the international dimension of the initiative is of key significance for the achievement of its primary objectives. The international cooperation inter- face of Coalition 2000 is envisaged in three complementary directions:
1. International promotion effort of the objectives and results of the Coalition. By disseminating information to the international community about the activities and achieved results, Coalition 2000contributes to an im- proved international knowledge and appreciation of BulgariaÕs anti-corrup- tion efforts.
2. Coordination and cooperation with international organizationsimple- menting anti-corruption programs in Bulgaria. The objective here is to allow the local effort to benefit from the expertise and experience of internation- al organizations and multilateral agencies.
3. Enhancing the awareness of the Bulgarian public as to the significance of cooperation with international organizations in the field of anti-cor- ruption. By inviting foreign and international organizations to provide infor- mation about their anti-corruption activities as part of the awareness instru- ments, Coalition 2000 will establish a cost effective mechanism of promoting these efforts to the Bulgarian public.
2. Pilot Anti-Corruption Initiatives to Raise Awareness through Practical Examples
The problems that are to be addressed in the pilot initiatives will be speci- fied further on the basis of the Action Plan. In this respect priority areas could be:
¥ Administrative reform;
¥ Ethics Codes for government administration officials at the central and lo- cal level;
¥ Disclosure of Income/Assets/Gifts of high-ranking state officials and mem- bers of Parliament;
¥ Watchdog Agencies: National Audit Office, Ombudsman, Anti- Corruption Agencies;
¥ Judicial reform and accountability of the judicial process.
The Corruption Monitoring System (CMS) of Coalition 2000 includes a sys- tem of empirical studies and analytical reports. The main objective of the CMS is to regularly present information which would facilitate conclusions about the scope of corruption in the country, as well about the related pub- lic attitudes, assessments and expectations.
The CMS is designed to perform specific functions within each of the Components of the Coalition 2000process:
Corruption Diagnostics. The first CMS panel of surveys is conducted at the initial stage. At this stage the CMS is the majordiagnostic tool.It helps evalu-
ate the status of corruption in different areas of public life and maps the spe- cific characteristics of the perceptions of the general public, public officials, experts, and political decision makers.
Targeting. Surveys included in the CMS help identify specific target audi- ences (based on attitudes and perceptions) for the practical initiatives of Coalition 2000. The CMS also helps identify the most effective media chan- nels for reaching the specific audiences.
Message design. Some of the CMS surveys are specifically targeted at test- ing and tailoring the messages of the awareness campaign of Coalition 2000.
This will help the awareness campaign achieve maximum efficiency.
Analysis of patterns of corrupt behavior.CMS survey results and analyses will be one of the essential content elements of the awareness campaign. In this respect the CMS will be a major provider of analyses aimed at generat- ing public debate on corruption issues in Bulgarian society.
The basic functions of the CMS are related to its major outputs: the Corruption Indices of Coalition 2000 and the Corruption Assessment Report. Corruption indices are based on the surveys included in the CMS and will summarize the most important corruption indicator variables to evaluate/measure the level of proliferation of corrupt practices in different spheres of society. Corruption Indices of Coalition 2000 will be published four times a year. In addition to that, the other functions of the CMS are:
1. To provide reliable feedbackabout the effectiveness of the anti-corruption initiatives of Coalition 2000.
2. To maintain, on the basis of the collected information, regular feedback with the relevant institutionsin order to support the implementation of mech- anisms that constrain corrupt practices.
The empirical information collected through CMS surveys will be made available (on demand) to research agencies and government bodies in Bulgaria, as well as international organizations, for further analysis and re- porting. Through the establishment of an Expert Council an effort has been made to coordinate corruption assessment research in order to elaborate a methodology which ensures maximum reliability of data and objectivity of analyses.
Structure of the CMS.CMS includes several basic types of surveys to be con- ducted with different regularity.
Survey Type Time-frame
1. Quantitative national representative survey Quarterly of the population
2. Quantitative survey of public officials Quarterly 3. Focus group discussions with experts Quarterly 4. Focus group discussions with public officials Yearly
5. In-depth interviews with policy makers Yearly
6. Media monitoring Monthly
7. Testing Awareness Campaign Messages When necessary of the Coalition 2000with the Perception
The surveys conducted quarterly are included in the Corruption Monitoring Panel. Corruption Indices are devised from the quantitative surveys includ- ed in the CMS. They make it possible to estimate the dynamics of public at- titudes and actions, characterizing different aspects of corruption-related phenomena. Regular observations also provide feedback on the effective- ness of the anti-corruption initiatives in Bulgarian society and on the progress toward achieving the goals of Coalition 2000. Qualitative studies in- cluded in the Corruption Monitoring Panel will be used to improve and re- fine the CMS design and methodology.
Once a year the Corruption Monitoring Panel will be expanded with two additional qualitative surveys. On the basis of the extended Corruption Monitoring Panel a Corruption Assessment Report will be prepared for the annual Policy Forum. The report will summarize the results of all surveys conducted in the preceding 12 months and will derive conclusions about the scope and dimensions of corruption in the country. The Corruption Assessment Report will also evaluate the effectiveness of anti-corruption ini- tiatives.