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Estimation of energy productivity change in Baltic Sea and EU non-Baltic Sea states

Estimation of energy productivity change in Baltic Sea and EU non-Baltic Sea states

coke. Shi, Bi, and Wang ( 2010 ) argued that only the energy input is unable to produce any output during the process of production. Hence, other inputs together with energy should be considered when measuring energy efficiency. The results of the research in this article show that there has been an outstanding per- formance in terms of energy productivity change and energy technical change in the Baltic Sea states. These findings indicate that energy productivity in the Baltic Sea states has improved, and this improvement has been caused by the progression of energy tech- nology. However, the energy efficiency change in the Baltic Sea states is not so obvious. In other words, the production frontier in the Baltic Sea states has undergone a large upward shift, but the cluster effect in these Baltic Sea states is not distinct. In addition, this study also discusses the energy productivity of the 10 former communist countries in the EU. The result shows that the contributions of their energy productivity progress are from energy technical improvement and energy efficiency promotion. It also implies that there is a more obvious catching up effect in the 10 former communist countries than in the Baltic Sea states. The remainder of this paper is organized as follows. Section 2 describes the methodology used, Section 3 presents the empirical results, and Section 4 concludes with a summary of the empirical results.
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Development of international clusters in the Baltic Sea region

Development of international clusters in the Baltic Sea region

The formation of clusters at an in- ternational level is an efficient mecha- nism for the innovative development of periphery regions of countries involved in cluster interaction. However, rese- arch works devoted to this phenome- non are of predominantly empirical na- ture and are aimed at describing certain cases without carrying out any compa- rative assessment. This article seeks to analyse the positive experience of the Baltic Sea region states in the field of international cluster interactions in or- der to identify the factors contributing to the formation of international clus- ters. The following objectives are ful- filled in this connection:
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Sea state parameters in highly variable environment of Baltic Sea from satellite radar images

Sea state parameters in highly variable environment of Baltic Sea from satellite radar images

For the validation, a series of TS-X and TD-X Multi- Look Ground Range Detected (MGD) StripMap products were acquired in the Eastern Baltic Sea over buoy locations and coastal areas for sea state parameters estimation. The data was provided by German Aerospace Center (DLR) via the EOWEB® interface. An individual StripMap image with pixel resolution of 1.25m covers 30km×50km. The satellite images were acquired between 2012 and 2016 in HH and VV polarisations. The meteo- marine parameters were estimated based on statistics of subscenes of 1024×1024 pixels that covers an area of 1280m×1280m for spatially enhanced TS-X StripMap images used for this study.
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Impact of Sea Level Change on Inner Coastal Waters of the Baltic Sea

Impact of Sea Level Change on Inner Coastal Waters of the Baltic Sea

The inner coastal waters are important regions for economic, ecologic and recreational purposes. They link the hinterland to the open sea as waterways, providing ports for regional traffic and medium sized shipyards are located there. Due to their protected location they are important ecosystems with a high di- versity of life. Their natural beauty attracts people to use them as recreational places both at the coastline and on the water. A sea level change has influence on the behavior of the sea level variability and on the exchange of properties of the water body of the inner waters with the Baltic Sea.
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Baltic Sea Pipeline: The Profits Will Be Distributed Differently

Baltic Sea Pipeline: The Profits Will Be Distributed Differently

In late 2005, the German energy companies E.ON and Wintershall and Russian Gazprom reached an agreement to build a new huge pipeline Nord Stream through the Baltic Sea. This pipeline will provide Russia for the first time ever with the direct access to its Western European customers. This pipeline will contribute to the security of the Western Europe’s energy supply through creating an alternative supply oppor- tunity for the case when conflicts with the current transit states lead to disruptions in supply. The realization of the project will also shift the bargaining power from the transit states to the benefit of both Russia and the Western European natural gas importers. Particularly, White Russia as well as the Ukraine will have to accept lower transit fees in the future and have fewer means left to enforce special conditions for their own natural gas imports. The decision to construct the pipeline can be viewed as a consequence of institutional and political weaknesses in the transit states.
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Between land and sea — saline and brackish grasslands of the Baltic Sea coast

Between land and sea — saline and brackish grasslands of the Baltic Sea coast

precipitation in the study area varies between 520 mm and 698 mm (interquartile range; according to Karger et al. 2017). Baltic Sea coastal grasslands develop under slightly saline (oligohaline) to strongly saline (euhaline, occasionally hypersaline) conditions, ranging from 30 ‰ salt content in the BKØ where the tidal range usually amounts up to 30 cm, to a brackishness as low as 2 ‰ in the Bothnian Gulf where tidal fluctuation hardly exists (Tyler 1969a). While grasslands of the eulittoral and supralittoral are directly influenced by seawater, the epilittoral is affected only at irregular high tides and during inshore storms (Vartiainen 1980; Dijkema 1990). Soil salinity is further influenced by ascending relic salt solution from the Mesozoic (Bosiacka 2011; Bosiacka et al. 2011; Lehtomaa et al. 2018). Salt accumulation and water saturation (fresh- and seawater) vary greatly. East of the transition area to the North Sea seasonal flooding affects coastal grasslands more than tidal fluctuation. The flooding is mainly driven by river flood water, wind and inlets (Dijkema 1990; Dierßen & Dierßen 1996). Mean seasonal fluctuations within the growing season can account for up to 20 cm difference in water level (Tyler 1969a; Dijkema 1990) but occurs predominantly in autumn and early winter with ranges from 70-180 cm height up to severe level differences of 180-300 cm height (Dijkema 1990).
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The Baltic Sea region and increasing international tension

The Baltic Sea region and increasing international tension

First, the reactions of Russia and the other Baltic Sea states to the Uk- raine events were completely opposite. Moreover, they supported different sides of the conflict. Russian leadership interpreted the overthrow of Presi- dent Yanukovich as an anti-constitutional coup and they still hold to this po- sition. [4] Russian ambassador to Kyiv left the city and returned only after the presidential election to attend the inauguration of President Poroshenko. Other Baltic Sea states acknowledged the change of power in Ukraine as le- gitimate and continued diplomatic ‘business as usual’. Following the refer- endum of March 16, 2014, Russia made a decision to incorporate Crimea and Sebastopol. [5] Other Baltic Sea states saw it as a violation of interna- tional law and supported the UN General Assembly resolution on the territo- rial integrity of Ukraine, which emphasised the invalidity of the referendum. [6] The Russian leadership interpreted the Donbass events as an internal con- flict, whereas other Baltic Sea states accused Russia of intervention. ‘Nor- mandy talks’ and the Minsk deal were given a positive assessment in Russia. However, the EU and NATO members from the Baltic Sea region delegated the responsibility for implementing the deal to Russia. It can be thus con- cluded that Russia and the other states share no common ground on the Ukraine crisis.
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The Climate in the North and Baltic Sea Region

The Climate in the North and Baltic Sea Region

sector, i.e. from the Northeast to Southeast at about 30 % of the time or directly from the South at about 10 to 15 % of the time. The varying shape and changing orientation of the coastlines are the reason that general wind conditions are modified on a regional level. In the Szczecin Lagoon (Stettiner Haff), for example, the south-westerly winds give mainly way to southerly winds and, though less frequently, to westerly winds. The main wind direction varies throughout the year. In April, the wind very often blows from the northern to eastern direction (Fig. 13). Moderate winds from the western wind sector are more frequent in the summer in July (Fig. 14). North-westerly wind directions predominate at the North Sea coast, while the coasts along the Baltic Sea mainly receive westerly and south-westerly winds, which often blow gently. October is dominated by winds from southern directions (Fig. 15), with the winter being characterised by southerly/westerly winds at elevated wind speeds (Fig. 16).
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Climate change adaptation strategies in the Baltic Sea Region

Climate change adaptation strategies in the Baltic Sea Region

We hope that this primer has given you a better snapshot of the array of adaptation strategies being developed and implemented in the Baltic Sea region, and some of the implications that work being done in other countries might have for your own. This primer is, however, only a first step towards an increased understanding and exchange of adaptation practices across the Baltic Sea Region.

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Climate Change Adaptation Strategies in the Baltic Sea Region

Climate Change Adaptation Strategies in the Baltic Sea Region

We hope that this primer has given you a better snapshot of the array of adaptation strategies being developed and implemented in the Baltic Sea region, and some of the implications that work being done in other countries might have for your own. This primer is, however, only a first step towards an increased understanding and exchange of adaptation practices across the Baltic Sea Region.

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Demographic Ranking of the Baltic Sea States

Demographic Ranking of the Baltic Sea States

The article describes the first attempt to apply the method to the analysis of birth and mortality rates in 1995 and 2010 for 140 countries against the global average, and for the Baltic Sea states against the European average. The grouping of countries and the analysis of changes over the given period confirmed a number of demographic develop- ment trends and the persistence of wide terri- torial disparities in major indicators. The authors identify opposite trends in ranking based on the standardised birth (country con- solidation at the level of averaged values) and mortality (polarisation) rates. The features of demographic process development in the Baltic regions states are described against the global and European background.
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Economic and geographical structure of the Baltic Sea region

Economic and geographical structure of the Baltic Sea region

The Baltic Sea region is one of the most developed transnational regions. It is com- prised of the coastal areas of Russia, Ger- many, and Poland and the entire territories of Sweden, Denmark, Finland, Lithuania, Latvia, and Estonia. New spatial forms of international economic cooperation are emerging in the region. The region is not homogeneous in terms of socioeconomic development, thus there are certain diffe- rences in dimensions and intensity of inter- national cooperation. The author sets out to identify structural characteristics of the Baltic Sea region. This requires studying practices of transnational and transboun- dary cooperation and possibilities for their adoption in other regions of the world. An important characteristic of the Baltic Sea region is a considerable difference between its coastal territories, the fact that affects the development of multilateral relations. This article examines the most pronounced socioeconomic differences that should be taken into account when forecasting coop- eration trends in the region, including those between the Baltic territories of Russia and their international partners.
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Determinants for Foreign Direct Investment in the Baltic Sea Region

Determinants for Foreign Direct Investment in the Baltic Sea Region

Germany, Poland and Russia form our group “large Baltic Sea Region countries”. Figure 2.5 shows 4 that FDI flows to these countries have been steady, and as was somewhat expected, have been larger to Poland and Russia which are economically poorer than Germany. An exception is year 2000 when the FDI flow to Germany was over 10 percent of its GDP. (This is the same “dot-com effect” that we saw in the Nordic countries data.). EU membership has not had a large effect on FDI flows to Poland.

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IODP expedition 347: Baltic Sea basin paleoenvironment and biosphere

IODP expedition 347: Baltic Sea basin paleoenvironment and biosphere

5.4 Landsort Deep (site M0063) In the Landsort Deep, which is the deepest basin in the Baltic Sea, we cored to a depth of 95 m b.s.f. in a water depth of 437 m. At the deepest part between 95.8 and 93.4 m b.s.f. the sediment consists of a clast-poor sandy diamicton overlaid by a 53 m thick unit of varved glacial clay. This uniquely long varve sequence may enable a correlation to the Greenland ice core record (cf. Andrén et al., 1999, 2002). The varves can possibly comprise as much as 2,000 years in one contin- uous sedimentary record and may have recorded, with annual resolution, the entire Younger Dryas as well as its onset and termination (Fig. 5). In the upper part of this varved unit at 41.5 m b.s.f. a weak brackish influence is recorded in both the ostracode fauna and in the diatom flora, which is inter- preted as representing the short brackish phase of the Yoldia Sea stage.
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A Salinity Threshold Separating Fungal Communities in the Baltic Sea

A Salinity Threshold Separating Fungal Communities in the Baltic Sea

The Baltic Sea constitutes an ideal model system to study autochthonous communities of brackish water fungi since it is one of the largest brackish ecosystems in the world with a progressive salinity decline over a distance of approx. 2000 km from 34 PSU in the Kattegat in the Southwest (Denmark– Sweden) to 3 PSU in the Bothnian Bay in the Northeast (Sweden– Finland; Figure 1). Since the narrow and shallow Danish straits constitute a barrier for the exchange with more saline waters from the open North Sea, the Baltic Sea has relatively stable horizontal and vertical salinity gradients, minimal tidal effects, and long retention times of up to 30 years ( Kautsky and Kautsky, 2000 ; Reissmann et al., 2009 ). We provide new insights into the occurrence and diversity of aquatic fungi along the salinity gradient in the Baltic Sea and identify a threshold value at which fungal communities noticeably diverge.
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Security in and through regional cooperation in the Baltic Sea region

Security in and through regional cooperation in the Baltic Sea region

Security, ‘hard’ and soft’, has always been an underlying feature in the development of the Baltic Sea region (BSR). This applies to the Cold War period, in which the region has been divided between the Western and the Eastern blocks with the Iron curtain going right through its centre, as well as the past 23 years since the fall of the Berlin Wall and the dissolution of the Soviet Union. Owing to the far reaching and dramatic changes Europe and the region were facing, security was definitely one of the primary concerns on the political agenda of the countries of the region during the 1990s. However, when regional cooperation emerged in the early 1990s, hard and military security did not become an explicit task of those newly established regional cooperation structures. Nonetheless, the regional institutions contributed through their activities, of which many were and still are related to soft security risks, to overall stability and security in the region.
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Approaches to the definition of the Baltic sea region

Approaches to the definition of the Baltic sea region

The BSR itself can be considered as the core of a broader socio-econo- mic community consisting of the states of the Baltic region. There are 9 count- ries adjacent to the Baltic sea: Russia, Germany, Poland, Sweden, Denmark, Finland, Lithuania, Latvia, and Estonia. They form the core of a number of international organizations, such as the Council of the Baltic Sea States (CBSS). The latter also includes Norway and Iceland, with some neighbour- ing countries having observer status.

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Energy refurbishment of historic buildings in the Baltic Sea Region

Energy refurbishment of historic buildings in the Baltic Sea Region

The strict standards of the European Energy Performance of Buildings Directive ( EPBD ) are not suitable for historic buildings, since the minimum energy efficiency standards defined in the EPBD and related national laws are aimed at new buildings and non-historic buildings. Indeed, if these standards are implemented, historic buildings often lose their historic value. Because of the differing legal, economic and historical situations within the Baltic Sea Region, it is important for each country to devise its own best measures to exclude historic buildings from the strict minimum energy efficiency standard. This is in general a minor problem for protected buildings because they are usually excluded anyway. The bigger challenge is to conserve non- protected buildings of architectural, cultural or historical value. Therefore local municipality and heritage specialists have to work out local protection measures to allow non-listed historically valuable buildings an opportunity to keep their historical value.
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Coastal Protection along the Baltic Sea Coast - Mecklenburg-Vorpommern

Coastal Protection along the Baltic Sea Coast - Mecklenburg-Vorpommern

Storm surges along the German Baltic Sea coast are outstanding natural events. These develop as a result of the coincidental combined action of a number of meteorological and hydrological processes which are mainly influenced by the configuration of the Baltic Sea as an elongated shallow sea with relatively narrow connections to the North Sea and the world’s oceans. The reasons for the processes which may contribute to the development of storm surges in the south-western part of the Baltic Sea are low pressure regions of the westerly wind drift (storm depressions, intense low-pressure systems) which cross the Baltic Sea along characteristic paths, and especially in winter, result in strong winds with the above-menti- oned consequences. Almost all storm surges, therefore, also occur during the winter months from October to March. The major factors which contribute to the development of storm surges are the degree of fill of the Baltic Sea, the setup due to seiches, and wind setup, which significantly affects water levels. In the case of small-scale domains in the form of bays, the effect of setup in bays is also of importance.
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The impact of sea salt emissions on the air quality in the North Sea and Baltic Sea regions

The impact of sea salt emissions on the air quality in the North Sea and Baltic Sea regions

Coarse sea salt particles are emitted ubiquitously from the ocean surface by wave-breaking and bubble-bursting processes. These particles impact the atmospheric chemistry by affecting the condensation of gas-phase species and, thus, indirectly the nucleation of new fine parti- cles, particularly in regions with significant air pollution. In this study, atmospheric particle concentrations are modeled for the North Sea and Baltic Sea regions in northwestern Europe using the Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ) modeling system and are compared to European Monitoring and Evaluation Programme (EMEP) measurement data. The sea salt emission module is extended by a salinity-dependent scaling of the sea salt emissions because the salinity in large parts of the Baltic Sea is very low, which leads to considerably lower sea salt mass emissions compared to other oceanic regions. The resulting improvement in predicted sea salt concentrations is assessed. The contribution of surf zone emissions is considered sep- arately. Additionally, the impacts of sea salt particles on atmospheric nitrate and ammonium concentrations and on nitrogen deposition are evaluated.
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