Strategic assessment of the national security and defense of the Republic of Moldova VICTOR GAICIUC. The project aimed to strategically evaluate the national security and defense of the Republic of Moldova at the present time and to develop scenarios and options for the near future by examining the country's public policies.
THE PROBLEM OF FRONTIERS IN THE WARFARE SCIENCE AND GEOSTRATEGY OF THE REPUBLIC OF MOLDOVA
Accordingly, the current Republic of Moldova is nothing but the continuation of the former Moldavian Soviet Republic. In addition, the ethnic map of the Republic of Moldova becomes more complicated due to the problems of national identity.
THE MAIN CHALLENGES FOR THE NATIONAL SECURITY OF THE REPUBLIC OF MOLDOVA
The Republic of Moldova together with Russia have initiated a program for the reimbursement of debts for distributed natural gas. Unfortunately, even after nearly a decade of political independence, the economic independence of the Republic of Moldova remains a mere aspiration.
THE PLACE OF TRANSDNISTRIAN CONFLICT IN THE
The economic changes in Russia in 1992, which is still the main source of energy resources for the Republic of Moldova, led to a continuous increase in energy prices that reached global levels, and even more. The cornerstone of this economic sovereignty is, of course, the assurance of energy independence, a moment that, together with the Transnistrian problem, is crucial for the survival or duration of this country's agony.
GEOPOLITICAL CHARACTERISTIC OF THE REPUBLIC OF MOLDOVA
THE PLACE OF THE SOUTH BESSARABIAN CONFLICT IN THE GEOPOLITICAL CHARACTERISTIC OF THE REPUBLIC OF MOLDOVA
The Moldovan-Ukrainian border agreement signed in 2000 and the territorial and administrative reform in the Republic of Moldova in 1999 opened the "case" of conflicts in South Bessarabia. Accordingly, Bulgarians represented 320,000 people, including 240,000 in the region of Izmail, Odesa and 80,000 in the south-west of the Republic of Moldova.
Historical Evolution of the Concept of National Interests
The main reason for this project's failure was that the states could not reconcile their national interests with the interests of the international community. More than a hundred wars have occurred since the founding of the United Nations.
Basis, Method of Definition and Classification of National Interests
Another example is the collapse of the USSR and the disappearance of the bipolar world. Historical evolution of relations between the small state and the nearest great power; etc.
NATIONAL INTERESTS OF THE REPUBLIC OF MOLDOVA
The general international disinterest and the various interests of external factors regarding the issue of the Transnistrian region; The existence of the Gagauz factor is an additional smoking source of separatism and tension within the country.
THE RISKS AND THREATS TO NATIONAL INTERESTS
The existence of illegal military structures in the country's eastern districts and potential military threats. Presence of foreign military troops temporarily stationed on the territory of the Republic of Moldova.
In international law, this notion is generally treated as the legal status (or special legal situation) of states that, during armed conflicts, In the classical theory, neutrality also appears as a discretionary act related to the exclusive competence of the state concerned, as a legal regime with a set of rights and duties. Abstention is materialized in the duty of the neutral state not to provide, directly or indirectly, any assistance to any of the parties to the conflict.
Impartiality means the duty of a neutral country to maintain strictly equal treatment towards all belligerents by continuing any normal relations with them, but not susceptible of creating a more favorable position for political or military policy. perspective for any of the warring parties.
NEUTRALITY IN THE INTERNATIONAL LAW
- Neutrality in war on land
- Neutrality in Naval War
- Neutrality in the Air War
- Permanent neutrality
Later, this principle is materialized in a set of duties of the belligerents towards the neutral states and, in a related manner, the duties and rights of the neutral state towards the belligerents. The norms devoted to neutrality in war at sea have been included in particular in the 13th Hague Convention since 1907 “relating to the rights and duties of the neutral powers in naval wars”. According to the main ideas of this Treaty, the belligerents must refrain from committing hostile acts in the territorial waters or in the internal waters of neutral States.
The basic principle in this field, namely compliance with the inviolability of the neutral state, is also applied in the Air War.
STATES WITH PERMANENT NEUTRALITY STATUS
As a consequence of the German-Soviet pact since 1939, Finland was divided into the Soviet zone of influence. It is the result of the country's own determination not to commit itself, at least in peacetime, to any military alliance. The Swedish government decides the enforcement of neutrality in total freedom, a fact that allows it to promote a balance in the region that is least affected by the rivalry of the great powers.
On February 13, 1920, the Council of the League of Nations officially recognized and guaranteed Switzerland's permanent neutrality in the 'London Declaration'.
NEUTRAL STATES AND SECURITY
The fragility of the status of neutrality is largely determined by the fact that the unilateral declaration of such a status is insufficient for its viability. These changes are characterized by the attempt to reconcile the status of neutrality with the policy of participation in the consolidation of the European security system. About 2,000 specialists are involved in guarding and maintaining the fortifications across the country.
For this reason, special attention is paid to supplying the armed forces with weapons – a significant effort accepted by the nation.
THE FUTURE OF NEUTRALITY
Diplomatic structures: guarantee independence, peace and timely prediction of all attempts to isolate the country internationally; All neutral countries are currently engaged in this discussion, being aware of the necessity of careful progress without causing a split in public opinion. On December 1, 2001, four out of five neutral countries from Western Europe were members of the European Union.
The new member states of the European Union have the tendency to capitalize their opinion in the development of this common policy and here lies the most important nuance.
THE REPUBLIC OF MOLDOVA AND PERMANENT NEUTRALITY
A military force of a foreign country (regardless of the reasons or declarations of concern about the security) will be stationed on the territory of the Republic;. Recognition and strict compliance with the requirements set forth in the documents of international law regarding the status of neutrality;. Impactele ei asupra securitãþii Republicii Moldova (Unsafe neutrality. Its impact on the security of the Republic of Moldova).
The Constitution of the Republic of Moldova was adopted on July 29, 1994, which declared the country a status of permanent neutrality.
In this report, the assessment will first cover the military component of the forces and assets intended to protect the sovereignty of the country, in particular the National Army of the Republic of Moldova as the basic component of the Armed Forces of Moldova. Republic of Moldova (AFRM). Secondly, with less detail due to lesser importance, it is necessary to describe the contribution of other components in the combat capabilities of the AFRM, namely the units of the Ministry of Internal Affairs (Gendarmes) and the Border Guard. Knowing the military capabilities of a country to maintain its sovereignty will provide an opportunity to ensure the proper construction of the national military and other AFRM components.
Knowing the military capabilities of a state, as one of the many factors that aim to preserve sovereignty, as well as existing risks and threats, will ensure a correct achievement of domestic and foreign policy.
THE CURRENT STRATEGY INTERRELATIONS BETWEEN POLITICAL AND MILITARY STRATEGY
All this was reflected in the process of building the Armed Forces of the Republic of Moldova. As for the budget of the Ministry of Defense, it is approximately 2-3% of the state budget. In the first half of the last decade, the development of a new concept of the logistics system for the National Army, which was based on modern principles, began.
The situation with the National Army of the Republic of Moldova is completely different.
THE ARMED FORCES: EVALUATION OF THE EXISTING COMBAT CAPACITIES
- The National Army: Force Structure
- Numerical structure and its distribution
- The National Army: Equipment
- The National Army: Combat Capacities
- The National Army: Financing
- The National Army: Dynamics of Combat Potential
Nevertheless, it is reasonable to consider that the distribution of the forces of the National Army is actually normal. Authorized rating of combat potential (abbreviated, authorized rating) means the capability of the equipment authorized for each unit. The financing of the National Army has been characterized by a sharp deficit throughout the years of its existence.
Therefore, the estimate of the combat potential of the combined armed forces capable of the mission does not exceed 1499.
THE FUTURE NATIONAL ARMYS COMBAT CAPACITIES IN THE PERSPECTIVE OF ACHIEVING THE MILITARY REFORM
Based on this basic model, two versions of the structure of the National Army were prepared. The increase in TRR will facilitate the increase in the National Army's mission parameters. Therefore, the implementation of the programs planned in the first scenario allows an increase in the combat potential of the National Army by more than 110.
It will also increase the National Army's combat potential and provide for the redirection of part of the unused funds for the replenishment of material stocks and the purchase of weapons and military equipment.
REQUIRED COMBAT CAPACITIES IN THE NEAR FUTURE
In general, the savings that will be achieved due to the reduction of the national army, the sale of obsolete military equipment (the operation of which is impossible due to the lack of necessary funds, and in the case of the MiG -29 aircraft, also due to the lack of qualified pilots) and the inclusion of the NS in the implementation of peace operations under under the auspices of the UN, could provide the Ministry of Defense with additional funds of up to 12-15 million US dollars. Nevertheless, the reality is this: the combat potential of the combined military potential of the Transnistrian Armed Forces and the units of the Russian operational group, as already mentioned, is currently about 1,500 points, and the ratio of forces is 1 to 1.93. Germany's attack on the Soviet Union under Hitler became possible even after the formation of forces that exceeded the 3/1 ratio in the main attack areas.
So the force ratio of 1:2 guarantees abstinence from aggression and provides conditions for a peaceful settlement of the Transnistrian conflict.
THE DEFENCE PLANNING, PROGRAMMING, AND BUDGETING SYSTEM (PPB SYSTEM)
On the basis of the National Development Strategy of the country, the Military Strategy (military doctrine) for each branch of the armed forces, a construction and planning document (for example, the construction plan of the National Army) must be prepared. This completes the planning part of the planning, programming and budgeting system. The possibility of changing the tasks faced by the AFRM in the event of a lack of the necessary resources to carry them out (essentially due to a lack of financial resources).
In this study, we have been concerned with the analysis of the status of the National Army and the basic components of the armed forces.
VALERIU PROKHNITSKY, IPP economic expert
- Internal Contradictions of Economic Security
- The Relations between Economic Security and Other Aspects of National Security
- The Factors that Contributed to the Economic Insecurity of the Republic of Moldova
The European view of economic security is a rather strange symbiosis of the Anglo-American and Asian versions. In the Republic of Moldova, the economic crisis has reached unprecedented proportions on the level of the European continent. The factors that contributed to the economic insecurity of the Republic of Moldova. Insecurity of the Republic of Moldova.
This proves that three major issues hinder the provision of economic security of the Republic of Moldova.
THE ASSESSMENT OF ECONOMIC SECURITY 1. The Comparative Development Level
- Defining Parameters of Economic Risks
- Flaw # 1: Reduced Intellectual and Technological Potential
- Flaw # 2: The Dependence on Foreign Energy Resources
- Flaw # 3: Financial Dependence on Foreign Creditors
It is the second critical factor that endangers the energy security of the Republic of Moldova. Besides the economic aspect, the political importance of the terminal can be decisive for the economic security of the Republic of Moldova. The approval of the National Bank of Moldova is not necessary to enter into a foreign credit.
On the other hand, we should mention that the policies applied by the IMF to the Republic of Moldova did not always respond to the interests and social security of the public.
EXOGENOUS THREATS AGAINST ECONOMIC SECURITY 1. The Impact of Social-Political Instability
- Faults in the Legal Framework
But what will be the implications of the communist ascension for national economic security. With the Communists in power now, we believe that the main threats to the economic security of the Republic of Moldova will come through external economic and political relations. According to this law, the state will support the financial-industrial groups operating in the key areas of the national economy.
The concept of “economic security” is rarely used in the normative decisions of the Republic of Moldova.