Moreover, leaders who lead authentically contribute to meeting that at least some of the procedural justice criteria introduced by Leventhal 37) . According to Leventhal 37) , a decision process that is recognized as fair should (a) be used consistently, (b) be free of bias, (c) be based on accurate information, (d) include a mechanism to correct made decisions if they have been biased, (e) be guided by ethical and moral standards, and finally (f) be based on different opinions. Having a closer look at the four sub-dimensions of authenticleadership, it becomes quite obvious why a leader’s behavior results in a more positive perception of the organization. First, authentic leaders act in accordance with their internal moral standards (internal moral perspective); consequently, the procedures they employ to make decisions are perceived to conform to ethical standards. Secondly, they are transparent in their relationships with others (relational transparency), which is why the employees’ feeling of being heard in decision processes is induced and they feel being able to voice their opinion 38) . Thirdly, authentic leaders
knowledge and learn from others’ experiences and research. Hence, my first visit is to the Isles of Lit, i.e. a chapter of literature review. In this chapter, I present what I came across in literature regarding the topics of project management, leadership, authenticleadership, complexity, managing creative personality, dance, choreography, and culture. The works of other researchers help me sail towards the final destination. After raising the anchor from the ports of the Isles of Lit, I sail to the next land, the Isle of DO. In this part I explain how I designed the path of this research, particularly, what methodology, ways, and sources of collecting data I chose. The reasons for choosing “participated observation” as the main source for data collection and semi-structured interviews as the secondary source are presented in the Isle of DO. After defining the route, I fill the sails again with air and move to the cases. Case one and case two are two contemporary dance performance projects, which I selected to participate in and observe. The reasons why I chose these cases and their descriptions are presented at the next stop, the Bay of Results. There, I share both my findings and a detailed exploration of the cases, choreographers, and dancers, whom I observed and from whom I gathered the data. The pre-analysis of the choreographers from the authenticleadership perspectives prepares me for the main part of the analysis. The issues that came up in the projects based on the complex personalities of creative people are presented from three different perspectives: observers’, dancers’, and choreographers’ points of view. These issues are as follows: soloing issue, feedback issue, authority issue, division of teams, pack, and “in-betweeners" issues. Painting vivid images of the issues, I learn the responses of the choreographers to a particular issue and analyse these responses through three lenses of authenticleadership (Ladkin & Taylor, 2010): self-exposure, relating, and leaderly choice. They become the lenses for the analysis of the choreographers’ responses to the described issues. Then, common leadership patterns from both cases are described through three lenses of authenticleadership. This analysis aims at presenting the alignment of the choreographers’ leadership approach with the authenticleadership literature. Four common patterns: warm-ups, physical contact, acknowledgement, and favouritism are explained in detail. Finally, before summarising the results and findings, the general leadership situations in the cases and in the dance industry are described.
that the background of normative commitment is related to socialization experiences from the employee's relationship with the organization.
Given these studies and those of Harter et al. (2002), Walumbwa et al. (2008) states that authenticleadership is directly related to increased organizational commitment (in particular the affective dimension) due to the behavioural pattern of the authentic leader, because it can positively affect the behaviours and attitudes of employees, developing commitment, organizational citizenship behaviours and performance (Ilies et al., 2005; Rego et al., 2012.). This causes followers to feel more committed to achieving the goals and objectives that have been set, given their degree of perceived authenticity (Kernis, 2003; Kernis & Goldman, 2005). We have therefore formulated the following hypothesis:
H2a: A benevolent ethical organizational cli-
mate relates positively to authenticleadership.
Principled ethical organizational climates pro-
vide ethical rules and policies for ethical behaviour (Martin and Cullen, 2006). Actions are consid- ered ethical when they comply with moral guide- lines (Barnett and Vaicys, 2000). Codes of conduct raise managers’ awareness of ethical behaviours (Schminke, Ambrose and Neubaum, 2005; van Sandt, Shepard and Zappe, 2006) and encour- age them to reﬂect their own values (Shamir and Eilam, 2005). Ethical rules and policies also reduce uncertainty and accentuate personal accountabil- ity when making difficult decisions (May et al., 2003). Following COR theory, we position ethi- cal rules and policies as part of the contextual re- sources that are available to managers within a principled organizational climate (Hobfoll, 2011). Managers who experience principled ethical orga- nizational climates will feel a sense of certainty and guidance provided by the organizational envi- ronment. The principled climate guides managers’ actions when they seek to attain AL. For exam- ple, managers can draw on codes of conduct when faced with moral dilemmas and struggling to make the right decision (Lemoine, Hartnell and Leroy, 2019). Thus, in line with COR theory’s principle of resource investment, we propose that managers in principled ethical organizational climates are likely to invest these personal resources towards AL:
authenticleadership is related to employee’s creativeness which refers that authentic leaders en- courage employee’s insights of mental security and their built-in motivation, which consequently make them extra original. Michie and Gooty ( 2005 ) predicted that authentic leaders also raise au- thenticity amid their dependents because they sense less prone to the changes that employees’ honest and original ideas may infer and are more prone to welcome their creative ideas. The quest of new opportunities results in disagreement of employees with leader (Cheung & Wong, 2011 ). Therefore, to accomplish a non-routine role of creativity, employees require reassuring behavior of leader (Amabile & Gryskiewicz, 1987 ). Creativity is nurtured by Employees’ intrinsic motivation as naturally stimulated employees are (1) additionally inquisitive and slanted toward learning, (2) they are flexible in their intellectual thinking, (3) they are risks takers, and (4) when they encounter chal- lenges, hurdles, and opportunities they seem to be more determined (Amabile, 1997 ; Farmer & Graen, 1999 ; Oldham & Cummings, 1996 ; Zhou, 2003 ; Zhou & Ren, 2012 ). Authentic leaders enhance the positive sentiments of employees by constructing supportive, positive, reasonable, and transpar- ent connections with them (Peterson, Walumbwa, Avolio, & Hannah, 2012 ) which as a result esca- lates their creativity. A positive association between ethical and moral perspective and employee creativity has also been evident from previous studies (Bierly, Kolodinsky, & Charette, 2009 ; Valentine, Godkin, Fleischman, & Kidwell, 2011 ). Considering the literature (Ilies, Morgeson, & Nahrgang, 2005 ) proposes that authentic leaders by supporting the autonomy of their employees make them funda- mentally more motivated. Therefore, our first hypothesis pursues that:
Cooper et al. (2005) have argued that the introduction of new constructs is only justified if they help to address questions that can not be answered with the existing constructs. They (rhetorically) challenge the concept of authenticleadership and wonder if the leadership field could not gain the same insights by referring to, for example, the moderating role of self- awareness on transformational leadership or the role of hope and confidence on various leadership styles. Yet, they also note that “if rigorous empirical research reveals that this construct is unique and associated with outcomes that are important for organizational effectiveness, then this will attest to the appropriateness of introducing and using this construct in future leadership theory and research”. Even though our data does not reveal a link to outcomes that are decisive for organizational effectiveness, the data clearly show that the concept of authenticity claims an important and unique location in leadership thinking of the practitioners. We have illustrated its central role and encourage more research on aspects of authenticity. However, authenticity should not be equated with ethical, transformational, or any other existing leadership form because equating it would make it a redundant construct. Our data reveal its specific understanding which is distinct from any of the aforementioned leadership forms.
In today's organizations, emotionally intelligent leaders are needed, which will instil the emotional intelligence model into the organization in an authentic way, thus creating a future organization. The aforementioned authenticity in incorporating an emotional intelligence model can help organizations achieve their full potential. Otherwise, the emotional intelligence modelling skills are nothing more than a manipulation tool for others to achieve the goals of the individual, and the progress of the organization is gradually disappearing.
we focus on the role of leaders (exogenously defined 3 ) in organizing the work of the team when the total outcome is equally shared between team members. Secondly, we contribute to the understanding of gender difference in leadership efficacy. Only few papers consider this type of gender difference finding ambiguous results. Grossman et al. (2016) run a laboratory experiment with randomly selected leaders who have to provide guidance on how to play the game to maximize group earnings and show that male leaders have a greater impact on followers’ decisions compared to female leaders. Moreover, followers are less likely to both attribute success to female leaders and reward them generously. Reuben and Timko (2017) extend the work of Grossman et al. (2016) by considering gender differences between elected and randomly-selected leaders and by analyzing gender differences in re-election. They find evidence of gender difference in the effectiveness of leaders only for elected leaders, while no difference emerges for randomly-selected ones. They also find that unsuccessful female leaders are re-elected at considerable lower rates than unsuccessful male leaders. No gender difference in performance with randomly selected leaders is also highlighted by Timko (2017a, 2017b), while weak differences are reported by Dufwenberg and Gneezy (2005) who, using a minimum effort coordination game, investigate the effect of team composition on team performance (differences in the fraction of men and women in a team only slightly affect coordination effectiveness). 4 Eagly (2007) and Eagly and Carli (2003) review the evidence and the reasons of women’s disadvantage in accessing and occupying leadership positions despite their high effectiveness.
Additionally, the data analysis shows that when the principal emphasizes the collective sense of mission, then communication is good and disputes and conflicts are less. According to Bass (1990), a sense of cooperation builds understanding, increases satisfaction among team members, contributes to conflict resolution, and improves the quality of decisions and their acceptance. It also contributes to the development of leadership traits as well as the skills necessary for the decision-making process (Bass, 1990). According to Leithwood, Riedlinger, Bauer, and Jantzi (2003), in and out of the classroom, the roles of school teachers, both individually and as members of the professional community, are key factors affecting the proper functioning of the school.
We find that both first and last meetings – i.e. the transition period – are associated with a tight monetary policy stance. In our preferred specification, interest rates exceed the level predicted by a simple Taylor rule that accounts for policy inertia, inflation and activity by 0.076 (0.075) percentage points in the last (first) meetings, on average. To put this in context, note that over 50% of interest changes in our sample are of 0.25 percentage points. We fail to find exclusive empirical support for some possible straightforward explanations. In particular, results are not driven by the zero lower bound constraint, or a particular specification of the Taylor rule. Also, our results cannot be explained by electoral cycles that might coincide with transitions in central bank leadership, nor by fiscal developments around those times. Moreover, they cannot be explained by unusually high uncertainty or inflation expectations around central bank transitions. Finally, we show that these results are not driven by two immediate endogeneity concerns. Namely, the timing of the transition and the choice of the new governor.
Of course, Lithuanian initiatives in the post-Soviet space, which, as it was stressed above, became the key elements of the regional leadership strategy, were a major irritant for Moscow. It was clear that this policy is being pursued in the context of increasing regional presence of the US and Europe, particularly in the framework of the American Enhanced Partnership in Northern Europe (e-PINE) initiative and the emerging Eastern Partner- ship. Moreover, in 2008, when Lithuania attempted to block the EU-Russian negotiations on the new framework agreement, the list of requirements in- cluded resolving ‘frozen’ conflicts in Georgia and Moldova. However, it would be an exaggeration to say that attempts to exert influence on the post-So- viet space were the main cause of deteriorating relations with Russia. When in the late 2000s, Moscow softened its position on the Eastern Partnership, it was in part due to the low efficiency of the programme. What is more, Po- land’s active stance in the post-Soviet space did not become an obstacle to normalising relations with Russia in the beginning of 2010s.
Um Führungskompetenzen von Kulturmanagern ging es im Panel mit dem Generalintendanten Theater Bremen, Hans-Joachim Frey, und der neue In- tendant beim Dresdner Staatsschauspiel, Wilfried Schulz. Das Eingangsreferat hielt Dr. Friedrich Kühn von Egon Zehnder International, ein auf Personalent- wicklung spezialisiertes Beratungsunternehmen. Dr. Kuhn führte aus, dass sich die Anforderungen an eine Führungskraft im Kulturbetrieb in den ver- gangenen Jahren vervielfältigt hätten. Neben der Bewältigung des aus der Wirtschaft bekannten Management-Repertoires kämen es auf Kompetenzen in Leadership und Sinnstiftung an. Beim anschließenden Zwiegespräch zwi- schen Frey und Schulz war es spannend mitzuerleben, wie unterschiedlich die Vorstellungen von Führung bei zwei Theaterintendanten sein können. Am letzten Kongresstag übergab die Dresdner Oberbürgermeisterin Helma Orosz den 1. WORLD CULTURE AWARD an H.H. Sri Sri Ravi Shankar. Der indi- sche Religionsführer nahm den Preis auf der Abschlussveranstaltung persön- lich entgegen. Schon in den Nachmittagsstunden hatten sich allerdings be- reits die Reihen sichtbar gelichtet - viele Teilnehmer nutzen die Chancen für einen Stadtrundgang durch Dresden. Dabei verpassten sie auch die seltenen Momente, wo sich insbesondere jüngere Teilnehmer sowie Künstler kritisch artikulierten. Genau diesen kritischen Dialog darf man durchaus von einem Kulturkongress dieser Art erwarten. Für 2011 stellt sich insofern nicht nur die Frage nach einem neuen Ort für den Kongress, sondern auch nach einer bes- seren Abstimmung der Panels, damit sich auch der Dialog zwischen den Ge- nerationen entwickelt. Vorbildlich umgesetzt hatte dies die Daetz-Stiftung beim erwähnten Jugendaustausch. Die Veranstalter sollten ernsthaft prüfen, ob diese Erfolge nicht beispielgebend für das Gesamtkonzept des Kongresses dienen können. Diese europäische Komponente ließe sich zudem durch eine stärkere Zusammenarbeit mit der Initiative Europa eine Seele geben stärken. Des- sen Sprecher Volker Hassemer, der in einem eigenen Panel ein Handbuch für europäische Kommunalpolitiker vorstellte, dürfte an einer Vertiefung der bestehenden Zusammenarbeit sicher interessiert sein - dienen doch beide zivilgesellschaftlichen Initiativen letztlich dazu, die Kultur auf Augenhöhe mit Wirtschaft und Politik zu bringen. Denn im Grunde genommen hätte man allein auf europäischer Ebene bereits ausreichend Überzeugungsarbeit zu leisten. Am globale Anspruch allerdings könnte man früher oder später scheitern - und dies hätte die Idee des World Culture Forum nun wirklich nicht verdient.¶
One emerging challenge is that ignoring the trend of AI could lead to even higher damage (World Economic Forum, n.D.). Thus, it is the task of a leader to evaluate it’s use properly. A related risk is the one of managers being overwhelmed by the vast amount of data accessible. Nonetheless, only hoarding information could eventually slow down the organizations instead of getting the full advantage, which should be considered in how leadership is performed (Dewhurst et al., 2014). Another risk is created when leaders do not fully understand how cer- tain results of AI are materialized and which impacts arise when blindly following those (Dewhurst et al., 2014). A specific risk of AI is that it currently treats all employees equally, which is in fact also a benefit, but could get problematic when single employees need specific services due to respected incidents like a pregnancy or long-term illnesses (Lee et al., 2015). AI should never be in a position to make final decisions (Fonseca, 2020; Meister, 2019). In- stead, fair human judgment is needed which cannot be performed by AI (Verhezen, 2019).
Μoreover, according to the teachers, the principal is instrumental to increasing their desire to try more. Leithwood and Jantzi (2005) consider that the adoption of the transformational leadership style by school principals contributes to teachers' willingness to make more of an effort. Furthermore, teachers do not believe that school principals should act in accordance with their own beliefs. This contradicts what the autocratic leadership style advocates, in which leaders enforce their decisions with the authority given to them by their work position, without taking into account the views of their teaching staff (Bass, 1990). Finally, teachers believe that the school principals have to make clear who is responsible for achieving specific goals.
Aufgrund von gesellschaft lichen Dynamiken und permanentem Wandel stehen öster reichische Schulleiter*innen vor sich verändernden Anforderungen in ihrem Funktionsprofi l. Neben den gesetzlichen Vorgaben zur Bestellung auf eine Schul- leitungsposition und den damit einhergehenden Lehrgängen können österreichische Schulleitungen vielfältige und individuell frei wählbare Fortbildungen wahrnehmen. Zu diskutieren scheint hierbei der Befund, dass österreichische Schulleiter*innen EU-weit den niedrigsten Fortbildungsbedarf artikulieren. Im Kontext der geringen Nachfrage nach Fortbildungen im Bereich Personal- und Finanzverwaltung lässt sich vermuten, dass dies auf die bisher geringe Autonomie österreichischer Schulen in die- sem Bereich zurückzuführen ist (Müller, 2019). Hier kann vermutet werden, dass ös- terreichische Schulleitungen keinen Wunsch nach Fortbildungen artikulierten, da sie bis dato wenig Entscheidungskompetenzen in diesen Bereichen hatten. Gleichwohl kann sich diese Befundlage im Kontext des sogenannten Autonomiepaketes von 2017 (österreichweites Reformpaket für eine autonomere Schulorganisation) zukünf- tig verändern, insbesondere auch hinsichtlich der dort vorgesehenen Schul(cluster)- leitungen und der damit veränderten und erweiterten Aufgabenfelder für die Leitungspositionen (Ammann & Mauersberg, 2017). Perspektivisch scheint es hierbei sinnvoll, Th emenbereiche im Kontext von Schulleitungshandeln und Leadership auch in der bestehenden Lehramtsausbildung zu verankern.
Many employees in modern work environments regularly perceive substantive time pressure, such that they feel there is insufficient time to adequately complete their tasks (Eurofund, 2017; Rudd, 2019). Hence, it is not surprising that a large body of research has developed on the consequences of such time pressure (e.g., Maruping, Venkatesh, Thatcher, & Patel, 2015; Stuhlmacher, Gillespie, & Champagne, 1998). This literature has shown an employee’s time pressure perceptions to shape his or her work-related attitudes and decisions (Wright, 1974) and to influence important work outcomes, such as individual creativity (Baer & Oldham, 2006) and task performance (Beck & Schmidt, 2013). Extrapolating these findings toward interpersonal contexts, scholars have demonstrated that time pressure can critically alter individuals’ interactions with other persons (Karau & Kelly, 1992; McGrath & Kelly, 1986). In group settings, for example, this stream of research suggests that perceptions of time pressure may trigger two distinct types of interpersonal (or informal leadership) behavior. One the one hand, time pressure may lead group members to exhibit time-oriented behavior, such as emphasizing timeliness and deadlines, pushing others toward a faster working speed, and proactively synchronizing joint task accomplishment (Karau & Kelly, 1992; Waller, Zellmer- Bruhn, & Giambatista, 2002). On the other hand, research has linked time pressure with
In Whither Capitalism which is one of the parts of the book, the author criticized the capitalism system as an exclusive approach. Because of this, the author proposed the inclusive approach (including normal human problems in the system) in the capitalist system to fulfill potentials in institutions. In this part of the book, the author gave due emphasis the importance of inclusive approach in the leadership process. Even though the author proposed the inclusive approach in leadership process, he did not sure about its effectiveness in practice.
A preliminary version of the questionnaire was presented to an expert panel of five pastors for evaluation: two Korean pastors who work in South Korea; one Korean pastor who works in a Korean immigrant church in the US; one Korean –American pastor who works in an American church; and one American pastor who works in an American church. The diverse background of panel members may enhance the reliability and validity of the fairly new measurement scale through strict evaluation and concerted revision. The panel of five pas- tors was asked to review and remark on the instructions, content, and format of the ques- tionnaire. They were also asked to review the relevance, clarity, and content validity. All of them agreed that the survey was too long. They suggested eliminating some ambiguous questions, combining some questions, and clarifying the intent of questions. Their sugges- tions and opinions were incorporated into the revised questionnaire. As a result, the numbers of questions were reduced from 59 to 33 questions (Appendix B and C ). Through these processes, a five-factor measurement scale, the Scale of Pastoral Administrative Leadership (SPAL), was thus developed.
transfer less than half of the team output to the leader. Moreover, a substantial fraction of team members (between one-third and one-half) are opposed to any amount of delegation and vote against transferring power to the leader.
One possible explanation for the reluctance to delegate power to leaders might be that leadership is not as effective in these endogenous treatments as it was in our initial study where ߛ is exogenous. In other words, in the treatments with endogenous leadership, leaders may not make effective use of their reward power and may fail to adopt the redistribution strategies observed in our initial study resolved the free-riding problem.
Culture Creation is an organizational change that is
based on a specific strategic intent. Culture is an agreement on how we work together to meet our needs. It is inherent in social groups and arises independent of intention. The move by the leader is to purposely engage the followers in the creation of a single culture that is based upon the strategic vision and an agreement coming from the bottom- up on how the strategic vision is implemented at each tactical level with defined goals, roles/ responsibilities and rules. It is one of the most effective tools of the leader as it creates a value potential for each member in providing organizational cultural decision-making guidance. When faced with the decision options usual in complex business situations, the member decides for that option that best meets the local tactical needs while also moving the process towards the organization’s strategic vision. This decision making response-ability engages each member in a results oriented, aligned cultural identification. It is linked to the leadership tasks of Strategy Definition as well as Change Management. An example is an innovation driven company like Google. Having the strategy of continuously inventing new data and IT based services means that they also need to implement the value “Innovation Driven” in their company in order to generate the necessary innovations. This is something they did in an exemplary way in define work time slots (20% day), which are purely for pursuing new and own ideas and by creating a work environment that supports breaks at work, which is known to foster creativity. By this measure every Google employee knows that he is allowed to be creative and does not need a personal leadership interaction to generate new ideas. This is cultural leadership and has the double benefit of achieving a company’s objectives (e.g. creating new products and services) and setting the leader free to focus on other leadership tasks as her/his followers are self-response-able and self-motivated to pursue the organizational goals. Then the leader has his/ her time for innovation in terms of where the organization needs to be in the future.