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Future work

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7 Related work

8.1 Future work

The next step is the extension of the implementation to handle more than two versions. For this an index could be added for the version controlled edges (i.e.

vbody1,vbody2, . . .). This way we can differ the versions easily. We would like to note here that only the representation of the changes need to be changed at this stage, the defined algorithm for finding and categorizing the differences is the same in all cases.

The algorithm could also we extended with some extra heuristic algorithms, so we could find the differences in as low level as possible. The heuristic algorithms could be defined after collecting some data from industrial usage.

The designed generic difference detection algorithm can be used in other projects as well. It would be a nice proof of the reusability of our approach to try it on the representation of the SSQSA [16] language independent source code analyser framework.


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Using the Fisher Vector Approach for Cold Identification

Jos´ e Vicente Egas-L´ opez


and G´ abor Gosztolya



In this paper, we present a computational paralinguistic method for assess- ing whether a person has an upper respiratory tract infection (i.e. cold) using their speech. Having a system that can accurately assess a cold can be help- ful for predicting its propagation. For this purpose, we utilize Mel-frequency Cepstral Coefficients (MFCC) as audio-signal representations, extracted from the utterances, which allowed us to fit a generative Gaussian Mixture Model (GMM) that serves to produce an encoding based on the Fisher Vector (FV) approach. Here, we use the URTIC dataset provided by the organizers of the ComParE Challenge 2017 of the Interspeech Conference. The classification is done by a linear kernel Support Vector Machines (SVM). Owing to the high imbalance of classes on the training dataset, we opt for undersampling the majority class, that is, to reduce the number of samples to those of the mi- nority class. We find that applying Power Normalization (PN) and Principal Component Analysis (PCA) on the Fisher Vector features is an effective strat- egy for the classification performance. We get a better performance than that of the Bag-of-Audio-Words approach reported in the paper of the challenge.

Keywords: computational paralinguistics, speech processing, machine learn- ing, fisher vector

1 Introduction

Upper respiratory tract infection (URTI) is an infectious process for any of the components of the upper airway. E.g., the common cold, a sinus infection, amongst

This study was supported by the Hungarian Artificial Intelligence National Laboratory, by the National Research, Development and Innovation Office of Hungary via contract NKFIH FK- 124413, and by the grant NKFIH-1279-2/2020 of the Hungarian Ministry of Innovation and Tech- nology. abor Gosztolya was also funded by the J´anos Bolyai Scholarship of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences and by the Hungarian Ministry of Innovation and Technology New National Excellence Programme ´UNKP-20-5.

aInstitute of Informatics, University of Szeged, Hungary, E-mail: egasj@inf.u-szeged.hu, ORCID:0000-0002-5622-9192

bMTA-SZTE Research Group on Artificial Intelligence, Szeged, Hungary, E-mail:

ggabor@inf.u-szeged.hu, ORCID:0000-0002-2864-6466


others. Being able to automatically assess whether a subject has a cold may be relevant when trying to prevent the spread of it by predicting its patterns of prop- agation. The area of computational paralinguistics differs from Automatic Speech Recognition (ASR), which focuses on the actualcontentof the speech of an audio signal. Here, computational paralinguistics may provide the necessary tools for determining thewaythe speech is spoken. Various studies have offered promising results in this area: diagnosing neuro-degenerative diseases using the speech of the patients [5, 6, 7], the classification of crying sounds and heart beats [10], estimating the sincerity of apologies [9], determining the depression of a subject [4]. In this study, we focus on finding specific voice patterns latent in the speech of subjects having acold.

Previous studies applied various approaches for classifyingcold subjects using the same corpus. For example, Gosztolya et al. employed Deep Neural Networks for feature extraction for this purpose [8]. Huckvale and Beke utilized four types of voice features for studying changes in health [11]. Furthermore, Kaya et al. [14]

introduced the application of a weighting scheme on instances of the corpus, mak- ing use of a Weighted Kernel Extreme Learning Machine in order to handle the imbalanced data that comprises the URTIC corpus. As any other computational paralinguistic task, assessing a cold from the speech is a challenging issue. Finding out the latent patterns that could characterize or represent a cold speech does not only depend on the feature extraction phase but in the data itself too. This may be attributed to different perspectives: limited amount of data, data imbalance, quality of the recordings.

In this study, we exploit the Upper Respiratory Tract Infection Corpus (URTIC that was the dataset of one of the Sub-Challenges in the ComParE Challenge from Interspeech 2017) [21]. In the feature extraction phase, we selected frame-level features. Namely, we utilize Mel-frequency Cepstral Coefficients (MFCC) as audio- signal representations, extracted from the utterances. This allowed us to fit a generative Gaussian Mixture Model (GMM) that can produce an encoding based on the Fisher Vector (FV) approach. That is, the computation of low-level patch descriptors together with their deviations from the GMM gives us an encoding (i.e.

feature) called the Fisher Vector.

Unweighted Average Recall (UAR) scoring was used to measure the performance of the model since it is the de facto standard metric for these kinds of challenges [18].

To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study that focuses on making use of a FV representation in order to detect a cold.

Furthermore, we find that applying Power Normalization (PN) and Principal Component Analysis (PCA) on the Fisher Vector features is an effective strategy for the classification performance. In the next part of our study, we employ a late-fusion of the ComParE Bag-of-Audio-Words (BoAW) features with the Fisher Vector representations. Mentioned fusion technique contributes to the classification performance.

Table 1: Upper Respiratory Tract Infection Corpus (URTIC).

Class Train Development Test Total

Cold 970 1011 895 2876

Not-Cold 8535 8585 8656 25,776

Total 9505 9596 9551 28,652

In document Acta 2502 y (Pldal 97-103)