Project marketing in the cultural heritage domain: demonstrated by a local and an international project / by Katharina Kothgasser, BA BA

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PROJECT MARKETING IN THE CULTURAL

HERITAGE DOMAIN

Demonstrated by a Local and an International Project

Master Thesis

Submitted in fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of

Master of Arts (MA)

at the Karl-Franzens-Universität Graz

by

Katharina KOTHGASSER, BA BA

at the Institute of History

Zentrum für Informationsmodellierung - Austrian Centre for Digital Humanities

under supervision of Ao.Univ.-Prof.i.R. Dr. Walter Koch

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Abstract

Project marketing in the cultural heritage domain is a very current and relevant topic. Being heard, seen and acknowledged in the appropriate community is not only important for the success of the current project, but also for being able to secure funding for future projects. Appropriate marketing will also help to avoid that months of hard work will go unnoticed because the target group did not know about the existence of the project. The goal of this the-sis is to create a marketing concept for the Virtual Museum of the University of Graz, which portrays the importance of targeted project marketing in the cultural heritage domain. It will also take into account the opportunities that social media marketing holds for projects in the cultural heritage domain.

First, a general introduction into the project organization is given, by describing goals and tasks of project management and also presenting important tools. The following chapter deals with the main topic of the thesis, project marketing. It describes the need for marketing as risk management in projects, introduces the marketing phases, and explains strategic and operative marketing planning. The importance of an environmental analysis with the included stake-holder analysis is also presented in this chapter, as well as how a marketing concept in general is developed. Differences between goals for internal and external project marketing are pre-sented as well. Last but not least, the role social media plays in marketing is discussed, mak-ing a case for the importance to exploit its full potential in the cultural heritage domain. In the third chapter, a theoretical marketing concept for the Virtual Museum of the University of

Graz is being developed and the LoCloud marketing concept is analyzed. As a final step, the

two projects are being compared and contrasted, in order to see overlaps and differences in the marketing plans.

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Zusammenfassung

Projektmarketing im Kulturerbebereich ist ein sehr aktuelles und relevantes Thema. Von den richtigen Zielgruppen wahrgenommen zu werden, ist nicht nur für den Erfolg des aktuellen Projektes wichtig, sondern auch um Förderungen für zukünftige Projekte zu erhalten. Zielge-richtetes Marketing trägt auch dazu bei, dass monatelange harte Arbeit nicht umsonst war, weil die Zielgruppe nicht einmal von der Existenz des Projektes wusste.

Das Ziel dieser Arbeit ist die Entwicklung eines Marketing Konzeptes für das Virtuelle

Muse-um der Universität Graz, welches die Wichtigkeit von zielgerichtetem Projektmarketing

un-terstreichen soll. Die Marketingmöglichkeiten die sozialen Medien für Projekte mit sich brin-gen werden auch beleuchtet.

Eine allgemeine Einführung in die Projektorganisation wird mittels der Beschreibung von Projektmanagementzielen und -aufgaben gegeben und einige wichtige Werkzeuge dafür wer-den ebenso vorgestellt. Das nächste Kapitel beschäftigt sich mit dem Hauptthema der Arbeit, nämlich Projektmarketing. Projektmarketing als Mittel des Risikomanagements wird be-schrieben, die Marketingphasen werden vorgestellt und der Unterschied zwischen strategi-scher und operativer Planung wird erläutert. Die Wichtigkeit der Umweltanalyse mit der in-kludierten Stakeholderanalyse wird in diesem Kapitel ebenso dargestellt, wie auch die allge-meine Genese eines Marketingkonzeptes. Die Unterschiede zwischen den Zielen des internen und externen Marketings werden ebenso beleuchtet. Als Abschluss des Kapitels wird Marke-ting mithilfe von sozialen Medien behandelt, wo die Wichtigkeit betont wird, das Potenzial dieses Kanals für Kulturerbeprojekte vollständig auszuschöpfen. Im dritten Kapitel wird ein theoretisches Marketingkonzept für das Virtuelle Museum der Universität Graz erarbeitet und das Marketingkonzept des Projektes LoCloud analysiert. Als Abschluss werden die beiden Projekte verglichen und gegenübergestellt, um Überschneidungen und Unterschiede deutlich zu machen.

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Acknowledgement - Danksagung

This acknowledgement of gratitude consists of parts in my mother tongue German and Eng-lish, which is the language of this thesis and also a big part of my life.

Ich möchte als aller erstes meinen Eltern von ganzen Herzen danken. Ohne ihre Unterstützung wäre es mir nie möglich gewesen dieses Studium überhaupt zu beginnen. Vielen Dank für alles was ihr dafür geopfert habt, damit ich dieses Masterstudium besuchen und beenden konnte.

Ein großes Dankeschön gilt hier auch meinem Betreuer Herr Ao.Univ.-Prof.i.R. Dr. Walter Koch, der mir genügend Freiraum gegeben hat um meine persönlichen Interessen in diese Arbeit einfließen lassen zu dürfen und mir mit seinem Fachwissen zur Seite gestanden ist. Vielen Dank, dass Sie mich unterstützt haben.

Susanne möchte ich hier ebenso besonders erwähnen und ihr dafür danken, dass sie sich durch die frühen Versionen dieser Arbeit gekämpft hat und mir mit ihrem Rat zur Seite ge-standen ist. Danke dir Susi, dass du nicht nur meine Arbeit durchgelesen hast, sondern mich auch dazu gebracht hast in der Bibliothek zu schreiben.

Last but not least, I want to thank my partner Edgar, for always being by my side throughout those last years, even if just virtually. Thank you for being so supportive of me finishing my master’s degree, even though it meant that we had to spend more time on two different conti-nents than we wanted to.

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Inhaltsverzeichnis

Introduction ... 1

1. Project Organization ... 5

1.1. Goals and Tasks of Project Management ... 11

1.2. The Phases and Structure of a Project ... 14

1.3. Project Management Tools ... 18

1.3.1. Work breakdown structure (WBS) ... 18

1.3.2. Milestone planning... 21

1.3.3. Project flow chart and resource planning... 22

2. Marketing of Projects ... 24

2.1. The Need for Marketing as Risk Management in Projects ... 31

2.2. Marketing Phases in Projects ... 36

2.2.1 Strategic Planning ... 40

2.2.2 Operative Planning ... 46

2.3. Environment Analysis ... 49

2.3.1. Stakeholder Analysis ... 50

2.4. The Marketing Concept ... 53

2.5. Goals of External and Internal Marketing of Projects ... 56

2.6. External Marketing through New and Social Media ... 58

3. Marketing Concept Development for The Virtual Museum of the University of Graz . 60 3.1. Background to the Virtual Museum of the University of Graz ... 63

3.2. Development of a Marketing Concept for the Virtual Museum ... 65

3.2.1. Analysis of the Project Environment ... 66

3.2.2. Strategic Planning ... 70

3.2.3. Operative Planning... 73

3.2.4. The Marketing Concept ... 79

3.3. Introducing the Project LoCloud ... 81

3.4. Analysis of the Marketing Concept of the Project LoCloud ... 82

3.5. Comparison of the Marketing Concepts of the two Projects ... 88

Conclusion ... 92

Bibliography ... 95

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Table of Figures

Fig. 1 The four project management tasks ... 11

Fig. 2 Project Phases Virtual Museum ... 18

Fig. 3 Virtual Museum Gantt Chart excerpt ... 24

Fig. 4 Strategic Triangle ... 29

Fig. 5 Project Marketing Procedure ... 40

Fig. 6 Project Marketing Perspectives ... 41

Fig. 7 Marketing Strategy Development ... 43

Fig. 8 Project Phases Virtual Museum including Marketing ... 65

Fig. 9 Operative Marketing Measures ... 77

List of Tables

Table 1 Virtual Museum Work Breakdown Structure ... 21

Table 2 Virtual Museum Milestone Plan ... 22

Table 3 Marketing Strategy Levels ... 46

Table 4 Virtual Museum Work Package 9 - Marketing ... 65

Table 5 Stakeholder Analysis Virtual Museum ... 69

Table 6 Operative Marketing Measures - Key ... 77

Table 7 Marketing Goals and Operative Measures for the Virtual Museum ... 80

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Introduction

Even before starting the EuroMACHS Master’s program, I was personally interested in pro-ject management and marketing. During the last two years, this interest intensified, also by attending project management classes and reading about marketing. When a lecturer men-tioned that ‘a project can be as good as it wants, if nobody knows about it, it’s as good as dead’, this sentence stuck in my head and inspired me to make this the topic of my master thesis.

A project can only be successful if the right people know about it. Solely knowing about it is not enough; they also have to have a positive attitude towards it. In the best case, the target group already knows about a project before it is finished and is eagerly awaiting the results. As a result, there is already a community of buyers/users waiting for the product or service that results from the project. It does not help either, if only random people know about it - reaching a specific audience is crucial. If a project has been commissioned by a company or institution to produce a product or service that is only relevant to this specific company or institution, it still matters how the future users or the future client views the project work. This will also influence whether the change that might stem from the project result is met with enthusiasm or in a negative manner.

The Virtual Museum of the University of Graz is the project that has been worked on as a final year project of the EuroMACHS program. It is a virtual, scalable museum for the collections of the University of Graz. First, the goal of the project was to create a basis that made it pos-sible to showcase the different collections of the University of Graz online in one place. Sec-ond, the project ensures through a long-term archival system that the data of the collections stays accessible for the future. By digitizing the objects, it is also ensured that an image of the object is preserved, so that even if the original is lost or damaged at some point, it still can be accessed virtually. For this specific project, two collections of the university were exemplarily digitized – the Meringer collection of the Institute for Ethnology and Cultural Anthropology and the collection of seals from the History Department.1 While working on the Virtual

Mu-seum of the University of Graz, the question arose, how the marketing strategy of this project

would have looked like, if it had been a publicly funded project, as this would make a

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ing plan a necessity. This question led to the EU funded project LoCloud, which conveniently has all its documentation publicly available online.

LoCloud is a best practice network that intends to help small and medium cultural heritage

institutions to make their content and metadata available online and incorporate them into the

Europeana network. They do so by providing those institutions with cloud computing

solu-tions, guidance, training and support to help them to make their collections available online and also add them to Europeana. Europeana2 is an online portal that aggregates data from all

kinds of different cultural heritage institutions in Europe and makes them available in on cen-tral place.3 By reading through their dissemination work package, which is their marketing

plan, the question arose of how much of this could be done similarly for the EuroMACHS project and cultural heritage projects in general.

The project that the EuroMACHS team has worked on as the final year project, deals with somewhat similar topics as the LoCloud project, though clearly on a much smaller scale. Even though the EuroMACHS project does not need to attract other institutions with their market-ing plan like LoCloud does, it is still comparable insofar as the other departments that hold collections have to be convinced of the viability of the project for them. LoCloud also deals with the digitalization of collections and they as well develop a system that can be expanded to include more collections, like the modular structure of the Virtual Museum of the

Universi-ty of Graz. It will be interesting to see for both projects, what could be done or has been done

not only to promote the project in relevant circles but also how stakeholders have been treated (or should have) and how well the project also focused on internal marketing in regards to all participating and affected parties.

The main research question this thesis deals with is the following:

How can marketing help in carrying out cultural heritage projects successfully?

In addition, the following questions will be discussed as well:  Where does marketing fit into project management?

 What role does marketing play in projects in the cultural heritage domain and how is it treated in literature in general?

2 Cf. Europeana, Portal (online). 3 Cf. LoCloud, About (online).

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 Do new and social media play a role in marketing in the cultural heritage domain and if so, how can they be appropriated in a useful way?

 How could a marketing concept have looked like for the Virtual Museum of the University

of Graz?

 How do the marketing strategies of the Virtual Museum of the University of Graz and

Lo-Cloud compare?

To address the above-posed questions, the thesis will focus on the topic of marketing of pro-jects in the cultural heritage domain. A theoretical approach will be taken to investigate the state of the art in terms of marketing. Different authors will be compared in their takes on the topic and their commonalities and differences will be shown. To approach the topic of new media as a platform for marketing of projects, Facebook and Twitter as platforms used in the cultural heritage domain will be introduced and studied on how they are actually appropriated as a marketing tool.

While reading through relevant project management and marketing literature, a few things have stood out. The amount of project management and marketing literature on the market is seemingly endless, but there is usually little variety in approaches to main topics in these fields. Literature that deals only with internal marketing (also known as project marketing) is hard to come by – usually project marketing is a subchapter in a project management book, sometimes even only mentioned in a few sentences or half a page. Two publications that have largely influenced the marketing part of this thesis are Projektmarketing by David Friedrich (2005) and an article, named Projektmarketing as well by Dr. Thor Möller (2003). They were the most extensive publications in regards to project marketing that were available for this thesis. A curious fact in regards to most project management literature is that there is not much variety or critical discourse. In addition to this, Patzak and Rattay’s book Project

Man-agement (2012) is being widely cited in the available literature and will also be a basis for this

thesis, as their approaches are widely accepted. Usually, the literature also does not deal with projects in the cultural heritage sector but is more geared towards engineering or the IT sector. Even a book with a promising title, like Bendixen’s Introduction to the arts and culture agement (Einführung in das Kunst- und Kulturmanagement, 2011), solely deals with man-agement and projects in the arts sector, not in the cultural heritage sector and, therefore, has only been useful to a very limited extent. Even though literature is not targeted towards

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mar-keting in the cultural heritage domain, the attempt will still be made to tailor the ideas and methods presented to fit into this field. Marketing literature specifically tailored to the market-ing of projects was not available while writmarket-ing this thesis. It is questionable, if there is even a need for marketing literature that specifically deals with projects. Projects can oftentimes be considered like new products that will soon launch and will therefore also be treated similarly in this thesis.

At the beginning of the thesis, project organization will be discussed and how marketing fits in with general project management. This will also include the appropriation of new and so-cial media for marketing of projects in the cultural heritage domain. As already mentioned above, the thesis will also deal with the practical examples of the Virtual Museum of the

Uni-versity of Graz and the LoCloud project, to see how marketing can exemplarily be

imple-mented in projects in the cultural heritage domain.

In the second part of the thesis, a marketing concept for the Virtual Museum of the University

of Graz will be developed, as it was initially not a part of the project. Following, the

dissemi-nation work package of the project LoCloud will be analyzed, to find out more about a practi-cal use of the theoretipracti-cal information that has been discussed before. Finally, those two plans will be compared and contrasted.

Being able to promote a project in the most successful way should be a goal of every project manager. Investigating methods and marketing channels tailored to the needs of projects in the cultural heritage domain is of growing importance and relevance more than ever before. The increasing competition for funding, combined with the need to be heard and seen in the appropriate community, makes marketing of projects inevitable. More and more team mem-bers will also have prior, probably negative, experiences from different projects they have worked on, so successful internal project marketing is increasingly important as well. Only motivated members that fully stand behind a project can lead a project to success. New and social media channels also pose an easy and often free way to gain publicity and market pro-jects, if they are used correctly. This thesis is meant to shed light on useful marketing meth-ods, channels and how new and social media can be appropriated for cultural heritage projects as well. By doing so, it can function as a helpful starting point for future projects.

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1. Project Organization

Before delving into the theoretical foundations and depths of marketing for projects, the basis has to be set. External and internal marketing of projects are important parts of project man-agement. Therefore, project management and general project organization will be introduced first. While the focus of this thesis lies on marketing, it is important to understand the basis that marketing is built on first. This way, external and internal marketing can be included in the general project organization efficiently.

Nowadays nearly every endeavor is being called a project, as it has become a ‘fashionable’ term and is supposed to make tasks look more interesting to parties involved. Everyone seems to know what a project is, but when trying to define it in a clear way, oftentimes we realize that we only have vague ideas of the term. In order to have a clear starting point, the question ‘What is a project?’ is being asked first. This chapter will show that there is no one ultimate definition of a project, but an approximation will be created by comparing different defini-tions and approaches. The question, whether projects from the cultural heritage sector need a different definition to the term and also what project management is will also be briefly ad-dressed in this chapter.

What is a project? An extensive and all including approach to a definition has been created by the authors of the PMBOK, the American Project Management Body of Knowledge. It states:

"A project is a temporary endeavor undertaken to create a unique product, service, or result. The temporary nature of projects indicates that a project has a definite begin-ning and end. The end is reached when the project’s objectives have been achieved or when the project is terminated because its objectives will not or cannot be met, or when the need for the project no longer exists. [...] Every project creates a unique product, service, or result. The outcome of the project may be tangible or intangible. Although repetitive elements may be present in some project deliverables and activi-ties, this repetition does not change the fundamental, unique characteristics of the pro-ject work."4

This definition strongly focuses on the uniqueness of a project and its result, which stands in contrast to some European project management literature that even mentions the terms of rou-tine projects or repetitive projects.5 Taking a look at the commonly used DIN project

4 PMBOK 2013, 3. 5 Corsten 2008, 2f.

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tion, it can be seen that there are some overlaps, but also a much simpler approach to the term project.

„Ein Projekt ist ein Vorhaben, das im wesentlichen durch Einmaligkeit der Bed-ingungen in ihrer Gesamtheit gekennzeichnet ist, wie z. B.: Zielvorgabe, zeitliche, fi-nanzielle, personelle oder andere Bedingungen, Abgrenzungen gegenüber anderen Vorhaben und projektspezifische Organisation.“ DIN 69901 (1987).

It states that a project is an undertaking, marked by its singularity in its conditions on the gen-eral level, for example, the set goals, time or financial conditions etc., its differentiation against other undertakings and a project specific organization. Interesting is here, that by in-cluding the wording ‚wie z.B’ which means ‚as for example’, the definition is not clear in what it all encompasses. This in term adds to the slightly vague definition that people often have of the term project.

Friedrich agrees with this definition but argues that complexity and novelty have to be added as important characteristics of a project. 6 Patzak and Rattay define projects as temporary,

complex undertakings that can be viewed as temporary companies and have a designated end that has been set from the start. They emphasize in their definition as well that projects are unique networks of activities. The outcome is only defined in concrete deliverables, but the measures needed to achieve the desired outcome can only be planned to a certain extent. This leads to a high level of uncertainty.7 Bea focuses in his definition of a project on a high level

of complexity and difficulty, but also a considerable size, singularity and novelty. The high level of complexity stems from the network of interdependent subtasks that a project is divid-ed into, which have to be coordinatdivid-ed and aligndivid-ed with each other.8

Corsten sums up that throughout literature, he most often finds time limitation, complexity and relative singularity or novelty as the most common features stated to define a project, but also that those features have to be looked at critically. Time limitation in projects is the very nature of a project – all definitions state that a project needs to have a specific deadline (and a starting date). Those limitations are often defined by the budget available and the need to fin-ish the tasks associated with the project in the shortest amount of time possible. Complexity means that there are many different tasks and subtasks that are difficult to exactly anticipate and plan ahead and that also include more than one area of knowledge and/or more than one department in a company. Not every project has the same level of complexity. Novelty or

6 Friedrich 2005, 19. 7 Patzak/Rattay 2012, 15. 8 Bea 2011, 33.

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singularity is seen from the view of the company or organization planning the project and always includes a certain factor of insecurity. Experience shows, that projects are not always that much of a novelty as they claim to be, oftentimes different projects have similar tasks and parallels, for example, the planning of a building, or even the digitization of an archive. Liter-ature even mentions repetition projects or routine projects. Novelty should therefore not be connected to the tasks themselves, but more towards the situational conditions of a project. 9

Projects can be categorized into different types, which helps with making project management more efficient, as prior experiences and a similar project can help with choosing the right tools, methods, and structure for the project organization. Different types have different crite-ria, like scope, position of customer, degree of repetition or degree of difficulty. Project types include, among others, marketing projects, strategy projects, planning projects, research and product development projects, organizational development project, and implementation pro-jects. The degree of innovation can also vary in all of those project types, which puts them on a scale from standard projects, with low innovation character, to pioneer projects, with a high degree of innovation.10 The Virtual Museum of the University of Graz falls into the category

of organizational development projects, with a medium degree of innovation. For the project team itself, it was the first project of this kind, but similar projects of creating a digital archive and representation of physical collections have been carried out before.

Coming back to definitions of the term project, Corsten challenges the validity of the DIN 69901 project definition. He argues that this definition is not academically acceptable and does not provide any significant progress over other project definitions. He also states, like already mentioned above, that using an enumeration in a definition prevents it again from providing a clear, unambiguous definition of the term. According to Corsten, projects should be defined as trans-sectorial, temporary tasks that are of a relative novelty.11 Patzak and

Rat-tay characterize a project as a unique, goal-oriented, delineated, complex, dynamic, interdis-ciplinary, interdepartmental and significant undertaking. For them, unique means that tasks are not repetitive or only partly so and are associated with uncertainty and a high level of risk. They are goal-oriented in terms of the desired deliverable, which is specified from the outset and delineated in terms of that it has to be achieved with limited resources and in a limited

9 Corsten 2008, 1ff.

10 Patzak/Rattay 2012, 16-19. 11 Corsten 2008, 3f.

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time, as well as organizational and legal constraints. The tasks of a project are complex and dynamic as there are strong interrelations between them and the environment around them, which makes an effective internal and external project marketing an important part of the pro-ject. The scope, as well as the dependencies, are subject to momentary and permanent change and often transparency is relatively poor. Due to the complexity of the tasks, they have to be accomplished in an interdisciplinary and interdepartmental manner, by collaborations of dif-ferently qualified persons. Last but not least, projects are important undertakings, as they are usually highly relevant to for the organization that carries them out, especially in regards to their usability, acceptance, economic success and the use of resources.12 Looking forward to

the later chapters, Patzak and Rattay also note a very important point in terms of what the nature of projects necessitates:

“Due to their characteristics (complex, unique, risky), projects require a lot of explana-tion for all internal and external relevant project stakeholder groups. Thinking in terms of customer and stakeholder benefits is a prerequisite for successful (project) market-ing.”13

The term stakeholder will be discussed in more detail later on in this thesis, but for better un-derstanding, the term is being introduced here. Stakeholders can be everyone involved in a project, team members, and customers even up to the government. Every person that is touched by or involved the project realization or the project outcome is a stakeholder.14

Having introduced different definitions for the term project, the logically next term in need of definition is project management. In the whole project organization, project management builds the foundation of the project. To be able to later develop a project marketing concept, different project management activities have to be implemented first.

Due to the complex and relative novelty character of a project, a management of the tasks related to the project is necessary. Throughout the available literature, the definitions of pro-ject management vary only slightly. Most authors seem to find it easier to have a common definition of what management means, as opposed to defining what a project is. The PMBOK, for example, defines project management as follows:

12 Patzak/Rattay 2012, 16. 13 Patzak/Rattay 2012, 135. 14 Friedrich 2003, 37.

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"Project management is the application of knowledge, skills, tools, and techniques to project activities to meet the project requirements. Project management is accom-plished through the appropriate application and integration of […] project manage-ment processes, which are categorized into five Process Groups. These five Process Groups are: Initiating, Planning, Executing, Monitoring and Controlling, and Clos-ing."15

Looking to the DIN 69901 definition of project management, it states that project manage-ment includes all managemanage-ment tasks, organization, techniques and measures that are needed to execute a project. For Friedrich, the primary tasks of project management are organization and coordination of the project.16 In short, what the three of them have in common is that

pro-ject management includes all the necessary organizational skills and knowledge, is in charge of coordinating the project tasks and in general controls and monitors the execution of the project to ensure it is successful. Kuster et al go into more detail in regards to what they see as project management. For them, a project is a temporary organization on its own, so project management is in charge to create a simple, flexible and responsive organization that fits ex-actly to what needs to be achieved in the project. Project management enables, facilitates and guides direct interdisciplinary cooperation. Leadership competencies are clear and the availa-ble performance potential is fully being used through a stimulating atmosphere and teamwork. Direct communication is encouraged through good project management, which also helps facilitate a community spirit and reduces and/or helps to reveal conflicts in loyalty. Internal project marketing is set up to address, amongst others, exactly those kinds of problems. As the resources for the project are actually managed by the project management team, they can be appropriated in an effective manner.17

Having defined what project management is, the next question in this context would be why we actually need it. As this thesis deals with project marketing, which is a part of project management, it is obvious that there has to be some need for and use to project management. The benefits of project management in research and product development projects are often a faster execution of the project, as the management efforts help to gradually specify goals and make them clearer step by step. It helps to find comprehensive solutions by integrating the different viewpoints of several team members and therefore contributes to a more efficient use of resources, due to the phase-oriented procedures. Project management has also the task

15 PMBOK 2013, 5. 16 Friedrich 2005, 22. 17 Kuster et al 2011, 3.

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to ensure compliance with the budgeted time and cost, through agreed and transparent budg-ets, an adequate balance between clearly defined procedures, but also a flexible attitude to-wards changes.18

Project management plays an important role in the success of projects, as it helps to diminish the most common causes of problems. Some common difficulties in projects that can be easi-ly solved by efficient project management are insufficient project definition (vague objec-tives, missing or insufficient qualification profiles, lack in coordination with stakeholders), missing use of adequate methods and work techniques (planning and controlling instruments), missing or inadequate project planning in general, risks in the human resource area, faulty project execution or project controlling.19 According to interviews with project managers that

Patzak and Rattay conducted, they also found out that problems in projects were often the lack of resources, little backing or lack of interest from the top management of the company, unclear project objectives, and unrealistic deadlines. Other problems included little commit-ment or motivation from the actual project team members, inadequate planning, ineffective or completely lacking project communication, frequent changes of objectives and allocated re-sources and also conflicts between the project and the parent company itself.20 Those

prob-lems make it very clear why internal project marketing is needed in addition to external pro-ject management. Conflicts in interested and problems in communication need to be ad-dressed with more than just good organization, which is why project marketing is an integral part of the whole project organization and project management.

There is often a disparity in worth attributed to internal and external projects – external pro-jects often get prioritized, which therefore takes away resources from the internal project. This leads in turn to the postponing of dates, lowered motivation and acceptance and often to projects that fail or simply result in nothing.21 Due to this phenomenon, it is important that the

project management team assigns the right priorities to projects, especially if there is a larger project portfolio being dealt within one company or institution.

18 Patzak/Rattay 2012, 26. 19 Tiemeyer 2010, 4. 20 Patzak/Rattay 2012, 198. 21 Melbinger 2010, 542.

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1.1. Goals and Tasks of Project Management

“It’s much more important to do the right things than to do the things right”

Peter Drucker22

Having defined what a project actually is and what project management encompasses, the next step is to look into the goals and tasks that are the building blocks to successful project management. Meredith states, “The basic purpose for initiating a project is to accomplish spe-cific goals.”23 In order to achieve the project goals, project management itself has to have its

own set of goals and tasks, which act as the background guidelines that enable the successful achievement of the actual project goals.

The four project management tasks that most authors seem to agree on are planning, organiz-ing, leading and controlling. Patzak and Rattay define them quickly as determining the out-come (planning), making the project itself work plus making use of staffing resources (organ-izing), instructing and motivating others in a goal-oriented way (leading) and, last but not least, monitoring the project in order to aim for a successful execution of work (controlling).24

Occasionally the task of leading is incorporated in the area of controlling, as in other relevant literature the main tasks of project management are defined as planning, execution and con-trolling.25 Burghardt goes more in depth about the specific tasks that he attributes to the

pro-ject manager himself. For him, the propro-ject manager is responsible for the achievement of the defined project goal(s) in compliance with the cost and time framework, while fulfilling the complete required scope of performance and quality. This includes organizing project groups, defining und structuring technical tasks, planning and controlling of the project tasks etc.26

22 quoted after Kuster et al 2011, 41. 23 Meredith 2006,13.

24 Patzak and Rattay 2012, 19. 25 Bea 2011, 16.

26 Burghardt 2006,105.

Planning Organizing

Leading Controlling Fig. 10 The four project management tasks

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In the beginning of each project, the main task of project management is project definition. Unclear or exaggerated project goals and missing limitations are two major factors that can contribute to the failure of a project.27 Therefore, it is, amongst others, immensely important

to clarify and determine project goals right from the start and to clearly define project tasks. Project planning is the next important step after the initial task of defining the goals and limits of the project. Flow chart planning, the creation of a requirements sheet and planning which tasks have to be done at what point and in what order are some of the steps included. Other tasks of project management include project execution within the constraints of the budget, project documentation, project monitoring, project controlling and quality management. Pro-ject documentation has to be carried out through the whole proPro-ject – from the beginning to the handover of the project to the client. Even after the project has been finished, project evalua-tion has to take place and the results have to be documented. Project monitoring runs parallel to the execution and helps with the determination of the success of a project. Project control-ling includes the coordination of decision-making, securing of coordinating effects and quali-ty management. They develop qualiquali-ty plans and carry out qualiquali-ty controlling in the project.28

Leitgeb writes about the challenges in project management. He states that projects are mostly carried out under time and cost pressure, as both factors have usually to be kept at a mini-mum. Quality expectations are usually high as well, which adds the factor of performance pressure to this already difficult mix. Project management has to be set up in a way that it enables the project to be finished in a timely manner, achieving the agreed goals and level of completeness, minimizing potential for conflict and also being free of errors.29 If project

man-agement has not been set up successfully and the leadership of the project manager is weak, project failure is imminent. Common reasons for failure are, like already mentioned before, unclear project goals, tasks that have not been delegated as would have been necessary or that decision makers have not been appointed and, therefore, missing responsibilities. Insufficient competencies amongst team members can also contribute to project failure if the team has not been formed in a way that all the necessary skills are present. Lack of acceptance towards the project or demotivation due to earlier negative experiences with projects can as well

27 Tiemeyer 2010, 5f. 28 Corsten 2008, 7. 29 Leitgeb 2012, 15.

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ute to the downfall of a project, even if project management has been set up well.30 This is not

an exhaustive list of problems that can lead to project failure, but it should give an overview of the most common reasons. Here is where project marketing comes into play, which will be dealt with in chapter two. Tiemeyer also writes that if project controlling is lacking, devia-tions from the initial project objectives are often noticed too late and can lead to severe prob-lems in terms of delayed completion or even complete failure of the project.31 The strengths

of project management that lie in its flexibility and potential for innovation can also turn into risks. This can happen if special campaigns are being overemphasized or if projects have be-come so frequent that they actually don’t provide an opportunity for innovation anymore. If this has happened, they have rather become a collection of routine tasks with a tendency to neglect improvisations –whether those can still be called a true project has to be questioned.32

Coming back to the four main tasks of project management (planning, organizing, leading and controlling), Leitgeb has written about them in more depth with reference to Patzak and Rat-tay.33 Planning includes the definition of objectives, project strategies, project definition,

planning of stakeholder relations, identification of project risks, development of work pack-ages, quality, time and resource planning, cost and financial planning. Organizational tasks include communication, coordination, role definition, task and responsibility allocation, de-velopment of the information flow, interactions with the project team and the stakeholders, project marketing, as well as the general definition and establishment of a project culture which includes values, norms and rules during the project work. Leading is a goal-oriented guidance of the project team, and includes, for example, selection of the right team members, promotion of goal clarity and acceptance, support in team member development, motivation and conflict handling. The fourth main task of project management is controlling, which in-cludes a successful project execution, collection, and evaluation of the project progress, con-trolling of quality, dates, resources and cost amongst others.

While most authors focus on the before mentioned tasks and goals, Bea mentions strategic corporate development and the increase of company value as two important goals of project management. He focuses not on what has to be done in the actual project, but more on what

30 Tiemeyer 2010, 5f. 31 Tiemeyer 2010, 5f. 32 Corsten 2008, 9.

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the project should do for the company or institution. Strategic corporate development includes that projects are not being randomly chosen and executed, but that planning and execution are carried out according to quality and quantity criteria that contribute to the general develop-ment of the company of institution. This is especially relevant and important today as numer-ous business activities are being carried out through projects. When it comes to increasing the value of a company or institution, this is something that should generally be a top priority.34

From this point of view, a project can be deemed successful if it has contributed to an increase in the value of the company or institution and therefore also heightened the sustained share-holder value.

1.2. The Phases and Structure of a Project

When talking about the phases and structure of a project, there has to be noted that there is not one typical project structure, project life cycle and that all projects have the exact same phas-es. They do have some principal phases in common and those will be talked about in this chapter. Some authors also speak about a project life cycle, but like Lock states in his book

Project Management, projects are rarely true cycles, because they usually do not return to the

start or a regeneration phase.35

As already mentioned before, there are some necessary steps for a successful project execu-tion: a project start that includes project planning, regular project controlling, continuous pro-ject coordination and a designated propro-ject end.36 Lock defines six phases of a project, where

usually five of them fall under the typical project management time span. The initial concept and appraisal are the first phase, whereas the second phase is planning and design. The third phase deals with the execution of the plan, which is the fulfillment of the project. In the fourth phase, correction of possible errors and handover (or as he calls it “debug or commission”37)

take place and the fifth phase encompasses operating and maintaining the project outcome during its useful life. The sixth phase is the disposal of the product or discontinuing of a ser-vice after it’s useful life.38 Whether operating and maintenance of a project really still can be

considered a phase of project management has to be questioned. More often the achievement

34 Bea 2011, 11ff. 35 Lock 2003, 16. 36 Tiemeyer 2010, 9. 37 Lock 2003, 17. 38 Lock 2003, 16f.

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of the project goals, be it a product or service, is considered the end of the project.39 Usually,

the handover of a project also delineates its end and the evaluation of the project takes place.

Bea defines the phases of the project management process as follows: project start, goal speci-fication, project planning, project execution, project controlling and project completion. He describes quality management, risk management, and chance management as accompanying processes. Those phases are not necessarily arranged in a linear process, where one phase follows the other, but more often there are recursive connections between the single phases. While Bea states that even though the project start has hardly any connections to the other phases, a successful start is still important for the success of the whole project as it sets the framework and also the tone for it. The same can be said for the completion phase, as it does not have many connections to other phases, but it is important to give the project a dedicated end and the possibility to reflect on it.40

While other authors write about the phases of project management, Kuster writes about the principles of project management.41 The concept should be to move from the ‘rough’ to the

detail. The idea, concept, execution planning and implementation of a solution have to be divided into individual work tasks or phases that can be separated from each other logically and by date. The reason behind this is to break the development of a solution down into man-ageable stages. This creates a staged planning, decision-making and concretization process with predefined milestones and correction points. On top of his project management princi-ples, Kuster also defines five project management phases: initialization, pilot study, concept, implementation and introduction. The pilot study and concept phase are development phases. A pilot phase of a project is common in IT projects. As the projects discussed in the second part of this thesis are both IT projects, Kuster’s approach to project management phases will be introduced in more detail.42

The project initialization phase is the timespan between the acknowledgment of a problem, to deciding that something concrete has to be done about it. The problem can already be clearly defined or also still be very vague. Important in this phase is that the idea is being accepted in the organization and that the need for a project is being acknowledged. A general goal and the

39 Cf. Bea 2011, 43f, Patzak/Rattay 2012, 371f. and Kuster et al. 2012, 23. 40 Bea 2011, 43f.

41 Kuster 2011, 17. 42 Kuster 2011:17.

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priority of the project should be determined in this phase and general roles should be distrib-uted (in terms of what roles are needed, a project team does not have to exist yet). Rough task planning should be carried out in this phase as well. Next is the pilot phase, which is also called pre-project or feasibility analysis. It has to determine whether the execution of the pro-ject is realistic and doable. The environment i.e. the stakeholders have to be examined and the project results have to be determined. Which requirements have to be fulfilled by the project? What are the risk factors in the project and how can they be minimized? This phase deals mostly with project organization, creating a time schedule, resource planning and deciding on methods for the project. According to Kuster, the concept phase usually follows the pilot phase. In this phase milestone planning and a closer and more detailed definition of the pro-ject, by using the insights that have been gained in the pilot phase, happen. Next up is the im-plementation phase. As the name suggests, the defined tasks are being implemented and the project is brought into the execution phase. In practice, this phase usually runs parallel with the concept phase. As the final phase in project management, Kuster defines the introduction phase, were the finished product or service is handed over to the client. In larger projects, this can be done step by step, especially when it’s an implementation of a new system or other-wise a big change for the actual users. It has to be kept in mind that the project team has worked with it over a longer period of time, but the actual users most likely see it for the first time. It is important that the know-how transfer from the project team to the users happens quickly and efficiently, so the development and implementation team is not needed for a long time. This phase also includes the project closedown. Every project needs to have a deliberate ending point, even failed ones. A critical evolution has to be carried out, whether a project has been successful or not. What can be learned for future projects? What mistakes have hap-pened? Was it possible to carry the project out within the budget, timeframe and in the re-quired quality? Those are questions that have to be asked when closing down a project in or-der to be able to improve future projects.43

In contrast to the before mentioned approaches, Stöger only defines four phases, which he deems necessary for the successful completion of a project:44

43 Kuster et al 2011, 19-24. 44 Stöger 2011, 35ff.

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1. Project start and Project assignment: the definition of the project goal; sometimes all there is, is a problem that needs a solution. This phase tries to set boundaries and de-fine a concrete goal. The project order is being written down. It dede-fines the most im-portant points and helps to lay the foundations for the project.

2. Project analysis and Project planning: the strengths, weaknesses, and opportunities of the project are being analyzed, project phases are being defined, tasks and a timeline for the project are being developed.

3. Project implementation and Project completion: the implementation of the actual pro-ject on basis of the before defined phases happens here. Measures and quality quirements have to be met. Each participant should know his/her tasks, roles and re-sponsibilities! Project outcome has to be evaluated at the end.

4. Project controlling: controlling is in effect throughout all project phases. It helps with achieving results and makes sure that the project runs through all of the phases.

It could be argued that those are not four, but rather seven phases, but this would be beside the point of this thesis. It was important to compare those four different approaches to project phases and to see what was most fitting to the Virtual Museum of the University of Graz

Pro-ject.

The different approaches range from four to six phases, where this is often just a case of how the different authors have grouped the terms together. While they all agree on that the first phase is the project start, the second phase differs already. While Lock already sees planning and design in this phase, Bea views planning as the third phase and includes goal specifica-tion as the second phase.45 In most cases, the execution of the project is seen as the third or

fourth phase in a project, depending on whether the authors include a pilot study or see plan-ning and goal specification as two separate steps.46 Lock and Bea both include controlling and

correction phases right after the execution phase, whereas Kuster et al and Stöger see the in-troduction of the finished project and the project completion as the final phase without includ-ing controllinclud-ing first.47 Stöger does include project controlling throughout the whole project,

which should come across errors during the implementation phase already.48

45 Lock 2003, 17 and Bea 2011, 43. 46 Kuster et al 2011, 20 and Bea 2011, 43.

47 Lock 2003, 17, Bea 2011, 43, Kuster et al 2011, 21 and Stöger 2011, 35ff. 48 Stöger 2011, 35ff.

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Looking back on the EuroMACHS project, it fit best the approach that Kuster and Bea took. There was a specific (if short) phase of goal specification before the actual project planning started and we also had a pre-project phase, where the feasibility of the project had to be ex-amined. Before the project went live, it was also tested in a pilot phase on a non-public server. Quality management and controlling were accompanying processes that run along all the pro-ject phases until the completion of the propro-ject.

1.3. Project Management Tools

Over time, different tools have been developed to make project management easier, more structured and organized. Having dedicated project management tools also helps to standard-ize the project management process, which in turn makes it easier to be taught, carried out and generally acknowledged in the business and academic world. Amongst the numerous different tools, this chapter will focus on the work breakdown structure (WBS), milestone planning, the project flowchart and resource planning. Those tools were chosen, because they are not only crucial tools for project management but also play an important role in project marketing. The

Virtual Museum of the University of Graz also used those tools for their project management,

which will be included further down and or in the appendix.

1.3.1. Work breakdown structure (WBS)

„[The work breakdown structure] is the structuring of the entire project task into sub-tasks that can be planned and controlled (work packages). The WBS shows the project tasks according to different structuring criteria, especially phases, responsibilities, di-visions, departmental functions, object components, target groups, stakeholder groups etc.”49

The work breakdown structure is the representation of a project structure, resulting from or-ganizing the project.50 This is based on unambiguously defined project goals and is supposed

49 Patzak/Rattay 2012, 148. 50 Motzel 2010,194f. Goal Specification Project Planning Project Execution Imple- mentati-on Pilot Phase

Quality Management and Controlling Fig. 11 Project Phases Virtual Museum

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to capture and portray the logical structure of a project. It helps with coping with complexity and is also called ‘plan of plans’ because it is the foundation for other plans. It is the result of a structural analysis of the project and helps with allocating resources. Tasks are broken down step-by-step in sub-tasks and brought into a hierarchical order. Work packages are being de-fined in the WBS. They are the smallest entity in the breakdown structure that can be worked on by a person or group.51 The WBS controls the division of work, as well as the reintegration

of the single tasks into the whole project. The result is a task hierarchy, which includes the main task (which is the achievement of the project goals), the subtasks, the work packages and the single planning unit. The WBS describes what exactly has to be done in the project and how the project is organized in regards to content. It does not include information about the chronology of the project, as this is included in the project flow chart.52

The objectives of the WBS are the systematic gathering of all necessary project tasks, struc-turing the project, and achieving a clear overview of the project scope. It is important to split up the tasks into work packages, as they can be planned and controlled more easily, due to their small size. The project structure defined in the work breakdown structure also acts as basis for other further management activities, including, but not limited to, resource planning, scheduling, task assignment etc.53

There are different ways in how the work breakdown structure can be depicted. For a graph-ical depiction, usually, a tree structure or a hierarchy are used and can be either a vertgraph-ical or horizontal drawing. If depicted semi-graphically, indented task lists are often used. The WBS can also be organized in a numerical way, by assigning project codes to each work package.54

For the EuroMACHS project, a semi-graphical approach was chosen, as can be seen below.

51 Corsten 2008, 108. 52 Leitgeb 2012, 34. 53 Patzak/Rattay 2012, 148f. 54 Patzak/Rattay 2012, 152.

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Projektstrukturplan

Arbeitspaket 1 - Projektmanagement  Definition  Planung  Dokumentation  Umsetzung  Abschluss

Arbeitspaket 2 - Interfacing – Inhaltliche Analyse

 Recherche Informationsdesign

 Suchfunktion Zielgruppen: Expert/Non-Expert

 Design - Gams CSS

 Webportal Layout Entwurf

 Webportal Endversion Layout

Arbeitspaket 3 - Interfacing – Datentechnik

 Pilotphase  Metadatenhomogenisierung  Umsetzungsphase  Test Interface  Endversion Interface Arbeitspaket 4 - Digitalisierung

 Digitalisierung der Siegel  Digitalisierung der Geräte  Kontrolle der Digitalisate

Arbeitspaket 5 - Inhaltliche Analyse - Siegelsammlung

 Sichtung der Sammlung

 Standards – Recherche und Entscheidung  Sammlung formal erfassen

 Sammlung inhaltlich erschließen  Modellbildung – Prototyp

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Arbeitspaket 6 - Datentechnische Analyse - Siegelsammlung

 Standards und Technologien  Modellbildung - Prototyp  Grundstruktur Archiv XML  Archivstruktur Test in Fedora  Umsetzung Archiv Endversion

Arbeitspaket 7 - Inhaltliche Analyse - Gerätesammlung

 Sichtung der Sammlung

 Standards - Recherche und Entscheidung  Sammlung formal erfassen

 Sammlung inhaltlich erschließen  Modellbildung – Prototyp

Arbeitspaket 8 - Datentechnische Analyse - Gerätesammlung

 Standards und Technologien  Modellbildung - Prototyp  Grundstruktur Archiv XML  Archivstruktur Test in Fedora  Umsetzung Archiv Endversion

Table 1 Virtual Museum Work Breakdown Structure

1.3.2. Milestone planning

“As a rule, milestones are important project events, which are connected to the achievement of intermediate project objectives.”55

Patzak and Rattay sum up the nature very well in the quote above. Milestones help to measure project success already during the execution phase of the project. Therefore, they help to easi-ly gauge whether the project is advancing on plan or if there are problems or delays. Mile-stones are steps between the project start and the final event, and usually organized in a mile-stone plan.56 They can be either be predefined from the outside, like a certain event where a

part of the project has to be finished by and presented or determined from the inside by the project manager in order to control the project more easily.57

The milestone plan also acts as a rough project schedule, as it highlights select events. For very simple projects, this can already be enough structure to reduce project planning to this

55 Patzak/Rattay 2012, 69. 56 Patzak/Rattay 2012, 69. 57 Patzak/Rattay 2012, 189.

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simple plan.58 It is actually an event-oriented timetable that can often be selected from already

existing timetables. In practice, the milestones are often chosen in relation to project phases or work packages, to mark either their start or end. Milestone plans are often also used to quickly inform stakeholders of the most important events during a project.59

In the case of the Virtual Museum of the University of Graz, milestones have usually been determined according to the start/end of important project phases, as can be seen below. The dates in the milestone plan where the initial estimates of the duration of each phase.

Milestoneplan

Projektziele definieren bis 15.10.2013 Kick-Off Meeting 9.12.2013

Planung abschließen bis 10.12.2013

Inhaltliche Analyse Gerätesammlung bis 1.1.2014 Digitalisierung Abschluss bis 4.2.2014

Inhaltliche Analyse Siegelsammlung bis 31.3.2014 Interfacing – Datentechnik bis 2.6.2014

Interfacing – Inhaltliche Analyse bis 6.6.2014

Datentechnische Analyse – Siegelsammlung und Gerätesammlung bis 10.6.2014 Projektabschluss bis 8.7.2014

Table 2 Virtual Museum Milestone Plan

1.3.3. Project flow chart and resource planning

After having structured the project with the help of the work breakdown structure and created a milestone plan in order to determine important events and create a rough timeline, the pro-ject flow chart is the next step in terms of propro-ject management tools. The propro-ject flow chart is also called a project schedule and determines and describes the processes in the project. It determines not only the starting point and end point of each work package but also the

58 Patzak/Rattay 2012, 173. 59 (Motzel 2010, 133).

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pendencies in the project. It can be presented in the form of a diagram or flow chart and there-fore creates a temporal and spatial sequence of the single tasks.60

As already mentioned, the project flow chart plan is being based on the work breakdown structure. First, logical connections of work packages are being determined and written down in a so-called operation list. Afterwards, dates and milestones are being incorporated into the list and the duration of single work packages is being estimated. A margin for errors and de-lays is calculated and included. Often work packages are dependent on other work packages and those connections determine the order in which tasks have to be carried out and placed in the project flow chart.61

Resource planning is also an important step in project management and is often done in the same process as developing the project schedule. Resource planning usually means to allocate material, equipment and team members to work packages.62 Resource planning also means

resource managing, in order to assure that all team members are being placed in positions appropriate with their capabilities and also that material and equipment are used efficiently and effectively.63

To represent a project schedule, Gantt charts are a widely used method and form. They allow depicting dependencies between single tasks, estimated durations, as well as starting and end dates for each work package. Work packages are usually grouped according to the phases that have been determined in the work breakdown structure and then organized within those groups according to their starting date. Due to its graphical nature as a bar chart, it allows for an easy overview and clear depiction of the project as a whole, the tasks and also the depend-encies between the tasks.64

A Gantt chart was also used to depict the project flow chart for the EuroMACHS project and was combined with resource planning in the same document. The free Gantter Smartapp for Google Drive was used for this purpose, as it automatically creates the bar chart with all the 60 Motzel 2010, 12. 61 Leitgeb 2012, 37f. 62 Leitgeb 2012, 41. 63 Patzak/Rattay 2012, 197. 64 Patzak/Rattay 2012, 176.

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dependencies after creating the detailed plan. It allows assigning work packages to people, which includes a resource plan into the Gantt chart.65

Fig. 12 Virtual Museum Gantt Chart excerpt

2. Marketing of Projects

“Due to their characteristics (complex, unique, risky), projects require a lot of explanation for all internal and external relevant project stakeholder groups. Thinking in terms of cus-tomer and stakeholder benefits is a prerequisite for successful (project) marketing.”66

This quote from Patzak and Rattay sums up two key points for marketing of projects: due to the nature of projects, they are in need of a lot of explanation in order to achieve acceptance and support. In order to be able to achieve this, it is important to think about how the project will benefit the customer and the stakeholders so that they see the added value by supporting the project. This chapter will deal with the question of how marketing can help carrying out successful projects and where it actually fits into project management. The role of marketing in cultural heritage projects will also be discussed and how the marketing of projects is treated in literature will be touched on in addition.

First it can be asked, what contributes to project success? For a long time, a project was seen as successful, if it was finished on time, within its budgetary limits and if the actual product or result was created. Today, the human factor has been added to the necessary factors contrib-uting to a successful project. The attitude of every single person affected or involved in the project plays a role towards whether a project will succeed or fail. The influence people have

65 Cf. http://www.gantter.com. 66 Patzak/Rattay 2012, 135.

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on the project is also called soft facts. Examples for this can be the identification of the team members with the project, information about correlations in the project execution, information about the importance of the project for the company or institution, trust in the project team and the management. Disregarding those soft facts can lead to a lack of acceptance and is often due to missing project communications.67 In short, it is not only important that the

pro-ject is finished on time and within the budget, but also that the attitude of people affected and involved in should be positive towards the project. This is where internal and external market-ing comes into play.

Two main reasons for project failure are the lack of information and integration of team members and errors in the business and technical organization. The percentage distribution between those two factors is what highlights the importance of internal marketing of projects: 75% of failed projects did so because they did not inform and integrate all involved and con-cerned parties. Therefore, the whole potential of a project can only be utilized if all stakehold-ers can identify themselves with the project.68 Patzak and Rattay also write that “the more the

benefits of a project can be plausibly explained, the higher is the readiness for supporting the project within the respective stakeholder group.”69 This highlights that it is also important to

target the way the project is marketed towards the individual stakeholder groups in order to achieve maximum impact. Marketing provides the means to build a positive image of a pro-ject, helps to publicize this positive image and, therefore, improves the awareness about the project as well.70 Especially in IT projects, gaining acceptance is crucial, so that the resulting

software or product will actually be used. This makes marketing for projects more relevant and important than ever, as more and more projects are related to information technology in the cultural heritage domain as well.71

Marketing is a tool that should be used throughout the whole project life span and, therefore, included in the project management. What differentiates it from classical marketing? General-ly speaking, classical marketing is an entrepreneurial, customer-oriented mindset. It deals with planning, execution and controlling of all internal and external business activities. Mar-keting aligns the company’s services with the customer’s needs in the sense of a consistent 67 Melbinger 2010: 538. 68 Friedrich 2005, 15. 69 Patzak/Rattay 2012, 134. 70 Patzak/Rattay 2012, 134. 71 Melbinger 2010, 537.

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customer orientation that is targeted towards achieving market-driven business goals.72 The

focus of marketing for projects lies not only on the customer but also on all stakeholders that are associated with the project. A more in-depth differentiation from classical or corporate marketing will be addressed below. Marketing for projects deals, for example, with how the different interests and needs of all stakeholders can be integrated without having to neglect the actual project goals.73 In his essay about the marketing of projects, Möller writes that

marketing, in this case, includes all necessary measures to create acceptance and to convince stakeholders of the benefits of the project. It should also inform about and explain project processes and outcomes to the relevant interest groups of the project, which include internal as well as external stakeholders.74 While different authors vary slightly in what they consider

to be the tasks of marketing for projects, the common denominator they share is that project marketing is supposed to improve the awareness and increase acceptance of the project amongst its stakeholders.

Friedrich defines marketing for projects as the presentation and representation of the project in its environment. The goals are to increase the acceptance from all involved and concerned parties, to create a positive project environment and to ensure the achievement of the project goals. Increasing acceptance from stakeholders is important, because projects generally have supporters and opponents, as well as people and institutions that have a neutral stance towards the project. The success of a project is often depended on people being open about infor-mation that is relevant to the stakeholders, which creates trust and acceptance.75 Therefore, it

is important to inform the relevant groups right from the start and also convince them of the meaningfulness of the project. Highly motivated stakeholders help to support the project and are important for the general project success, so they work for and not against the project.76

While Friedrich and Möller focus on acceptance, Motzel also includes creating and increasing awareness about the project and improving the public image of the project. He argues that measures that aid those goals generally lead to a higher acceptance, support, and promotion of projects.77 Patzak and Rattay sum up the objectives of marketing for projects in a very concise

and useful way. Marketing ensures the project success by improving customer satisfaction,

72 Bruhn 2014, 14. 73 Friedrich 2005, 16. 74 Möller 2003, 128. 75 Friedrich 2005, 28. 76 Möller 2003, 126. 77 Motzel 2010, 183f.

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