variables had good convergent validity and reliability. Moreover, the potential construct discriminant validity analysis revealed the intervals formed by the covariance of the variable’s two dimensions and plus or minus two multiples of standard error, as presented in Table 4 (see Appendix-IV), which conformed to the standard established by Hatcher (1994). According to the analytical results, the dimensions of this study were obtained by weighting the factor loading of each item (the significance level of alpha was .05.
resale price maintenance (RPM) in order to prevent cheap online sales. 6 While these examples
relate to Germany, similar restraints have been undertaken by manufacturers (e.g., Nike) across the globe. 7 According to the German cartel office, how this use of vertical restraints in order to
protect a brand’s image should be assessed is a key question (Bundeskartellamt, 2013, p. 27). We show that this widespread puzzle can be explained by the psychologically founded contrast effect (e.g., Schkade and Kahneman, 1998; Dunn et al., 2003) whereby consumers focus on that choice dimension (e.g., quality or price) along which available offers differ the most. Accordingly, if a product’s price varies across distribution channels, consumers focus more on its price and less on its quality. The relevance of contrast effects for similar purchase decisions has been supported both in the lab (Dertwinkel-Kalt et al., 2017b) and in the field (Hastings and Shapiro, 2013). In order to model the contrast effect, we build on recent approaches by K˝ oszegi and Szeidl (2013) and Bordalo et al. (2013b), which predict that a consumer’s willingness-to-pay for a brand product is reduced in the presence of price disparities across channels. Thereby, these approaches suggest a novel externality that discounts in one channel have on consumers in another channel, namely consumers’ offline willingness-to-pay can be affected by lower online prices. We establish that a firm may restrain online sales in order to prevent its product from being sold at different prices in different channels. Altogether, our model captures the firms’ line of reasoning, that online sales can be detrimental to brandimage.
Service Externalities. Telser (1960) and Mathewson and Winter (1984) showed that vertical restraints can align the manufacturer’s and the retailers’ incentives if free-riding on service externalities (such as a retailer’s sales effort) is a serious issue in a market. 2324 In the presence of
free-riding incentives price disparities across channels may exert a negative externality on service provision, as retailers providing services vanish or as services are reduced in response to low online prices. The observation that in such a setup aligning retail prices across channels (e.g., via RPM) allows the manufacturer to restore the integrated monopoly outcome, thereby also improving service quality, hinges on the assumption that demand characteristics are identical for different retailers and channels. Otherwise, the manufacturer benefits if the retailers condition their retail prices on demand and channel characteristics. Notably, Telser (1960) and Mathewson and Winter (1984) can explain why online discounts—by reducing the number of service-providing retailers—might have a negative effect on brandimage in the long run. Our approach, in contrast, predicts a more direct negative effect of price disparities on a brand’s image. We therefore regard these two arguments in favor of restraints on online sales as complementary.
Our paper contributes to the small, but growing literature on behavioral antitrust by analyz- ing the welfare implications of vertical restraints in the presence of salience effects. In fact, we provide a novel theoretical foundation for the manufacturers’ claim that online sales can harm brandimage, and therefore also consumers in the long run. By drawing consumer attention toward prices, low online prices decrease the willingness-to-pay for high-quality products. The manufacturer’s product design will respond to the consumers’ excessive focus on prices, which results in an inefficiently low provided quality. This quality distortion lowers not only the man- ufacturer’s profit, but also social welfare, so that the implementation of vertical restraints might be both individually and socially desirable. We show that in our model resale price maintenance and dual pricing are never problematic from a social welfare perspective. Moreover, a direct ban on online sales should be allowed if the manufacturer runs an own online store, but should be prohibited if this is not the case and if the product was also sold offline prior to the imple- mentation of the ban (which is very likely to be the case). In this sense, the assessment of such a direct ban on online sales requires a case-based analysis with a focus on the market structure that would emerge absent a ban.
2.1 Formation of online image for a tourism destination Since the nineties (Gallarza, Saura, & Garcı́a, 2002; Gartner, 1993a; Um & Crompton, 1990) brandimage has tended to be considered a complex and subjective construct (Bigne, Sanchez, & Sanchez, 2001), in which consumers’ emotions and reasoning merge with evaluations that compare the experience and knowledge of a destination (Santana, 2007). The process of building an image developed by Gartner (1993b) is currently the most comprehensive theoretical proposal that is similar to the Destination Branding model. This author indicates that the formation of the image of a destination is made up of "three different but hierarchically interrelated components: cognitive, affective and conative ones" (1993b, 193). The overall image is constructed from a set of mental representations of knowledge or beliefs about the physical attributes of the destination as a whole (cognitive component), combined with evaluations and feelings aroused by the destination (affective component) (Baloglu & Brinberg, 1997). These two components contribute to the generation of a conative component (or behavior by tourists) (Beerli, A. y Martín, J. D., 2002; Gartner, 1993a).
Provided in Cooperation with:
University of Stellenbosch Business School (USB), Bellville, South Africa
Suggested Citation: Burin, C.; Roberts-Lombard, M.; Klopper, H. B. (2015) : The perceived
influence of the elements of internal marketing on the brandimage of a staffing agency group, South African Journal of Business Management, ISSN 2078-5976, African Online Scientific Information Systems (AOSIS), Cape Town, Vol. 46, Iss. 1, pp. 71-81,
With the rapid and growing advancement of internet usage now people can post their reviews, recommendations, tips on the virtual atmosphere (Gaitan, Javeir, Cataluna, Esteban & Correa, 2013). Word of mouth is an evaluation of product and services (Anderson, 1998). WOM opens up the door for people to give their opinions about brands with other people trust (Mayzlin, 2006; Patel, 2015). Branding is an important aspect for any organization to gather capital and is considered as organization asset, Strong brand enables organization to influence consumer for more purchase and to better visualize and understand the intangible aspects of the brand, more ever brandimage can persuade the future profit and long term cash flow as consumers show willingness to pay high and be part of marketing success (Yoo & Donthu ,2001).. Brand association is created with the help of direct experience of purchasing and also by the information flow to the consumer through WOM (Hertel, 1986), and sets of brand association is brand awareness and brandimage (Keller, 1993).
1 Purpose of the Paper
Artists are always looking for techniques to increase their creativity and access to subconscious knowledge. The Guardian (2012) cited "top artists" with "top tips" for "unleashing your inner genius". Krysa (2014) interviewed artists to gain "golden insights on how to conquer self-doubt, stay motivated, and get new ideas to flow". These techniques are now being applied to the measurement of brandimage. Brandimage includes all attributes, emotions and associations in explicit, implicit, semantic and episodic memory. Marketing has mainly understood how to use multi-sensual experiences to communicate the brand. Unfortunately, marketing lacks effective methods to assess de facto multi- sensory brand knowledge. Standardized surveys, interviews and association techniques suffer from several weaknesses. First of all, they elicit verbal responses at the cognitive level (Woodside 2004, Kreuzer/von Wallpach 2012 p. 28). Verbal re-encoding risks losing the actual association in the coding information. It is therefore important to stay as close as possible to the senses that channeled the information. In addition, quantitative methods are often biased, because they lead to socially desirable responses or bore respondents and increase the danger of set responses (Leggett et al. 2003; Brace 2008; Maguire 2009; Roxas/Lindsay 2012). And finally, classical methods are often not effective in uncovering deeper (e.g. implicit) layers of the brandimage.
Je enger die Assoziation mit einer Marke verknüpft ist, desto grösser ist deren Einfluss auf die Produktbeurteilung. Markenassoziationen können nach ihm zudem einen verbalen oder nonverbalen Charakter aufweisen, wobei durch die Verknüpfung von verbalen und nonverbalen Vorstellungen diese leichter abgerufen werden können. Neben einer hohen Anzahl von Markenassoziationen, welche dadurch stärker untereinander vernetzt sind, ist insbesondere deren Einzigartigkeit von Bedeutung. Zudem müssen sie für den Konsumenten eine individuelle Relevanz aufweisen und die gewünschten positiven Gefühle auslösen (2011, S. 64-65). Keller spricht in diesem Zusammenhang von Assoziativen Netzwerken in der menschlichen Gedächtnisstruktur, welche das Markenwissen in Form von Punkten und Verknüpfungen abbildet und das durch externe Reize aktiviert werden kann (1993, S. 2). Ziel des markenführenden Unternehmen ist es, die definierten Identitätsmerkmale so aufzubereiten und zu kommunizieren, dass die Markenbotschaft bei der Zielgruppe die entsprechenden Reaktionen auslöst, ohne dass eine Diskrepanz im Verständnis der Botschaft zwischen den beiden Perspektiven entsteht (Dilip & Banerjee, 2014, S. 208). Burmann et al. sprechen in Bezug auf die Diskrepanz zwischen Identität und Image von Kommunikations- und Wahrnehmungslücken. Ersteres betrifft nach ihnen die bereits angesprochene Diskrepanz in der Kommunikation, während letzteres eine Diskrepanz in der Erwartungshaltung zwischen Marke und Zielgruppe darstellt. Dabei unterscheiden sich in diesem Fall die, an die Marke gestellten Erwartungen mit dem Angebot und der Identität des Unternehmens (2018, S. 293).
For the brand to be successful, business strategy must be connected to the brand idea, so the success of a brand depends on the experience that it can offer. Any brand idea becomes irrelevant when you can not fulfill the promise behind the brand idea. If the idea of brand promises wonderful evening promenade, a p hoto of two young p eople holding h ands is not enough, if parks a re not there, walkways, benches, floral arrangements, cleanliness, safety, etc.. Therefore researchers in the field argue that the "simple and different ideas are parts contributing to the succesful equation of a brand. The need to know if the organization that represent the brand has the resources, services and people they need to support these ideas is another aspect that matters. Brand idea must represent what you can really offer. Before setting a simple and differentiated brand idea, before developing a strategy to convey this idea, make sure that you have all that is necessary to give life to the idea. (Adamson, 2006) "In the particular case of a brand and a mark , product is the supreme condition on which the two commercial approaches are based and that gives hope to the business plan of the company.
favorable brand associations, and, ultimately, lower brand equity. In contrast, brands that aim for
a premium positioning tend to trade market share gains for high and stable prices and/or for a
selective (or even exclusive) distribution of their products (e.g. Quelch et al., 1987; Zoellner and
Schaefers, 2015). Thus, this premium strategy is likely to emphasize a high-quality brandimage
The objective of sports sponsorship is to build corporate reputation, positive brand awareness, and a positive brandimage (Cornwell & Coote, 2005; Koo et al., 2006). Sponsors can generate brand knowledge that links a brand to an associative network in the consumer’s mind (Keller, 2003). Sports sponsorship communication creates a brand association in the mind of the consumer by linking a brand to the sponsored activity (Gwinner & Eaton, 1999). Several recent studies have focused on sports sponsorship to measure its effectiveness relative to such variables as increasing brand awareness, improving brandimage, and increasing sales (Cornwell & Coote, 2005; Gwinner & Eaton, 1999; Koo et al., 2006). Others have focused on the cognitive, emotional, and behavioral impacts of sponsorship (Chavanat, Martinent, & Ferrand, 2009; Gwinner & Bennett, 2008; Koo et al., 2006). Still others have focused on linking predeterminant factors (e.g., brandimage, perception, and perceived quality) pertaining to sponsoring brands to satisfaction with sports events, customer satisfaction, commitment, and brand loyalty (An & Noh, 2009; Chen et al., 2012; Theodorakis, Alexandris, & Ko, 2011).
Keller (1993) defines brand recognition as consumer‘s ability to
discriminate the brand as having seen or heard before. Brand recognition is to confirm prior exposure to the brand when the brand is given a cue. According to the ―strength theory‖ or ―threshold theory‖ (Kintsch, 1970), the recognition requires a lower level of strength of memory than it does for the recall. Different studies have shown that people usually choose things that are familiar to them (Coates et al., 2006; Hoyer & Brown, 1990; Mcdonald & Sharp, 2000) also in the cases where they have only seen the things but are not aware of them (Bornstein, 1989 & Zajonic, 1968). As per the recognition heuristic (Goldstein & Gigerenzer, 2002), choosing an answer in a situation where the correct answer is not known people will choose the option that they recognize from a previous experience over the unrecognized option (Barreda, Bilgihan, Nusair & Okumus, 2015). The people believe that the recognized option is more secure. Brandimage, an equally important component of building brand equity, is explained by Lin (2009) as the consumer‘s perception of the brand through the prior product experience plus the information, i.e., through recognition of the brand. According to Aaker (1996) recognition is believed to be more important for the new or niche brands.
Like product brands, however, corporate brands also have distinct, direct value for customers. To customers, the corporate brand also provides trust and expertise that is earned, cultivated and nurtured through the activities accrued in the past and present. Establishing and embedding a corporate brandimage that elicits distinct associations in the minds of key constituents has the potential to differentiate the corporate brand, as well as produce an effect to create differentiation at the product and service brand level too. Corporate brands, as the highest level of the brand hierarchy, can potentially endorse a wide range of products and services, to varying degrees and can benefit from the reciprocal equity transfer across all levels. Corporate brands can act as an umbrella brand to confer equity to its product portfolio but also, in turn, potentially benefit from feedback effects from product and services at lower levels of the brand hierarchy to enhance its own corporate brand equity (Brexendorf & Keller, 2017 ). Finally, when the corporate brand is dominantly visible, corporate brand associations appear to be highly salient cues that influence product evaluations, relatively independent of perceived fit and product involvement. In contrast, when the corporate brand is not dominantly visible, consumers use corporate brand associations only as a means to increase the reliability of their product evaluation.
variety of available media options and growing competition, it is becoming increasingly difficult for marketers to build BK and BF. Consequently, it is therefore necessary for organisations to coordinate towards consistent brand messages (Delgado-Ballester et al., 2012). From a strategic perspective, consistency requires sharing common brand content through various communication touch points (Keller, 2003), a practice critical to the building of brandimage and BF (Madhavaram, Badrinarayanan & McDonald, 2005). Wine selection can be a complex and risky decision because its intrinsic merit cannot be readily assessed at the time of the purchase. Thus a consumer’s evaluation of the wine’s quality can only be determined post purchase. In the purchase- selection of wine, consumers use a variety of extrinsic cues to assist them in selection. As discussed, the brand is one such cue, and here familiarity is crucial (Sherman & Tuten, 2011). As consumers become repeatedly exposed to a particular brand of wine, they gain BF. In turn, this decreases risk in the selection of (Yuan & Jang, 2008). A study conducted by Sherman & Tuten (2011) evaluated the relative importance of strategic factors affecting wine purchasing decisions. These factors included country of origin, BF, year bottled, wine ranking, label appearance, region, brand name appeal and price. Their findings indicated that while the choice of wine is dependent on the occasion for which the wine is being consumed, the first factor driving a consumer’s wine choice, irrespective of the occasion, is the type of wine, followed by BF and price. Notably, when wine is consumed in a social setting, and is likely to be judged by others, BF becomes more important than price (Sherman & Tuten, 2011).
The commitment to a brand community also has positive effects on brand equity, deﬁned as “the differential effect that brand knowledge has on consumer response to the marketing of that brand” ( Keller 1993 , p. 8). Several contributions have shown that brand equity includes perceived quality, brandimage, and brand loyalty ( Dioko and So 2012 ; Horng et al. 2012 ; Hsu et al. 2012 ; Kimpakorn and Tocquer 2010 ; Manthiou et al. 2014 ; Nam et al. 2011 ; Oh and Hsu 2014 ; Šeri´c et al. 2014 ; Xu and Chan 2010 ). Brandimage is a set of perceptions of a consumer that identiﬁes the representation of the brand in his/her mind ( Dobni and Zinkhan 1990 ). Some studies indicate that brandimage inﬂuences brand loyalty through perceived quality ( Chen and Myagmarsuren 2010 ; Sean Hyun and Kim 2011 ; Im et al. 2012 ; Kladou and Kehagias 2014 ). Perceived quality can be understood as the comparison between ﬁrm’s performance and customer’s expectations ( Parasuraman et al. 1988 ); when the disconﬁrmation is negative, dissatisfaction is created, when it is positive, customer satisfaction is generated, thus increasing customer loyalty. The concept of perceived quality is strongly related to that of perceived value, which is deﬁned as the consumer’s overall evaluation of the beneﬁts that are attained from a product or service in return of the perceived cost, in terms of monetary and non-monetary price ( Monroe 2002 ). The perceived value, in addition to increase customer satisfaction, encourages the consumers’ repurchases ( Han et al. 2011 ), promotes re-patronage intentions, and discourages switching behaviors ( Wathne et al. 2001 ), thus improving customer loyalty ( Nguyen et al. 2018 ).
Brand Communities sind einerseits relativ labil – weil jeder einzelne Konsument jederzeit problemlos ›kündigen‹ bzw. zwischen ihnen wechseln kann. Andererseits haben sie gegenüber traditionellen Formen von Gemeinschaft (wie Familie, Nach- barschaft, Gemeinde usw.) einen gewichtigen Vorzug: Dadurch, dass man in tradi- tionelle Gemeinschaften typischerweise hineingeboren oder mehr oder minder frag- los hineinsozialisiert wird, wird einem deren approbierte Moral quasi auferlegt, wo- durch wiederum die individuellen Handlungsoptionen normativ eingeschränkt wer- den. Zu posttraditionalen Gemeinschaften wie den Brand Communities hingegen gesellt man sich typischerweise aufgrund vorgängiger intellektueller, emotionaler, ästhetischer und/oder ethischer Entscheidungen hinzu und manifestiert sich der- gestalt symbolisch als eine Person mit einer bestimmten, insbesondere eben qua
H3: There is a positive relationship between store environment and brand experience.
Brand attitude and purchase intention (H4)
Rationally, the relationship between brand attitude and purchase intention is not difficult to consider. As discussed by Brakus et al. (2009), brand attitude is evoked from brand experience, where consumers determine whether or not they like a brand based on their experience with it. As such, purchase intention may be regarded as related to brand attitude just as brand experience has been known to be (Anderson et al. 2014; Barnes, Mattsson & Sørensen 2014; Hung et al. 2011). Wu and Lo (2009) examined the impact of brand attitude on purchase intention among consumers looking to purchase personal computers in Taiwan. From a sample of 667 respondents, brand attitude was shown to have causal impacts on purchase intention (Wu & Lo 2009). The study found that first and foremost, consumers tended to select brands with which they were familiar. At the same time, they avoided brands towards which they had negative attitudes. Conversely, they tended to select brands that they liked, based on how they perceived the image of the brand from various direct and indirect stimuli (Wu & Lo 2009). In another study, Jin and Kang (2011) examined the purchase intentions of Chinese consumers of US apparel brands and found from a survey of 747 consumers that increased positive attitude towards US apparel brands greatly explains consumers’ preference for such brands over locally branded or unbranded apparel. This study proposes that a positive relationship exists between brand attitude and brand loyalty.