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2. Workshop Automotive Software Engineering

2. Workshop Automotive Software Engineering

Der Workshop soll ein Forum für Automobilhersteller, Zulieferer und Forschungs- einrichtungen bieten. Ein Ziel ist es, die Möglichkeiten, Trends und Anforderungen an Technologien, Architekturen, Konzepte, Methoden und Werkzeuge zur Entwicklung und Integration software-basierter Fahrzeugfunktionen zu präsentieren. Dabei sollen praxisbezogene Lösungsansätze nicht zu kurz kommen. Ein weiteres Ziel ist es, einen Beitrag zur Bildung einer Automotive Software Engineering Community zu leisten. 26 überwiegend qualitativ gute bis sehr gute Beiträge wurden eingereicht. Das Pro- grammkomitee (PK) hat für den Workshop 7 Beiträge ausgewählt. Dem Workshop-PK gehörten folgende Personen an:
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Metrics in automotive software development: a systematic literature review

Metrics in automotive software development: a systematic literature review

In this article, we present a systematic literature review on the use of software metrics in the automotive software sector. On the basis of 38 selected primary studies, we extracted 112 metrics for which we provide a detailed description and a categorization using the HIS * metric catalog, 31 selected quality attributes of the ISO/IEC 25010:2011 5 quality model, and the ISO/IEC 26262:2018 Part 6 4 as references. In the systematic review, we found only 17 metrics defining boundary values, yet, no general boundary values or recommendations were found. The metrics obtained from the systematic review were also analyzed in the context of 20 selected tools used to collect data and compute metrics. From the 112 metrics, 48 are supported by the selected tools. Our findings include that there is neither an agreement in literature on the practical relevance of specific metrics nor an agreed mapping between metrics and quality categories. Furthermore, our findings show that the metrics found are not specific for automotive software development. Metrics are of general nature and are used to assess software (as part of a safety-critical system) in general. Specific characterizations of metrics for automotive software development, notably a precise definition of the context of use, are not available. We contribute views proposing such mappings and characterizations that include the 112 metrics from the systematic review and the three selected standards as well as a mapping to 20 selected tools supporting these metrics. The mappings aim to help practitioners select appropriate metrics that cover desired quality attributes and that reduce the number of exceptions from the agreed quality requirements. Our results lay the foundation for constructing a recommendation system that helps practitioners develop adaptable measurement systems.
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Automotive Software und Service Engineering (ASSE) – Eine Exploration von Herausforderungen und Trends aus Sicht von Branchenexperten

Automotive Software und Service Engineering (ASSE) – Eine Exploration von Herausforderungen und Trends aus Sicht von Branchenexperten

Durch ausgiebige Literaturrecherche und Internetrecherche wurden zunächst wichtige Wissensgrundlagen zu Automotive Software und Service Engineering geschaffen. Aufbauend darauf wurden die verschiedenen Gruppen auf Basis von Veröffentlichungen (Papern, Presseberichten etc.) und öffentlich zugänglichen Informationen (Bewertungen von anderen Experten, eigene Bewertung der Unternehmen) miteinander verglichen und erste Unterschiede in deren Strategien und Vorgehensweisen identifiziert. Diese Erkenntnisse wurden mit wissenschaftlicher Literatur [Bu03; Me04; RKR07; RMF02] verglichen, sodass ein Gesprächsleitfaden erstellt werden konnte, der die aus der Theorie generierten Thesen in der Befragung validiert. Bewusst wurde auf eine sehr allgemeine Fragestellung geachtet, um Aussagen über die Bedeutung der, zum Teil bereits vorhandenen, Ansatzpunkte in der Praxis zu erlangen. Die Expertenbefragung soll als Mittel zur Evaluation der in der Literatur dokumentierten Ergebnisse dienen. Neben einleitenden Fragen, über die Position und die Aufgabengebiete des Interviewpartners, sowie einer kurzen Erläuterung des Themas, wird der wesentliche Teil des Interviews in drei Themenblöcke gegliedert.
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Incremental Integration and Static Analysis of Model-Based Automotive Software Artifacts

Incremental Integration and Static Analysis of Model-Based Automotive Software Artifacts

With the increased use of model-based software development in the automotive domain, models slowly replace source code as the main development artifact. Since the source code of the software deployed on the individual ECUs in an automobile is generated from models, the quality of the model directly influences the quality of the generated software [53]. Quality control of automotive software is fundamental to the automotive industry, as errors in the software cost billions due to recalls and warranties and may further endanger the lives of passengers or other road users [1]. Since 90 % of innovations made in the automotive domain are driven by software and electronics [18], quality assurance is a necessity during the development process and required by safety norms such as the ISO 26262 [73]. While there exists a huge range of syntactic, semantic and structural software source code analysis tools, the tool landscape for tools analyzing the quality of software models is still sparse. One reason is that the primary representation for source code is text observing a well-defined syntax. Models on the other hand are typically saved in proprietary file formats with no explicit documentation of the model files structure, imposing a higher effort to extract relevant model data and processing it in a format suitable for quality analyses. Applying source code quality analysis to code generated from model files would require more time and effort, as source code is usually not generated until late development stages and mapping found flaws to constructs within the respective models might prove to be infeasible in certain cases. Nevertheless, with rising complexity and size of models, quality analysis of models in early development stages is important for cost-efficient removal of quality defects. Hence, quality analyses are needed that directly target the actual model-based software artifacts to increase the overall quality of models starting from early development stages.
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Feature Dependencies in Automotive Software Systems: Extent, Awareness, and Refactoring

Feature Dependencies in Automotive Software Systems: Extent, Awareness, and Refactoring

The results of this study show that dependencies between vehicle features pose a great challenge for the development of automotive software systems. Al- most every vehicle feature depends on or influences another vehicle function. We have also seen that describing the dependencies solely on the level of imple- menting components is insufficient for analyzing them, leading to a 50% chance that a developer is not aware of a specific dependency. Our results empirically underpin the challenges mentioned by Broy et al. [1, 43], where the authors state that “functions [of a vehicle] do not stand alone, but exhibit a high de- pendency on each other so that a vehicle becomes a complex system where all functions act together”. Dependencies should rather be specified on the levels of features, which demands a clear definition of feature interfaces. We have proposed a dependency-based refactoring approach for components that shows the potential of considering feature dependencies for a more modular system architecture.
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Incremental Integration and Static Analysis of Model-Based Automotive Software Artifacts

Incremental Integration and Static Analysis of Model-Based Automotive Software Artifacts

In this thesis, we present a method for the incremental integration and static analysis of model-based software artifacts comprising the extraction, storage, analysis and evolution of model data. The proposed incremental integration approach allows the conversion of supported artifacts into a well-defined representation and subsequent storage in a model repository, enabling seamless access to stored artifacts as well as synchroniza- tion with changes made to their source models. We further propose multiple static analysis techniques for MATLAB/Simulink models, a prevalent model-based software artifact in automotive software development. These analyses support various activities during different stages of a model-based development process. We present a signal reconstruction and slicing algorithm that supports debugging, testing and exploration activities of MATLAB/Simulink models. A clone detection procedure allows the auto- matic identification of cloned model fragments and their subsequent controlled reuse by refactoring into generic library blocks. Further quality and design defects are detected by a model smell analysis, identifying anti-patterns that negatively influence quality properties of MATLAB/Simulink models. Furthermore, we propose an inter-artifact consistency analysis targeting traceability links between artifacts of a product line and its accompanying variability documentation. All proposed techniques are realized in the form of an integrated software framework called artshop.
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7. Workshop Automotive Software Engineering

7. Workshop Automotive Software Engineering

Besonderer Dank gilt an dieser Stelle den Mitgliedern der GI-Fachgruppe „Automotive Software Engineering“, die als einen wesentlichen Teil Ihrer Fachgruppenarbeit den Workshop planen und vorbereiten, sowie der Unterstützung der nachfolgend aufgeführten Mitglieder des Programmkomitees, welche die Begutachtung aus Auswahl der Beiträge vorgenommen haben.

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16. Workshop Automotive Software Engineering

16. Workshop Automotive Software Engineering

Wie seine Vorgänger setzt sich der 16. Workshop Automotive Software Engineering mit der Problematik der Softwareentwicklung im Automobilbereich und folglich mit dafür geeigneten Methoden, Techniken und Werkzeugen auseinander. Die Automobilsoftware spielt heutezutage mehr denn je mit zunehmend vernetzten Fahrzeugen und modernen Fahrerassistenzfunktionen einschließlich des vollautomatisierten Fahrens eine wichtige Rolle.

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15. Workshop Automotive Software Engineering (ASE)

15. Workshop Automotive Software Engineering (ASE)

Wie seine Vorgänger setzt sich der 15. Workshop Automotive Software Engineering mit der Problematik der Softwareentwicklung im Automobilbereich und folglich mit dafür geeigneten Methoden, Techniken und Werkzeugen auseinander. Die Automobilsoftware spielt heutzutage mehr denn je mit zunehmend vernetzten Fahrzeugen und modernen Fahrerassistenzfunktionen einschließlich des vollautomatisierten Fahrens eine wichtige Rolle. Dabei steigt deren Komplexität nicht nur stetig an, sondern auch strengere Anforderungen an Zuverlässigkeit, Sicherheit (Security und Safety) und Datenschutz (Privacy) müssen insbesondere erfüllt werden.
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8. Workshop Automotive Software Engineering

8. Workshop Automotive Software Engineering

Am und im Kraftfahrzeug trifft die hohe Dynamik von origin¨ar automobilfremden An- wendungsbereichen auf die klassischen, h¨aufig sicherheitsrelevanten Funktionen des Fahr- zeugs. An der F¨ahigkeit die ”Schnittstelle Kraftfahrzeug“ mittels Automotive Software En- gineering so zu gestalten, dass Dienstleistungsmehrwert mit Zuverl¨assigkeit und Sicher- heit koexistieren kann, entscheidet sich wie groß die M¨oglichkeiten und Kosten unserer zuk¨unftigen Mobilit¨at sind. Thema dieses Workshops ist ”Automotive Software Engi- neering“ im Zentrum der oben geschilderten Herausforderungen.
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Systematic and Methodical Analysis, Validation and Parallelization of Embedded Automotive Software for Multiple-IEU Platforms

Systematic and Methodical Analysis, Validation and Parallelization of Embedded Automotive Software for Multiple-IEU Platforms

I am also heavily indebted to Stefan Kuntz and Continental Automotive AG. I want to sincerely thank Stefan for taking time for fruitful discussions and providing me with valuable insights in industrial practice as well as his long-term experiences. Continental Automotive AG has been an important sponsor of my dissertation, thus I am very grateful to the management for fostering me in the course of the company’s doctoral candidate program. Furthermore, I would like to cordially thank the Timing-Architects Em- bedded Systems GmbH (TA) – represented by their CEO and co-founder Dr. Michael Deubzer – for giving me the opportunity to use their software within the “TA Research Partner Program”. This has been a great help for me – especially for conducting the case studies and evaluation. Concern- ing the latter, I would like to additionally thank Stefan Schmidhuber for his skilled feedback and support in his role as fellow PhD student as well as TA employee.
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Managing Complex Variability in Automotive Software Product Lines with Subscoping and Configuration Links

Managing Complex Variability in Automotive Software Product Lines with Subscoping and Configuration Links

study is dependency propagation. The great importance and complexity of dependencies between an automotive system’s variable aspects was described in Section 5.1 already. Such dependencies may arise on virtually all abstraction levels; for example, a certain dependency may represent a marketing decision, which will usually be defined on a high abstraction level, or it may represent a technical constraint, usually defined on a rather low level of abstraction. When structuring a product line infrastructure with configu- ration links according to the use cases from Chapter 14 these levels of abstraction and composition will be (partly) represented by their own feature models. A dependency occurring on a lower technical level will then be defined in that level’s corresponding feature model. With configuration links—and the semantic relation they establish be- tween their source and target feature models (cf. Figure 13.1 in Section 13.2.2)—it is now imaginable to propagate a dependency from the source to the target feature model, or vice versa. This way, for example, it would be possible to show the impact of a tech- nical constraint in the marketing-oriented view of a feature model capturing customer variability. This idea of dependency propagation opens up a range of interesting re- search questions, which are expected to be examined in detail in the ATESST follow-up project starting in July 2008.
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Analyse des SEPIC-Spannungswandlers für Automotive-Anwendungen

Analyse des SEPIC-Spannungswandlers für Automotive-Anwendungen

Durch die Zunahme elektrischer Komponenten im Automotive-Bereich kommt neben dem Abwärts- wandler (Buck-Converter, Abbildung 1a) immer häu- figer ein Aufwärtswandler (Boost-Converter) zum Einsatz. Oft werden diese Wandler in Kombination eingesetzt, als Buck-Boost oder Boost-Buck (Abbildung 1b). Eine Alternative stellt der Single Ended Primary Inductance Converter dar, kurz SEPIC genannt (Abbildung 1c). Dieser besitzt die Eigen- schaft, sowohl als Aufwärts- wie auch Abwärtswand- ler zu funktionieren. Im Vergleich zum Auf- bzw. Abwärtswandler, besitzt der SEPIC eine zweite Spule und einen zusätzlichen Kondensator, welche als Ener-
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The New European Automotive Industry

The New European Automotive Industry

sure appears to be on the volume producers that, with low per-unit margins, are most exposed by both high unit costs and market fragmentation accentuated by reduced product life cycles. Of course there are exceptions, but in a stag- nant market one vehicle manufacturer can only gain vol- ume at the expense of another. Recently, the volume ‘win- ners’ have been PSA and Renault (with much of their suc- cess attributable to aesthetic design issues) while the ‘losers’ have been Ford, GM Opel, VW, and Fiat. The specialist or premium producers have effectively been cushioned by a strong US market where issues such as fuel consumption count for little. This bubble economy cannot last, and it is not at all clear that the European premium producers are in a position to survive a large-scale drop in US demand. The real challenge will be to create an industry that in all re- spects is more sustainable than that which we have now: ironically, being in a highly regulated Europe is going to be an advantage there. Indeed, there is a strong case for sug- gesting that the divergence of opinion between the Euro- pean Commission and the industry is misplaced, and that the ultimate competitiveness of the industry will be improved and enhanced by stronger regulatory controls. In other words, both the industry and the European Commission have much to benefit from greater regulation, and that as a result the European automotive industry should actively em- brace issues such as the reduction of carbon dioxide emis- sions and the recycling of end of life vehicles. A strategy of resistance and denial will only become counter-productive.
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Addressing today's challenges in automotive remanufacturing

Addressing today's challenges in automotive remanufacturing

Some of the latest trends in the automotive industry were disadvantageous for the automotive remanufacturing industry. Some volitional, intended from OE-side, some unintentional. Trend 1: Products last longer The composition and quality of materials as well as techniques and procedures of production have improved significantly in the last years. Moreover improvements in the field of operation liquids and the usage of early- warning systems as for example ODB (On-Board-Diagnosis-System) help to prevent fatal breakdowns of parts. All these facts have led to a decrease in the failure rate of mechanical parts, which can in general be seen as a positive trend. The side-effect is that the need for exchange parts gets smaller and the competition in the remaining market gets bigger [ 1 ].
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Capro Automotive Group FH Aachen

Capro Automotive Group FH Aachen

o Package und Ergonomieauslegung: Mittels in CAD erstellten Sitzbelegungsplänen und der 3D-Package-Software RAMSIS konnte ein Innenraumkonzept für den Capro gefunden werden, welches für seine Klasse neue Standards hinsichtlich Raumkomfort liefert. Im Innenraum finden komfortabel vier Erwachsene – vergleichbar einem Ford Mondeo oder VW Passat – Platz. Auch die Erreichbarkeit von Bedienelementen, die Rundumsicht aus dem Fahrzeug sowie das Platzangebot im Fußraum werden

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Collaboration in Co-located Automotive Applications

Collaboration in Co-located Automotive Applications

Referencing to objects through the use of pointing gestures is an important part of communication both in reality and in collaborative virtual environments. Wong and Gutwin [2010] state that it is more complex to point in CVEs. They investigate how well users can identify pointing targets in CVEs by using different pointing techniques because not all types of pointing at certain objects require high accuracy. In an initial study, they identify several ways of pointing and in a second study they want to find out how accurately users can produce and interpret pointing directions. Deictic pointing offers the opportunity to identify an object by simple gestures instead of complex verbal descriptions. Intuitively, people are experts in producing and interpreting pointing gestures in the real world and pointing is closely coupled with verbal utterances. One of the most difficult things in CVEs is to imagine another user’s view, and the limited field of view of most CVEs reduces the ability of observers to perceive pointing gestures or viewing directions of others. Another problem is that pointing is often triggered by symbolic or spoken commands and not by the arm of the user or by an avatar representation. Furthermore, visual and perceptual factors like limited depth cues, low resolution, artificial avatars and reduced field of view make real and virtual pointing more different. In co-located setups, pointing gestures are important to direct a group’s attention to a certain spot (e.g. automotive development meetings). In their experiments Wong and Gutwin [2010] compare three different pointing techniques: pointing gesture only, pointing plus speech and pointing plus written notes. Altogether, the gestures were more complex without additional information on the communication channel. In the real world condition, users pointed at a monoscopic projection screen with a switched off laser pointer that was switched on later to determine if the target was hit. In the virtual condition, users let a virtual avatar point at a target controlled by a 2D-mouse. In both conditions, the observing users tried to identify the target from two positions, behind and beside the pointing user.
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Experience design in the automotive context

Experience design in the automotive context

not to display the interaction steps (as seen in the storyboard), but to make specific functions experienceable. Through this, insights are gained and an optimised prototype can be desig[r]

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Experience Prototyping for Automotive Applications

Experience Prototyping for Automotive Applications

Prototyping is a universal method that is used extensively in various disciplines and wherever interactive technology is developed. Characteristics such as fidelity, resolution and interac- tivity have been established to describe prototypes on an abstract level independent from underlying technologies. Thus, I formulated the best practices derived from my exploratory research in a context-independent way. However, the insights on Experience Prototyping presented in this thesis result from a three-year project in the automotive domain focusing on experiences in future electric vehicles. Thus, the presented case studies focus on a par- ticular application area with clearly defined goals. Furthermore, the applications explored in the case studies deal with specific scenarios and driving situations and the implemented devices represent different in-car functions. For these reasons, a generalization of the results is limited. I believe that the reported best practices can be transferred in other application areas. However, the specific tools and methods of Experience Prototyping have to be utilized in other domains in further case studies to analyze whether they can be applied in a similar way. We suggest a process to design and develop interactive applications triggering mean- ingful experiences and invite practitioners in the field to apply this process with its tools and methods in various applications areas.
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Automotive Marketing : Markenkommunikation in sozialen Netzwerken

Automotive Marketing : Markenkommunikation in sozialen Netzwerken

Die Nutzung sozialer Medien gehört heute für die meisten Menschen zum Alltag. Auch unter- wegs muss dank Smartphones und mobilem Internet niemand mehr auf Plattformen wie Face- book oder[r]

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