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IET HEALTHCARE TECHNOLOGIES SERIES 10

Enhanced Living

Environments

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IET book series on e-health technologies – call for authors

Book Series Editor: Professor Joel P. C. Rodrigues, the National Institute of Telecommunications (Inatel), Brazil and Instituto de Telecomunicac¸o˜es, Portugal

While the demographic shifts in populations display significant socio- economic challenges, they trigger opportunities for innovations in e-Health, m-Health, precision and personalized medicine, robotics, sensing, the Internet of Things, cloud computing, Big Data, software-defined networks and network function virtualization. Their integration is however associated with many technological, ethical, legal, social and security issues. This new Book Series aims to disseminate recent advances for e-Health Technologies to improve healthcare and people’s well-being.

Topics considered include Intelligent e-Health systems, electronic health records, ICT-enabled personal health systems, mobile and cloud computing for eHealth, health monitoring, precision and personalized health, robotics for e-Health, security and privacy in e-Health, ambient assisted living, telemedicine, Big Data and IoT for e-Health, and more.

Proposals for coherently integrated international multi-authored edited or co-authored handbooks and research monographs will be considered for this Book Series. Each proposal will be reviewed by the Book Series Editor with additional external reviews from independent reviewers. Please email your book proposal for the IET Book Series on e-Health Technologies to:

Professor Joel Rodrigues at joeljr@ieee.org or joeljr@inatel.br

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Enhanced Living Environments

From models to technologies

Edited by

Rossitza Ivanova Goleva, Ivan Ganchev, Ciprian Dobre, Nuno Garcia and Carlos Valderrama

The Institution of Engineering and Technology

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Published by The Institution of Engineering and Technology, London, United Kingdom The Institution of Engineering and Technology is registered as a Charity in England &

Wales (no. 211014) and Scotland (no. SC038698).

The Institution of Engineering and Technology 2018 First published 2017

This publication is copyright under the Berne Convention and the Universal Copyright Convention. All rights reserved. Apart from any fair dealing for the purposes of research or private study, or criticism or review, as permitted under the Copyright, Designs and Patents Act 1988, this publication may be reproduced, stored or transmitted, in any form or by any means, only with the prior permission in writing of the publishers, or in the case of reprographic reproduction in accordance with the terms of licences issued by the Copyright Licensing Agency. Enquiries concerning reproduction outside those terms should be sent to the publisher at the undermentioned address:

The Institution of Engineering and Technology Michael Faraday House

Six Hills Way, Stevenage Herts, SG1 2AY, United Kingdom www.theiet.org

While the authors and publisher believe that the information and guidance given in this work are correct, all parties must rely upon their own skill and judgement when making use of them. Neither the authors nor publisher assumes any liability to anyone for any loss or damage caused by any error or omission in the work, whether such an error or omission is the result of negligence or any other cause. Any and all such liability is disclaimed.

The moral rights of the authors to be identified as authors of this work have been asserted by them in accordance with the Copyright, Designs and Patents Act 1988.

British Library Cataloguing in Publication Data

A catalogue record for this product is available from the British Library

ISBN 978-1-78561-211-4 (hardback) ISBN 978-1-78561-212-1 (PDF)

Typeset in India by MPS Limited

Printed in the UK by CPI Group (UK) Ltd, Croydon

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Dedication To my family and friends.

In Memoriam to Rumen Stainov.

– Rossitza Goleva To all my family and extended family.

– Ivan Ganchev To Anamaria and Iulia, the two beautiful girls in my life,

with all my love.

– Ciprian Dobre To the true team spirit of the AAPELE Team

and to my family and friends!

– Nuno M. Garcia To the great AAPELE team that provides the essential energy

we all need as well as to our families who support our dedication and sacrifices.

– Carlos Valderrama

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Contents

About the editors xv

Preface xix

Acknowledgements xxiii

1 Introduction to enhanced living environments 1

Ciprian Dobre, Ivan Ganchev, Nuno M. Garcia, Rossitza Goleva and Carlos Alberto Valderrama

Abstract 1

1.1 Introduction 1

1.2 An overview of healthcare systems 3

1.3 Ambient assisted living and enhanced living environments 7

1.4 Conclusions 14

Acknowledgements 16

References 16

Biographies 18

2 Enhanced living environments from the viewpoint

of socioecological psychology 21

Tama´s Martos and Viola Sallay

Abstract 21

2.1 Introduction 21

2.2 Socioecological psychology as a framework 22

2.3 Concept of ‘human niche construction’ as a universal human

phenomenon 22

2.4 Home as a niche 24

2.4.1 Emotional processes in the home: lessons learnt with

the Emotional Map of the Home Interview 25

2.5 Legacy of Self-determination theory 28

2.5.1 Core concepts of SDT 28

2.6 Putting it all together: socioecological psychological aspects

of ELE 30

2.6.1 ELE as niche construction 31

2.6.2 ELE and home niches: the potential places of technology

in a complex system 34

2.6.3 Constructing ELE solutions in home niches: the importance

of psychological need support 36

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2.7 Conclusions 40

Acknowledgements 41

References 41

Further reading 46

Biographies 47

3 Pervasive sensing for social connectedness 49

Kadian Davis, Evans B. Owusu, Lucio Marcenaro, Jun Hu, Carlo S. Regazzoni, and Loe Feijs

Abstract 49

3.1 Introduction 49

3.1.1 Social isolation and loneliness as risk factors 50

3.1.2 Ambient assisted living 50

3.2 A user-centred approach for designing systems to support

social connectedness 52

3.2.1 A user-centred design process 53

3.3 Context-aware systems for social connectedness 55

3.4 Pervasive sensing and models for HAR 57

3.5 A case study evaluating the HMM-SVM model 60

3.6 Context-aware connectedness systems 62

3.7 Experimental results 65

3.7.1 Perceptions on context-aware solutions for social

connectedness 65

3.7.2 HAR-based activity displays for social connectedness 66

3.8 Challenges 69

3.9 Conclusion 69

Acknowledgements 70

References 70

Further reading 77

Data set 77

Biographies 77

4 Ethics in information and communication technologies:

training the elderly in making gerontechnology accessible 81 He´le`ne Geurts, Marie-Claire Haelewyck, and Carlos Valderrama

Abstract 81

4.1 Introduction 81

4.2 Generation effect 82

4.3 Gerontechnology is a neologism vector of the future 83

4.4 Pitfalls to be avoided 85

4.5 Ethical issues at stake 88

4.6 Identification of needs, the keystone of reflection 90 4.7 Need for acceptability, the secret of success 93

4.8 Conclusion 95

Acknowledgements 95

viii Enhanced living environments: from models to technologies

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References 95

Further reading 98

Biographies 99

5 End-users’ AAL and ELE service scenarios in smart personal

environments 101

Serge Autexier, Rossitza Goleva, Nuno M. Garcia, Rumen Stainov, Ivan Ganchev,, Constandinos X. Mavromoustakis, Ciprian Dobre, Ivan Chorbev, Vladimir Trajkovik, and Eftim Zdravevski

Abstract 101

5.1 Introduction 102

5.2 State of the art 103

5.3 Living lab architecture 106

5.4 End-user groups 108

5.5 From single user and single sensor to the cloud and back 110

5.6 Scenarios 114

5.7 Customized ELE ICT services 120

5.8 Conclusions and further research directions 122

Acknowledgements 122

References 122

Further reading 128

Biographies 128

6 Technological support to stress-level monitoring 133 Valentina Markova and Todor Ganchev

Abstract 133

6.1 Introduction 133

6.2 State-of-the-art personal health monitoring systems 135 6.2.1 Physiological parameters and stress 135

6.2.2 Overview of system architectures 139

6.2.3 Short-range wireless network technology 141

6.3 Stress and emotion assessment 145

6.3.1 Stress assessment procedure 146

6.3.2 Emotion recognition 147

6.4 Use cases 148

6.4.1 Stationary setup 148

6.4.2 Mobile setup 149

6.4.3 Recent projects 151

6.4.4 SLADE application scenario 152

6.5 Future technology in support of stress monitoring

and management 153

References 155

Further reading 158

List of abbreviations 159

Biographies 160

Contents ix

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7 Big data healthcare system to improve healthcare information

searching in the Internet 161

Mariya Savova Evtimova

Abstract 161

7.1 Introduction 161

7.2 Intelligent agents’ advantages and characteristics 162

7.3 Fuzzy logic and probability 163

7.4 Meaning of big data in a personalized search of uncertain

and vague information 165

7.4.1 Value and demand in-depth analysis 165

7.4.2 Variety and heterogeneity of data 165

7.4.3 Quality of data 166

7.4.4 Volume and size of data 166

7.4.5 Speed and timeliness of the data 166

7.5 Rule-based and case-based reasoning 166

7.6 Related work 167

7.7 Agent-based system for personalized searching 167 7.7.1 Aims and tasks of the developed system 168 7.7.2 Conceptual model for personalized semantic search

system when the information in the query is fuzzy

and uncertain 168

7.8 Concept of building a customized profile 172

7.8.1 Approaches and methods for collecting user

information 172

7.8.2 Conceptual scheme of the user profile 173 7.9 Development of applied subjective ontology: problems and

approaches 174

7.9.1 Storing the knowledge in the fuzzy ontology of the

proposed semantic system 174

7.9.2 Fuzzification process in case-based ontology 174 7.9.3 Design of the fuzzy and vague case-based ontology 174

7.10 Description of the process of reasoning 175

7.11 Metrics for evaluating the quality of the returned results

from the search system 178

7.12 Conclusions 178

References 180

Further reading 182

List of abbreviations 182

Biography 182

8 Sensors for wireless body area networks 183

Ivelina Nikolaeva Ruskova and Elitsa Emilova Gieva

Abstract 183

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8.1 Introduction: wireless body area networks and wireless

sensor network 183

8.2 Sensor node 184

8.3 Overview of sensor characteristics 192

8.4 WBAN technologies 199

8.4.1 Applications depending on the technology 200

8.5 Conclusion 202

References 202

Further reading 204

Biographies 204

9 AALaaS/ELEaaS platforms 207

Rossitza Goleva, Mara Pudane, Sintija Petrovica, Egons Lavendelis, Karl Kreiner, Mario Drobics, Ivan Ganchev, Nuno M. Garcia, Rumen Stainov, Ciprian Dobre, Constandinos X. Mavromoustakis, Ivan Chorbev, Vladimir Trajkovik, Eftim Zdravevski,

and George Mastorakis

Abstract 207

9.1 Introduction 208

9.2 State of the art 209

9.3 Generic AALaaS/ELEaaS architecture 210

9.4 Affective computing mapping implementation 216

9.5 KIOLA platform implementation 220

9.6 AAL/ELE laboratory and home implementation 223

9.7 Conclusion and further research plan 224

Acknowledgements 224

References 224

Further reading 229

Biographies 229

10 Linear wireless sensor networks and protocols

in the next-generation networks 235

Radosveta I. Sokullu and Eren Demir

Abstract 235

10.1 Introduction 236

10.2 Linear wireless sensor networks 237

10.2.1 Network model 237

10.2.2 Variations of LWSNs 238

10.2.3 Objectives and challenges of LWSNs 240

10.3 MAC protocols for LWSNs 241

10.4 Open research issues 262

10.5 Conclusion 262

References 263

Contents xi

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Further reading 266

List of abbreviations 266

Glossary 267

Biographies 268

11 Model-compilation challenges for cyber-physical systems 269 Belgacem Ben Hedia, Chokri Mraidha, Etienne Hamelin,

and Sara Tucci-Piergiovanni

Abstract 269

11.1 Introduction 269

11.2 CPS challenges 272

11.3 Model-compilation methodology and approach 275 11.3.1 Front-end: from multiple heterogeneous

high-level models 275

11.3.2 Middle-end: model-compilation into SwArch 280 11.3.3 Back-end: transformation into concrete target

platforms 283

11.3.4 Design iterations 283

11.4 Model-compilation methodology assessment 284 11.4.1 Applicability of model-compilation approach 284

11.4.2 Productivity enhancements 285

11.5 Related works 285

11.5.1 Model-based methodologies for safety

and timing 285

11.5.2 Model-compilation 286

11.5.3 Physical modelling 287

11.6 Conclusion 288

References 288

Biographies 291

12 Health monitoring using WBAN: topology design, routing

and thermal issues 293

Ghufran Ahmed, Saif Ul Islam, Maham Shahid, Azfar Shakeel, Najmun Nisa, Najmul Hassan, Numera M.I. Shahid,

Zaheer Ul Hussain Sani, and Hilal Jan

Abstract 293

12.1 Introduction 293

12.1.1 Applications 295

12.1.2 WBAN wireless technologies 298

12.1.3 WBAN infrastructure 300

12.1.4 Energy efficiency 300

12.1.5 Approaches to achieve energy efficiency 300

12.2 Energy-aware topology design 301

12.2.1 Optimization of relay nodes placement 304 xii Enhanced living environments: from models to technologies

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12.3 SAR analysis 304 12.3.1 Using low transmission power level to

reduce SAR 305

12.3.2 Impact of frequency band on SAR values 305

12.3.3 Impact of high SAR on human body 305

12.4 Energy efficient and SAR-aware routing 306

12.4.1 Energy-efficient routing 306

12.4.2 SAR-aware routing 308

12.5 Conclusion 309

References 309

Biographies 313

13 Wearable health care: technology evolution, algorithms

and needs 315

Raluca Maria Aileni, Sever Pasca, Carlos Alberto Valderrama, and Rodica Strungaru

Abstract 315

13.1 Introduction 315

13.2 Wearable technology evolution 316

13.3 Healthcare perspectives for wearable devices 324 13.4 Algorithms dedicated to wearable technologies 325

13.4.1 Case 1: wearable sensors for body temperature

monitoring 326

13.4.2 Case 2: wearable sensors for human skin

conductance response 331

13.4.3 Case 3: wearable sensors for human activity

monitoring 332

13.5 Wearable: user needs and expectations 334

13.6 Future wearable challenges 335

13.7 Conclusions 337

Acknowledgements 338

References 338

Biographies 342

14 Intelligent system for after-stroke home rehabilitation 345 Nirvana Popescu, Marian-Silviu Poboroniuc, Decebal Popescu,

D˘anut¸ Irimia, and Alexandru Valer Grigoras¸

Abstract 345

14.1 Introduction 345

14.2 Design and development of the IHRG structure 348

14.3 Voice control approach 349

14.3.1 Hardware and software design 349

14.3.2 Experiments with vocal commands 352

14.4 Predefined recovery exercises system for home use 353 Contents xiii

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14.5 Hybrid FES-robotic glove approach 354

14.5.1 Hybrid system description 354

14.5.2 Experimental results 358

14.5.3 Statistical analysis 360

14.6 Conclusion 364

References 365

Biographies 366

Index 369

xiv Enhanced living environments: from models to technologies

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About the editors

Ciprian Dobre is Professor within the Computer Science Department, University Politehnica of Bucharest (Habil. since 2014, Dr. Since 2008 with Cum laudae).

He currently leads the activities within Laboratory on Pervasive products and ser- vices, and MobyLab. Ciprian Dobre’s research interests involve research subjects related to mobile wireless networks and computing applications, pervasive ser- vices, context awareness and people-centric or participatory sensing. He has sci- entific and scholarly contributions in the field of large-scale distributed systems concerning mobile applications and smart technologies to reduce urban congestion and air pollution (MobiWay, TRANSYS), context-aware applications (CAPIM), opportunistic networks and mobile data offloading (SPRINT, SENSE), monitoring (MonALISA), high-speed networking (VINCI, FDT), Grid application develop- ment (EGEE, SEE-GRID) and evaluation using modelling and simulation (MONARC 2, VNSim). These contributions led to important results, demonstrating his qualifications and potential to go significantly beyond the state of the art.

Ciprian Dobre was awarded a PhD scholarship from California Institute of Tech- nology (Caltech, USA), and another one from Oracle. His results received one IBM Faculty Award, two CENIC Awards and three Best Paper Awards (in 2013, 2012 and 2010). The results were published in over 100 chapters in edited books, articles in major international peer-reviewed journals and papers in well-established inter- national conferences and workshops.

Dr. Ivan Ganchev is a Senior Member of the Institute of Electrical and Electronic Engineers (IEEE), the IEEE Communications Society, the IEEE Consumer Elec- tronics Society, the IEEE Internet of Things Community, the IEEE Smart Cities Community and the IEEE Consultants Network. He received his doctoral and engineering (summa cum laude) degrees from the Saint-Petersburg State University of Telecommunications. He is a Deputy Director of the Telecommunications Research Centre (TRC), University of Limerick (Ireland), an Associate Professor from the University of Plovdiv ‘‘Paisii Hilendarski’’, an ITU-T Invited Expert and an IET Invited Lecturer. Dr. Ganchev was involved in 35þ international and national research and education projects. His research interests include novel telecommunications paradigms, future networks and services, smart ubiquitous networking, context-aware networking, mobile cloud computing, Internet of Things (IoT), Internet of Services (IoS), ambient assisted living (AAL), enhanced living environments (ELE), trust management, Internet tomography, mHealth and mLearning ICT. Dr Ganchev has served on the Technical Program Committee of

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200þ prestigious international conferences, symposia and workshops. He has authored/co-authored 6 books (including 2 edited books) and 240þresearch papers in refereed international journals and conference proceedings. Dr. Ganchev is on the editorial board of and has served as a Guest Editor for multiple international journals.

Nuno M. Garcia holds a Ph.D. in Computer Science Engineering from the Uni- versity of Beira Interior (UBI, Covilha˜, Portugal) (2008) and he is a 5-year B.Sc.

(Hons.) in Mathematics/Informatics also from UBI (1999–2004). He is Assistant Professor at UBI and Invited Associate Professor at the School of Communication, Architecture, Arts and Information Technologies of the Universidade Luso´fona de Humanidades e Tecnologias (Lisbon, Portugal). He was founder and is coordinator of the Assisted Living Computing and Telecommunications Laboratory (ALLab), a research group within the Instituto de Telecomunicac¸o˜es at UBI. He was also cofounder and is Coordinator of the Executive Council of the BSAFE LAB – Law enforcement, Justice and Public Safety Research and Technology Transfer Laboratory, a multidisciplinary research laboratory in UBI. He is the coordinator of the Cisco Academy at UBI, Head of EyeSeeLab in Eye- See Lda. (Lisbon, Portu- gal), and member of the Consultative Council of Favvus IT HR SA (Lisbon). He is also Chair of the COST Action IC1303 AAPELE – Architectures, Algorithms and Platforms for Enhanced Living Environments. He is the main author of several international, European and Portuguese patents. He is member of the Non-Com- mercial Users Constituency, a group within GNSO in ICANN. His main interests include next-generation networks, algorithms for bio-signal processing, distributed and cooperative protocols.

Rossitza Goleva received her Ph.D. in Communication Networks in 2016 and M.Sc. in Computer Science in 1982 at Technical University of Sofia, Bulgaria. She was part of the research staff of the research Institute of Bulgarian PTT between 1982 and 1987. Since 1987, she is with Department of Communication Networks at Technical University of Sofia. At present, Rossitza works on communication net- works, communication protocols and software engineering. Her research interests are in Quality of Service in communication networks, communication protocols, traffic engineering, cloud and fog computing, performance analyses. She is an IEEE Member, involved in IEEE Bulgaria section activities, has more than 85 research publications, was part of more than 30 research projects including and EU COST IC1303 AAPELE action.

Carlos Alberto Valderrama is, since 2004, Director of the Electronics and Microelectronics Department at the Polytechnic Faculty of the University of Mons in Belgium. The Electronics and Microelectronics Department is member of the Numediart (New Media Art Technology) and the InforTec (Information Technol- ogy) Institutes. He obtained the Ph.D. degree in Microelectronics at the INPG in Grenoble, France, in 1998, the M.Sc. diploma at the Federal University of Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ-COPPE), Brazil, in 1993, and the electrical-electronics engineering xvi Enhanced living environments: from models to technologies

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diploma at the National University of Cordoba (UNC), Argentina, in 1989. He was visiting professor at two Brazilian universities, at the Federal University of Per- nambuco (UFPE) in 2004 and at the Federal University of Rio Grande do Norte (UFRN) in 1998. Between 1999 and 2004, he was leading the Hardware-Flow team in CoWare NV. (today acquired by Synopsys), Belgium. In 2009, he was respon- sible for the creation of the spinoff Nsilition (http://www.nsilition.com/) resulting from the IPfundry project funded by the Walloon Region. His primary research interests include wireless communication, EDA and system level design of recon- figurable embedded architectures. He has participated in more than 15 national and international research projects from the development of 4G chips to next-genera- tion tracking devices and software architectures for the IoT, satellite and multicore industry, collaborating with partners such as Alcatel, STMicroelectronics, NXP and Thales. He serves as technical reviewer and committee member of multiple jour- nals and international conferences. His research activity is supported by more than 150 publications on international conferences, more than 10 books chapters, and more than 30 scientific journals. He is IEEE senior member since 2006.

About the editors xvii

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Preface

The implementation of the information and communication technologies (ICTs) in healthcare and caregiving areas, the increase in medical expenses, problems with demographic ageing, the dynamics of the everyday life and the necessity to take care of the family put a strong pressure on the sustainability of health and social care systems, on the labour participation and on the quality of life for elderly, people with disabilities, children and active people. Enhanced living environments (ELEs) encompass all ICT technological achievements supporting true ambient- assisted living (AAL) including capabilities for better living and healthcare orga- nization. ELE promotes the provision of infrastructures and services for better living via the seamless integration of ICT within homes and residences, thus increasing the quality of life of human beings, maintaining one’s home as a pre- ferable living environment for as long as possible and not causing disruption in the web of social and family interactions. AAL aims to construct safe environments around assisted peoples (and local/remote caregivers/family members) in order to help them maintain independent and/or more autonomous lifestyle. Finally, AAL/

ELE technologies allow the creation of personal living environments (PLEs) con- cerned with not only medical or fitness related functionalities but also social isolation, stress level, emotional state, etc.

Most efforts today towards the realization of AAL/ELE systems are based on developing specialized devices and the use of ambient intelligence to integrate these devices together to construct a safe PLE. There is a missing interaction of multiple stakeholders needing to collaborate for ELE supporting a multitude of AAL services, as well as barriers to innovation in the markets concerned, the governments, and health care sector. These innovations do not yet take place at a relevant scale.

Many fundamental issues in the ELE area remain open. Most of the current efforts still do not fully express the power of human being, and the importance of social connections and societal activities is less noticed. Effective ELE solutions require appropriate ICT algorithms, architectures and platforms, having in view the advance of science in this area and the development of new and innovative con- nected solutions (particularly in the area of smart dust/dew/fog/cloud computing).

In this sense, the book aims to provide a platform for the dissemination of research efforts and presentation of advances in the ELE area that explicitly aim at addres- sing these challenges.

The book is intended for use by different professionals from medical doctors, ICT specialists, mathematicians, engineers and programmers to caregivers and

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third parties like insurance companies’ personnel and end users. It could be used as a notebook in the related curriculum. The chapters could be read in any order.

The overall objectives of this book are to:

Offer an up-to-date analysis of architectures, techniques, protocols, compo- nents and development related to the AAL and ELE areas.

Explain state-of-the-art technological solutions for the main AAL/ELE issues, stressing on computing and sensors.

Demonstrate the importance of the emotional status of people in their living environment.

Present the AAL/ELE benefits along with the development process of scien- tific and commercial applications and platforms.

The book’s mission is to make readers familiar with these concepts and tech- nologies that are successfully used in the implementation of today’s AAL/ELE systems or are promising in future developments. The approach is more practical than theoretical, defining different concepts under a hierarchical reference model for ELE. The interdisciplinary nature of the topic brings together also an inter- disciplinary team of authors that presented different views on the topic. The book contains many examples showing specific applications and highlighting possibi- lities for the integration on a generic platform.

The book presents also up-to-date technological solutions to the main aspects regarding AAL/ELE systems and applications including computing and artificial intelligence. The aim is to demonstrate the process started with AAL labs by further transforming these into islands with rich capabilities. This will allow crystallization and refinement of specifications and definitions, and will provide possibilities to offer appropriate services to broad public aiming at the same time to decrease the cost of their provision. The book discusses contemporary AAL/ELE technologies designed to solve some of the thorniest business problems affecting applications in areas such as health and medical supply, smart cities and smart houses, big data, Internet of Things (IoT) and many more.

The book consists of 14 chapters that are grouped logically depending on its respective topics. Chapter 1 is an introduction to ELE. Chapter 2 deals with ELE from the viewpoint of the socioecological psychology. It highlights an interesting approach towards the emotional state of people under monitoring. Chapter 3 explains pervasive sensing for social connectedness and enriches the topic of Chapter 2. Chapter 4 presents a specific view towards elderly, raising also some ethical issues.

Chapter 5 defines in a more technical way how the end users, AAL and ELE address service scenarios within a smart PLE. Chapter 6 demonstrates an interest- ing measurement of stress. An application of artificial intelligence in searching for health information is shown in Chapter 7.

Chapters 8 and 9 relate to communications and networking aspects of AAL/ELE platforms and systems along with their architectures and possible implementations.

xx Enhanced living environments: from models to technologies

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A broad analysis of the linear wireless sensor networks (LWSNs) and protocols for use in the next-generation networks is included in Chapter 10. A theoretical approach towards the actual software implementation on the target ELE platform is shown in Chapter 11. Chapter 12 presents the use of wireless body area networks for health monitoring along with corresponding challenges, topology design and thermal issues. Chapter 13 presents an interesting survey on the wearable health- care technology. Chapter 14 presents a sophisticated intelligent system for after- stroke home rehabilitation.

Preface xxi

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Acknowledgements

This book would not have been possible without the help of many people. We would like to thank the reviewers, colleagues from IET, authors, co-authors and friends for their direct and indirect support.

Many special thanks to all colleagues from the EU COST action IC1303

‘Algorithms, Architectures and Platforms for Enhanced Living Environments’

(AAPELE) for their encouragement, advices, proposals and reviews. Many of them are authors and had been cited in the book.

Special thanks to Valerie Molie`re, Olivia Wilkins, Jennifer Grace and Paul Deards of IET Publishers as well as Srinivasan Natarajan of MPS Ltd. for their patience, corrections, advices and valuable support.

Book Editors

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