depend on the degree of competition; market fragmentation or simply the number of players will matter. All else equal, coordination on the shroud- ing equilibrium will be easier with fewer competitors.
The second argument as to how competition can be a force against shroud- ing strategies stems from an analysis of a repeated game (Gabaix and Laib- son (2006) only consider one-shot games). Since the one-shot game has mul- tiple equilibria, there exist tacitly collusive equilibria where firms raise the base good price above the competitive level even with finitely many rep- etitions (Benoit and Krishna, 1985; Friedman, 1985). Shrouding possibili- ties are worrisome in the repeated game not only because shrouding per se may not be desirable but also because shrouding helps to sustain tacit collusion. Unshrouding serves as a simple but credible threat to sustaining cooperation regarding prices. Whether such tacit collusion—the absence of competition—is feasible will again depend on the number of competitors. The notion of rational cooperation in the repeated game highlights a very interesting general aspect of the Gabaix and Laibson (2006) setup: there are aspects of both coordination and cooperation in this game. The pric- ing decision in their framework corresponds to a cooperation game where firms have a collective interest to charge a high price, but individually each firm has incentive to undercut its competitors. The shrouding decision cor- responds to a coordination game where shrouding is a risky strategy that offers the possibility of a high payoff from add-on sales if all firms coordi- nate on this strategy and the safe strategy (unshrouding) offers a low, but secure payoff.
framing system) the individual-level switching probabi- lity increased by one percentage point. After the reform, this figure increased by six times in comparison. With The public debate frequently gives the impression that add-on premiums are socially unacceptable and have a disproportionately negative impact on poor households, in particular. In order to allay this criticism, up until 2010 a hardship provision existed which limited the maximum add-on premium to one percent of monthly income. Income testing was not a requirement for add- on premiums of up to eight euros per month, however, which explains why the majority of add-on premiums are eight euros per month. However, this rule had two undesirable effects. The hardship provision was at the expense of the individual sickness fund which was not able to charge more than one percent of income even if it had greater financial requirements. Moreover, the regulation reduced the policy holder's incentive to switch to a less expensive sickness fund regardless of add-on premiums.
system appears to be activated, but the levels of the different markers vary across studies.
Prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) is an important mediator of inflam- mation ( 10 ). Increased PGE2 in the saliva, serum, and cerebro- spinal fluid of depressed patients has been described previously ( 11 – 14 ). The enzyme cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) is involved in the function of PGE2 in the inflammatory pathway. The COX-2 inhibitor celecoxib, an add-on to different antidepressants, has demonstrated beneficial effects in the treatment of depression ( 15 , 16 ). Although not all patients who received celecoxib add- on remitted, celecoxib showed significant advantages over the placebo add-on. However, side effects, including cardiovascular effects, have been observed during the use of COX-2 inhibitors, particularly in long-term treatment. With these specific side effects of celecoxib, screening and monitoring for cardiovascular risk factors and events is important, when treating MD with COX-2 inhibitors. Also, a recent meta-analysis with a total of 150 patients has shown that the adjunctive celecoxib group had better remission and response rates than the placebo group ( 17 ).
Methods: This is a multicenter, randomized, double-blind, parallel (3-groups), longitudinal pilot study including 3 x 27 (81) patients with a clinically stable schizophrenia. Patients are randomized in three groups: one group receives add-on spironolactone 100 mg for three weeks (inter- vention I), one group receives add-on spironolactone 200 mg for three
The magnitude of the effect in Column 1 is small—2 percent relative to the sample mean of 0.31—but likely economically significant, for several reasons. First, it suggests that drawing attention to overdraft costs induces upward-sloping demand. Framed differently, it suggests that messaging about costs without offering a discount—as one might contemplate as part of a pure debiasing strategy—would depress demand even more. Second, the messaging here does not mention the level of costs— again as one might contemplate as part of a pure debiasing strategy like “Beware of overdrafts at 60% APR!” Instead it offers to give back “half of the interest”. It seems plausible to think that messaging around the cost level might depress demand even more, particularly if consumers tend to underestimate add-on costs as assumed by shrouding models. Third, messaging costs are low, and hence bank strategy is sensitive to small changes in demand. Fourth, our estimates are in intention-to-treat (ITT) units, and we should keep in mind that some recipients may have ignored the messages and hence not actually been “treated”. Treatment-on-the-treated effects might be more informative for mapping the steady-state implications of our results, and they would be larger than the ITTs, but we have no good way of estimating how much larger in the context of this study.
The absence of any premature discontinuations in study period II, which presumably was at least in part a result of the prospect of receiving atomoxetine in study period III, might have added to the high ES. The null attrition rate and the very high treatment compliance of the study, in combination with the ADHD-RS changes in both treatment groups, support the assumption that parental psychoeducation inter- acts positively with active pharmacological treatment rather than being an efficient add-on-treatment of ADHD per se, at least during the relatively short time period of 10 weeks. This was supported by the results of the parents’ evaluation of psychoeducation. Regretfully, the study design did not allow for matching the responses of the parents’ evaluation to the treatment of the respective child. Nevertheless, the absolute majority of parents appreciated receiving more knowledge about ADHD and getting new in- sights of more adaptive ways of coping with their children. Simultaneously, a substantial number of parents still perceived their children’s ADHD symp- toms as very little or not improved at all.
The aforementioned limitation can be alleviated by SAR tomography [ 14 – 17 ], which exploits both the amplitude and the phase of the received signal, thereby permitting a higher order analysis [ 18 ]. It allows 3-D reconstruction of the scene reflectivity—a feature that renders it possible to resolve the layover problem [ 19 – 22 ]. Additionally, differential SAR tomographic methods [ 23 – 25 ] allow a joint spatio-temporal inversion of the coherent scatterers in layover, i.e., the position along the elevation axis as well as the deformation velocity of the interfering scatterers are simultaneously estimated. Therefore, differential SAR tomography has been proposed as an add-on to PSI techniques to improve deformation sampling by resolving the scatterers in layover that are rejected in the PSI processing [ 26 – 29 ]. Inevitably, a detection strategy is again required to classify whether the detection of one or more scatterers in the same resolution cell is true or false. In this context, it is pertinent to carry forward the same quality criteria as used in the prior PSI analysis so that the combined use of PSI and tomography holds compatibility.
re-sharpen blades as they were used with straight razors. Instead, the add-on pricing strategy (also known as the “razor and blades” strategy) emerges only with competition.
A second point concerns firms’ incentives to increase the degree of market power over add- ons. In the basic version of the model with full rationality, we found that profits are unaffected by the degree of market power. However, in presence of consumers with biased beliefs, for a given perception of add-on surplus, the increase in market power has a positive effect on profits (and makes the add-on strategy strictly preferred to bundling). In fact, firms seem to invest in increasing 𝛼. In the cruise industry, for instance, the Norwegian Cruise Line introduced on-shore excursions to privately owned islands, from which the company appropriates all the revenues (Klein, 2006). It should be noted, however, that if consumers can learn the real value of 𝛼 over time, the gain of the add-on pricing strategy reduces. Therefore, we can expect cycles in the introduction of add-ons, with firms continuously introducing new (high margin) add-ons, profiting from them until consumers assess the real surplus they can obtain from them. This argument has already been put forth by Gabaix and Laibson (2006).
Abstract- TanDEM-X (TerraSAR-X add-on for Digital Elevation Measurement) is an innovative radar interferometry mission to generate a global, consistent and highly accurate Digital Elevation Model (DEM) and to provide a configurable SAR interferometry platform for demonstrating new SAR techniques and applications. This paper summarizes the mission concept starting from the user requirements, the HELIX orbit and TanDEM-X operational modes to the expected height performance and provides examples of new SAR techniques.
Patienten mit schweren und häufigen Anfällen eine anfallsinduzierte Pgp- Überexpression eine Rolle bei der Entstehung der Pharmakoresistenz spielen könnte. Trotzdem muss man berücksichtigen, dass chronische Erkrankungen immer einer gewissen natürlichen Fluktuation unterliegen, so dass es sich bei der Reduktion der Anfallsfrequenz bei den insgesamt sechs Hunden (Case-ID 003, 006, 008, 009, 016, 017) nicht zwingend um den gewünschten Effekt der Add-on- Therapie gehandelt haben muss. Auch von pharmakoresistenter Epilepsie wird angenommen, dass etwa 4% der Patienten Episoden haben, in denen sie besser auf Antiepileptika ansprechen (KWAN et al., 2011). Eine erhöhte Konzentration bzw. Aktivität von Pgp im lebenden Hund nachweisen zu können, würde große Hilfe dabei leisten, Patienten zu selektieren, die von einer Add-on-Therapie mit einem COX-2-Hemmer profitieren können. Methoden zum In-vivo-Nachweis erhöhter Pgp-Expression mittels Positronen-Emissions-Tomographie (PET) werden seit einigen Jahren sowohl an Versuchstieren als auch an menschlichen Pobanden erprobt. Bei dieser Art der Bildgebung werden schnell zerfallende, radioaktiv markierte Substanzen (in diesem Fall Substrate oder Inihibotoren von Pgp) in ihrer zeitlichen und räumlichen Verteilung im Gewebe sichtbar gemacht (BAUER et al., 2012; FELDMANN und KOEPP, 2013).
Meinungen ist nämlich die Placebobehandlung keinesfalls mit einer Nichtbehandlung gleichzusetzen. In einer Analyse von Daten der Food and Drug Administration (FDA) in den USA, vergleichbar mit der deutschen Zulassungsbehörde für Arzneimittel und Medizinprodukte BfArM, konnte bei 4.500 Patienten aus placebo- und verumkontrollierten Zulassungsstudien für Antidepressiva gezeigt werden, dass 40.7% der Patienten eine Besserung depressiver Symptomatik mit der zu prüfenden Substanz aufwiesen, aber 41.7 % der Patienten mit einem bereits etablierten und zugelassenen Medikament und 30.9% der Patienten mit einem Scheinmedikament ebenso eine Besserung zeigten (Khan et al., 2000). Dem stehen aber die Nachteile des add-on Designs gegenüber, die aufgrund der Tatsache, dass add-on Designs zunehmend im Rahmen von Zulassungsstudien verwendet werden, ernsthaft diskutiert werden müssen. Dazu gehören in der Regel 1.) die heterogene Zusammensetzung der untersuchten Population, deren einziger gemeinsamer Nenner das Nichterfüllen von Reponse-bzw. Remissionskriterien ist, die sich aber ansonsten in Variablen wie z.B. Dauer, Art und Dosierung der Dauermedikation unterscheidet, 2) die erhöhte Wahrscheinlichkeit von Nebenwirkungen und bis dato unbekannten Interaktionen, 3) und die Tatsache, dass eine Subgruppe der Studienteilnehmer trotz unzureichender Response im Rahmen der Dauermedikation optional zusätzlich ein Placebo erhalten kann; 4) zudem benötigen add-on Studien geeignete statistische Verfahren zur Beurteilung der Exaktheit der erhobenen Befunde und 5) die Ergebnisse, die im Rahmen eines solchen Studiendesigns erhoben werden, lassen keine Rückschlüsse darüber zu, ob die placebokontrollierte Substanz bzw. das Behandlungsverfahren bisherige Standardverfahren bei Nonrespondern ersetzen kann, nicht einmal, ob sie Standardbehandlungen überlegen ist, und auch nicht, welche Behandlung zuerst angewandt werden sollte (Ottolenghi et al., 2009, Hayen et al., 2010).
We consider a broad set of bank characteristics obtained from supervisory reporting 14 on a solo basis
as control variables that may explain banks’ mortgage loan pricing decision as well as the relative strength of their reaction to the introduction of the RW add-on. In Table 1 we present some summary statistics of these variables distinguishing between IRB and STA banks. The first six variables in Table 1 are used as common controls throughout the sample and therefore may affect the average lending spread across banks with different balance sheet characteristics. The table indicates that IRB banks are on average significantly larger than STA banks (EUR 125 billion vs EUR 5.36 billion), but also display a higher variation in terms of balance sheet total. IRB banks tend to be less exposed, at least in relative terms, to Belgian mortgage loans compared to STA banks (18 percent vs. 28 percent). While the dispersion around the mean is very large for both STA and IRB banks, the latter tend to rely more heavily on wholesale funding sources, as revealed by the higher average loan-to- deposit ratio. The average differences between STA and IRB banks seem relatively limited for the remaining three of the first six control variables.
number has gained further credence with the large genetic analyses by Ference et al 30 demonstrating that, with add-on therapy, which
affects both the quality and content of atherogenic particles, any CV benefit is more accurately predicted by particle number (as depicted by changes in ApoB) rather than by LDL cholesterol. This is sup- ported by findings from the recent REVEAL trial with the cholesteryl ester transfer protein inhibitor anacetrapib, in which the observed clinical risk reduction was considerably less than that anticipated by the observed reductions in LDL cholesterol. 31 A meta-regression analysis of statin and non-statin therapies by Robinson et al 28 sug-
SAR tomography – is a multibaseline interferometric technique that allows higher order modeling using both the phase and amplitude of the backscatter. It serves as a means to separate individual scatterers in layover, which motivates its use as an add-on to PSI. While the classical use of SAR tomography has been the retrieval of reflectivity profile along the eleva- tion (perpendicular to the line of sight (LOS) direction), the more advanced tomographic techniques simultaneously allow modeling the motion parameters of one or more scatterers in addition to their elevation. Notwithstanding that PSI and tomography may share the same phase models, whereas the former can retrieve the elevation (as residual topography) and motion parameters for a single scatterer only, the latter allows it for multiple scatterers in a given range–azimuth pixel. This paper investigates the added value that can be derived by the combined use of SAR tomographic techniques and PSI, partic- ularly toward the objective of extending deformation analysis to layover-affected areas.
Figure 12: Offering of low-priced add-ons to all consumers under a high-priced add-on equi- librium
The figure shows cash flows relative to a high-priced add-on equilibrium without a public firm. A “public firm” represents a firm that accepts to follow a certain (loss-making) pricing strategy suggested by the regulator, and in turn receives a subsidy from the regulator. Suppose that the suggested strategy is to offer the base good for the equilibrium market price, i.e., p = −α¯ p + µ, and the add-on for e. The total volume of potential subsidies is such that all firms can participate. The suggested pricing strategy has two consequences for firms: First, they make an additional profit of e[1 − α] with all informed consumers who otherwise substitute away in a high-priced add-on equilibrium. Second, the firms’ profits with uninformed consumers decline by (¯ p − e)[α]. In sum, this pricing strategy is loss-making for firms. Thus, a subsidy needs to balance out the net effect on firms of α¯ p − e, otherwise firms would not accept the suggested pricing strategy. This subsidy, of course, needs to be financed by consumer through taxes. It follows that the net effect on all consumers is (¯ p − e)α − α¯ p − e = e(1 − α) which, by construction, equates to the prevented substitution costs of informed consumers.
Add ons improve the quality of a basic good or service vertically and “their prices are not advertised and would be costly or difficult to learn before one arrives at the point of sale” [Ellison, 2005]. They are pervasive in retail. Airlines offer add-on or ancillary services such as check-in baggage, or extra-leg room above a basic seat where add-on prices are revealed only after the plane ticket was purchased. Hotels propose breakfast or internet access over a standard room and prices of these ancillary services are known only after the hotel room is occupied. Retail banks offer overdraft credit beyond basic deposit services and make the overdraft price clear only after the overdraft option is used. The hidden nature of add-on prices and the associated inconvenience cost of learning them elsewhere enable firms to earn positive profits in equilibrium. 1 This capacity to use add-on prices to extract rents on the
4.4 Add-on insurance and default choices for internet purchases
Voluntary add-on insurance is regularly offered for several products that are sold over the in- ternet. Typically, these offers appear toward the end of the purchase process, when consumers have already invested time into filling in their personal information. Prominent examples are additional travel sickness insurance, insurance against the risk of not being able to fly or use a hotel room, and insurance against the risk of bankruptcy of an airline carrier. While add-on insurance cannot be advertised by a salesman as would, for example, products sold in a retail store, there is a another option to increase the sales of insurance in these cases. A firm can set the purchase of add-on insurance together with a base product, e.g., a flight ticket, as the default option in the purchasing process. A consumer who does not want such an option must uncheck a box. Such practices have been adopted by several airlines, as they can increase firm profits when some consumers are inattentive to the costly default option. In such a case, a simple regulation that can improve consumer surplus is the requirement to
Immunoadsorption · Plasmapheresis · Pulmonary arterial hypertension · Autoantibodies
Background: Despite optimized medical therapy, severe id- iopathic pulmonary arterial hypertension (IPAH) is a devas- tating disease with a poor outcome. Autoantibodies have been detected in IPAH that can contribute to worsening of the disease. Objectives: The objective of this prospective, open-label, single-arm, multicenter trial was to evaluate the safety and efficacy of immunoadsorption (IA) as an add-on to optimized medical treatment for patients with IPAH. Methods: A total of 10 IPAH patients received IA over 5 days. Their clinical parameters, including hemodynamics mea- sured by right heart catheter, were assessed at baseline and after 3 and 6 months. The primary endpoint was the change
Primary care is becoming more and more popular worldwide because research over the last 40 years has provided evidence that strong primary care is asso- ciated with better health indicators, comparatively lower socioeconomic inequality and lower rates of unnecessary hospitalization [1–4]. Although there is ample evidence for the benefits of strong primary care systems, it is not completely clear which fac- tors are of primary importance for these benefits; this makes further research in different primary care settings highly relevant [5–9]. Europe is an excellent laboratory to observe and assess different primary care systems which are located geographically close together [7, 10, 11]; however, the systems differ not only from a structural or organizational point of view but also in terms of their traditional terminology as well as their education and training systems for pri- mary care [12–14]. Ideally, the same term should mean the same to the study participants as to per- sons who interpret the results of the study  but even in studies with a very profound and compre- hensive questionnaire development process, such as the Quality and Costs in Primary Care (QUALICOPC) study  some terminology obstacles remain: while going through the initial findings of the Austrian part of the QUALICOPC project regarding primary care professionals it became obvious that the terminology used and translated did not seem to be the same for the participating GPs. Therefore, we performed an add-on study which aimed to analyze the scope of differences in terminology used by GPs for selected primary care professions, namely nurses and medi- cal secretaries working in the primary care sector in Austria. Additionally, we analyzed the term “indepen- dently” in relation to the tasks and responsibilities of nurses and medical secretaries. Does it mean the person simply performs the task by alone (by order of someone who is then subsequently accountable for the outcome) or does it mean the individual performs the task autonomously and is, additionally, account- able for it? It is not the pure linguistic focus that the paper wants to add, it has to do with the complex also cultural intertwining of the way health systems and health services are shaped in Europe, and the words we used to indicate certain professionals in those services and systems.
The results presented here show the feasibility of the presented system. Implementation is straightforward since only very few interfaces are necessary. Only one analog and three digital signals have to be taken from the original MRI system to make the add-on fully functional. In comparison to the development of complete consoles [ 48 , 49 ], which might pose more power- ful tools, the big advantage is the use of the standard vendor software that clinicians and researchers are accustomed to. For simple RF shimming with the add-on system, the vendor- provided sequences can remain completely unchanged. When selective excitation is used, the sequences only need minimal reprogramming to allow loading of user-provided pulses, greatly simplifying the workflow.