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C o o g r e p h i o D l R o s o n r o h I n s t i t u t o of tho H u n g n r i o n A« * ■ i sy

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B U D A P E S T G u i d o

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S á n d o r K A T O N A

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B U D A P E S T

H u n g a r y m a y be o h a r a o t e r i z e d b y three b a s i o g e o g r a p h i o a l pro b lé m a s

l / B e i n g a o ou nt ry of s ma ll area, p o o r in ran material s, a m o n g x h i o h only b a u x i t e r e s o u r c e s ar e of i n t e r n a t i o n a l s i g n i f i o a n o e t H u n g a r y is f o r o e d to engage in a otive f o r e i g n trade, U n d e r p r e s e n t oo n d i t i o n s of r i s i n g raw m a t e r i a l prioes, this r e p r o s e n t s a souroe of ino r e a s - ing oonoern,

2 / P o p u l a t i o n is d e n s e r than the E u r o p e a n a v e r a g e /112 in- h a b i t a n t s / k m /, The grovitli of the p o p u l a t i o n h ad b e e n slou f ó r a long time, a l t h o u g h d u r i n g rec ent y e a r s it shovied a t o n d e n o y to improve, B e t w e e n the last tno oensi, taken in 1960 /9 961 000/ and 1 9 7o /lo 3 15 000/, i, e.

d u r i n g one deoade, a m i n o r e a s e of nőt m o r e than 355 000 vias experienoed, A o c o r d i n g l y ? the y e a r l y gro\<th araounts

to vihioh is v e r y low on a w o r i d soale.

3/ E o o n o m y is d i s p r o p o r t i o n a t e l y d i s t r i b u t e d over tho ro- g i o n s of Hungary, T h e o a p i t a l is irmch too largo viithin the oountry, Xts s o o i o - e o o n o m i c p r e d o m i n a n c e i ^ ^ c o m p a - rable to that of only a fevi E u r o p o a n c apitals ‘s u o h ns P a r i s , C o p e n h a g o n and Vienna, T h e over-clovelopod C a p i t a l d i s t o r t s the s pa t i a l s t r u c t u r o of tho oountry, As nrony as 1 8,8$ of tho p o pul a tio n , 2op/> of the totál nutnbor of flats, 33% of i n d u s t r i a l employees, 39$ of trado, a n d 5 2,8$ of' s t u d o n t s a t t o n d i n g u n i v e r s i t i o s or o o l l o g e s

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b e o a m e o o n o e n t r a t e d in B uda pest, a oity t a k i n g up al»

toge t he r 0,6$ of the totál area of Hungary. I n t e l l e o t u a l a c t i v i t y is a l s ó m o s t l y c on fi n e d to the oapital, Tfois is 14011 i l l u s t r a t e d b y the f a c t that 8 5 $ of the staff of r e s e a r o h and d e v e l o p m e n t i n s t i t u t e s and 4/ 5 of soi ont i s t s a nd l e ct urers in p o s s e s s i o n of h i g h e r u n i v e r s i t y dogrees

•Work in Budapest, Of the 1 3 1 r e s e a r o h i n s t i t u t o s and 34 t h e a t r e s of Hu ngary, I05 and 19 őre f o u n d in the o api t a l r e s p e otivol y , T h e " h y p e r t rop h io" o a p i t a l ro- p r e a e n t a ono of the g r a v e s t r é g i ó n á l pro b l é m a of Hungary.

B u d a p e s t is in the h e a r t of the C a r p a t h i a n Basin, C e n t r a l Europe, in the n o r t h e r n la t it u d o of 4 7° and e a s t e r n long i t u d e of 1 9°. T h e area of the o o u n t r y is sraall /93 ° o o km^/,

t a k i n g the l8th pl ao e a m o n g the n a t i o n s of Európa, Th e nuraber of i n h a b i t a n t s is l o, 4 mi llión, v h i o h is the I3th

largest in the oontinent. In oontr ast to this, B u d a p e s t h a d a p o p u l a t i o n of 2 o4o 000 in 1973, or 2 4oo 000 i n- o l u d i n g those l i v i n g i n the a ggl o m o r a t i o n . W i t h the f o r m o r f i g u r e it takos the loth p l a o e a f t e r suoh large E u r o p e a n

oities as Paris, Mosoov, London, L o nin g r a d , Berlin, Madrid, Romé, At h e n s an d Istambul, Bút if v e take i ntő a o o o u n t the p o p u l a t i o n of a g g l o m e r a t i o n s as woll, then M ilán, M a n o h e s t e r a n d B i r m i n g h a m v i l i oome b o f o r o it too, in a d d i t i o n to thoso m e n t i o n o d above, Prota a n o t h e r p o i n t of vion, o o n s i d e r i n g

the 600 t ho u s a n d i n d u s t r i a l eniployee3 of the B u d a p o s V x ^ g g l o m e — ration, tho o i t y standa f o u r t h in the o o n t i nont a f t o r Mosootm, L o n d o n a n d Paris, The ftoarest d o n s e l y p o p u l a t o d large oity ia Boriin, l yi n g at a d i a t a n o o of abo u t 7oo km, T h o s e f a o t s v i l i u n d o u b t o d l y d e m o n o t r a t e the i m p o r t a n o e of B u d a p e s t in Ce n t r a l Europe, The area of the o ity as an a d m i n i s t r a t i v o unit ia o o m p a r a t i v e l y large / 5 25 k m /,p

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In this b r i e f d e ó o ri p tio n , shell oonfine our a t t e n t i o n to the t o m p o r a i and s p a t i a l a n a l y s i a of Budapest, One n a t u r a l l y po ses the f o l l o v i n g q ues t i o n s in this contoxtt W hat a r e the oauses of this e x ces s ive c o n c e n t r a t i o n ?

¥ h e r e is the root of the "Budapest p r o b l e m B ? What ara the most ur g ent q u e s t i o n s p e n d i n g ? Hon can one outl ine the f u t u r e of the B u d a p e s t a g g l o m o r a t i o n up to the turn of the o en t u r y ?

1# F O U N D A T I O N A N D H I S T O R I C A L D E V E L O P M E N T OF T H E C I T Y

B u d a p e s t v a s f o u n d e d and has gro-wn i ntő a b i g city in the h e a r t of a n a t u r a l basin, at the junction of C o n t i n e n t a l

t h o u r o u g h f a r e s o o n v e r g i n g tovards orossing -pl aces, Its po s i - tion at the jóin of f o u r large n a t u r a l r egi o n s is potontial, The f i r s t s e t t l e m e n t "Has b u i l t at a p l a c o u h o r e the Danube, a f t e r c u t t i n g t h r o u g h the H u n g á r i á n C e n t r a l M o u n t a i n frora the v o s t and m a k i n g a 9o° ohange of dirootio n, e m e r g o s in the Gr o at H u n g á r i á n Piain. T h e p o t o n t i a l of this g e o g r a p h i o - al area is w e l l d e m o n s t r a t o d b y tho f a c t that the p o l i t i o Q l and eco n o m i o c o n t r o l of H u n g a r y has a l v a y s b e e n e x o r oised frora somé town v i t h i n a c ir ol e ' o f 4 o k m radius o entre d in Budapest. S uc h t ow iB V e r e E s z t e r g o m in the loth contury, Sz é­

k e s f e h é r v á r in the llth contury, Visogi-ád in the 1 2 t h - 1 3 t h oonturies, and Buda and Post f r o m 1686, -when the T urks had b e e n d r i v e n out, Tho orossln.^-placo of tho Da nub e i n tho ca p ita l has long b e e n an iniportant .junction of converginf?

and d i v o r g i n g c o n t i n o n t a l t h o u r o u g h f á r o s . Fór example, this

•was tho p i a c é n h e r e the L o v a n t i n e road c o m i n g f r o m the w e s t / V i e n n a / a l o n g the D a n u b o and p r o c o o d i n g to tho Bal kans / B y z a n t i u m / b r a n o h o d off tovards E a s t o r n Europo /itlov/ and mo t tho road f r o m M o d i t o r r a n o a n lands to B a l t i o oountrios.

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M a n y ar o the to^ns the n a m e s of ■which ro cord the f a v o u r a b l e na túra 1 co n ditions - i« o. p o t o n t i ali t ios - that o r i g i n a l l y a t t r a c t e d p e o p l e there,, That is hovi it is TVith Budapest.

The n a m e of the oldest settlanient; called A Q U I N C U M b y the R o m a n s , d er ives f r o m the C e l t i c A K - I N K . m e a n i n g a b u n d a n t

•water. This refers to n u m e r o u s the r mal springs f o u n d in the c a p i t a l ■which h a v e r e n d e r e d B u d a p e s t an i m p o r t a n t city of spas, Slav p h i l o l o g i s t s b e l i © v e that the name Buda mig ht h a ve coae f r o m the Old Slav ^or31 f ó r -water /vöd/. Othera t hink of it as a w o r d of T u r k i s h origin, and dé r i v é it f r o m the p e r s o n a l n a m e Buda vihich vas still f r e q u e n t l y used in H u n g a r y as laté as the M i d d l e Ages, The q uar t e r s of Bléda /Buda/, b r o t h e r of Attila, the Hun ruler, is B l l e g e d to have b e e n p i t c h e d at the p re s e n t site of the city. As f ó r

the n a m e P E S T , opini o ns a l s ó seram to vary. In 2nd c e n t u r y 3, C , , P t o l e m y m e n t i o n s a Sar a ati a n se t t l e m e n t b e y o n d the R o m á n limes / D a n u b e / as Pession, A c c o r d i n g to Old Slav

otimology, h ovovor, Pest me an s a lime-lciln. This ap pe a r s to b o s u p p o r t e d by the G e r m á n £»ame of Buda, i. o, Of e n . m e a n i n g ki I n . It is a faot, though, that the divorso. o a s v ~

to - spall buildinre stones and obunclnnt thormal sp rings v<oro thoso n o t o n t i o l f ac t o r s that ho l p o d mán settlo in B u d a p e s t . Th e r i ve r ' s dual f u n o t i o n - that of s e p a r a t i n g and con- n e o t i n g - 'has changed in the oourso of history. A l o n g an a p p r o x i m a t e l y 2o km long f i a t v a l l e y sec t i o n of the Danube, f a l l i n g n i t h i n the aroa of the cap ital b o t x e o n Szeirtendro Island and Cs o p o l Island, tho m o a n d e r i n g r i v o r v q s f o r c e d to ■withdravi intő a si ng lo b r a n c h b y unf l o o d e d térrácos, A f e r r y e s t a b l i s h e d at a c o n v e n i e n t point h e l p e d C r o s s i n g and a t t r a o t e d roads.

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T h o D a n ub e is 3°° to 600 m n i d e a l o n g its secti on in B u d a ­ pesti •whioh has non b e e n embankod. At tho b e g i n n i n g of h i s t o r i c a l times, honever , the m e a n d e r i n g r i v o r co vered a s pao i o u s i n u n d a t i o n area w i t h its i n n u m e r a b l e loops,

t e n d i n g to s eparate the tonnlets Óbuda, Buda and Pest a l o n g its banks, The c a p i t a l of today s p r a n g up ar ound

these three n e a r l y tvo . t ho us an d y e a r old s e t t l e m e n t coros, T h e i r unión, howe v e r , Mas ö c c o m p l i s h e d only d u r i n g the

last century, The b r o a d r i v e r oould only be c rosse d d u r i n g p a r t i o ü l a r p er i o d s of the ye a r, f o r c i n g t r a d i n g caravans to stop at f l o o d times, T h e s e i n t e r r u p t i o n s n o c e s s i t a t e d the s t o r i n g of goods, a nd f u r n i s h e d an o p p o r t u n i t y f ó r ex- o h a n g i n g thera, The iraportanoe of undisturböfl C r o s s i n g as a p r e r e q u i s i t e of p ro gr es s -will soon be a p p r e o i a t e d if ve c o n s i d e r that e x p a n s i o n i nt ő a large city was onl y mad e p o s s i b l e a f t e r the c o n s t r u c t i o n of the f i r s t p o r m a n e n t b ri d g e in 1849* The p o t e n t i a l p o s i t i o n of the p r e s e n t - d a y c a p i t a l h a d a l s ó b e e n a p p a r e n t in tho M i d d l e Ages n h e n m o s t of the n a t i o n a l f u n c t i o n s had b e e n c o n c e n t r a t e d in this area, The K ing's seat in Buda, the Q u o e n 1s seat in Óbuda,

the A r c h s e e i n ' E s z t e r g o m , the E p i s c o p a l See in Vác, and the U n i v e r s i t y in Óbuda, a l l f e l i w i t h i n a ci r c l e of 25 k a radius, A l t h o u g h these "paront tcwns" n ő r e close to each

other, their grovith vias c o m p a r a t i v e l y independent.

B e i n g a R o m á n limes, the D an u b o servod as a defence, line a ga i n s t B a r b a r i a n s in a n c i e n t tinies, Later, in the M i d d l e Ages, f e r r y services viore establis h od, a p r o t e c t i v e castle n a s built, a nd the s e t t l e m e n t b o c a m e a m a r k o t tovin, Its f u n c t i o n as a oentre of trade and t r a n s p o r t , hov ever, could o n ly d e v e l o p a f t e r tho Tu rk s had b e e n d r i v o n out, and the o on ve y a n c e of lowland orops to Vienna viqs ooamenoed. In this

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re gar d t h e p o t e n t i a l p o s i t i o n of B u d a p e s t mea ns that the toxn lies at the junotion of the Danube o b stacle line and the H u n g á r i á n Centi'al Mountain^ in the n o r t h - w e s t e r n co r n e r of the w h e a t - g r o w i n g Great H u n g á r i á n Piain, T h i n k - i n g on a E u r o p e a n scale, th.is is the pi a cé v h e r e the

■western m o s t e x t e n s i o n of the plains of S o u t h - E a s t e r n Europe, ca p ab le of e x p o r t i n g its surplus a g r i c u l t u r a l produoe, is nőt only clo sest to W e s t e r n Europe^ n e e d i n g the i m p o r t a t i o n of such p r o d u c e ? bút a l s ó m o s t c o n v e n i e n t l y s itu a t e d f ó r t r a n s p o r t i n g goods a l o n g the cheap n a t e r viay of the Danube* It tíds only a f t e r the oomniencetnent of

s t e a m s h i p n a v i g a t i o n in the f i r s t third of the 1 9th century, honever, that Bu da pe st b e c a m e r eal l y i m p o r t a n t as a

t ra ding oantre,

The e x p a n s i o n of tho oitv^is aost a u th o n t i c a l l v i l l u s t r a t e d by_ the fírovíin^ n u m b e r of I n h a b i tan t s ,, The s e t t l e m e n t g r o u p of a n c i e n t A o q u i n c u m ha d a p o p u l a t i o n of somé 5o to 60 thousand, i n c l u d i n g b o t h g a r r i s o n and civic tonns, d u r i n g its days of glory, in 2 n d - 3 r d c ent u rie s A,D» In 5 t h - 9 t h centuries, d u r i n g the m i g r a t i o n poriod, these s e t t l e m e n t s deolined, At the end of the M i d d l e A g e s , a r o u n d 1 5 o o t tho totál p o p u l a t i o n of the three "core to-wns", i.e, Óbuda, Buda and Pest is b e l i e v e d t o have beeii a b o u t 3° 0 0 0 , As

e arly as the b e g i n n i n g of the 1 5th century, a p o n t o o n b r i d g e

"was b u i l t at tho f e r r y of P e s t c D u r i n g the T u r k i s h oiíoupa- tion /15 4 1 - 1 Ó 8 6 / , the town bo c a n e tho centre of a vilayet, and v as f o r c o d to a s s u m e an eas t e r n appearance, A f t e r the T ur k s had b o e n d ri vo n out an d t h e M o h a n m o d a n p o p u l a t i o n had fled, a l t o g e t h e r 6 to 7 th ousan i n h a b i t a n t s renmined.

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T he p r e s e n t - d a y net-work of H u n g á r i á n to-wns b e g a n to toké its shapo o f t e r T u r k i s h rule had e n d e d ? in an age n h e n trade vas e x p a n d i n g u n d e r f e u d a l c o n d i t i o n s0 As a result, i n d u s t r i a l d e v e l o p m e n t got u n d e r vioy at a slo-w pace, At the ond of tho l8th cen t u r y / l 7 8 4 - l 4 8 7 / y the largest toiwns

•within p r e s e n t - d a y H u n g a r y , w i t h p o p u l a t i o n s o x c e e d i n g 2o o o o ? were D e b r e c e n /30 000/, Buda /23 9°o/g K e c s k e m é t /22 7 o o / r Szeged / 2o 9 o o / and Pest /2o 7oo/, Th e p o t e n t i a l p o s i t i o n of p r e s e n t - d a y B uda p e s t b e o a n e evi dent ali'eady at that time. The city i n c l u d e d nő t only two ”b i g tonns"

bút a l s ó a third one in the i m m e d i a t e v i c i n i t y of t h e m , called Óbuda, K h o s e n u a b e r of i n h a b i t a n t s reac hed 5 000. In thoso tiraos a town of su ch diraensions wa s nőt r e g a r d e d as a small one. In l8oö the three towns s u p p o r t e d a totál p o p u l a t i o n of a l m o s t 50 ooo, bút they took only the 4 2 n d piacé atnong Eu ro p e a n cities,

F r o m the end of the l8th century, the city b e c a m e the

g o v e r n u e n t oentre of H u n g a r y ■within the Monarühy, P o l i t i c a l control vas tr a n s f e r r e d to Buda, o o n f r o n t i n g the sp heres of Vienna in A ustria and P o z s o n y /now Bra tis lava/ . Pest d o v e l o p o d intő a p r o m i n e n t centre of t r a d o e Bo th Buda and Pest had a great nutnber of trado g u ild s tho c r a f t s n e n of w h i c h su pp l i e d a c o m p a r a t i v o l y large m a r k o t w i t h their goods a l s ó b e y o n d the town limits,

D u r i n g the N o p o l o o n i o n ars, n h e n trado b o t w e e n C ent r a l Europe ond the Levant f l o u r i s h e d , the c o m m o r c i a l i m p o r t o n o e of Pest f u r t h e r i n c r e o s e d on o c c o u n t of its p o s i t i o n in tho i n t e r s e c t i o n of t h o u r o u g h f a r e s c o m m u n i c a t i n g to and f r o m the Balkans, At the same t i m e r f a v o u r a b l e condi tions a l s ó p r o m o t e d m a n u f a c t u r i n g industry. By the m i d d l e of the

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19th century, the f i r s t large f a o t o r i e s o£ jnaöhine i n d u s t r y alsó öppeared* The 3®^- m long Chain Br i d g é v h i o h f i n a l l y p rov i d e d the f i r s t p e r m a n e n t link betvieen the tno f r á t e r n á l cities, naö o o n s t r u o t e d in the p e r i o d 1 8 4 2*-1 8 4 9*

Just as it had b e e n the f o o a l point of r a d i a l roads d u r i n g the M i d d l e Ages^ the oity a l s ó b e o a m e the oentre of H u n g á r ­ ián rail-way lines o o n s t r u o t e d a f t e r the b o u r g e o i s rev o l u - tion. This o o n o e n t r a t i o n of t h rough t raffí o is ole arly d e m o n s t r a t e d , even at present, b y the loc a t i ö n of b r i d g o s over the Danubeí a l o n g the 4 l o k m long H u n g á r i á n se oti on of the river, two b r i d g e s b e a r i n g t ra f f i o to C z e o h o s l o v a k i a

■were b u i l t north-víest of Budapest, tvio s o u t h of the oity, and as m a n y as eight p u b l i o and r a i l w a y b r i d g e s in the oap i t a i itself, a l o n g a s t r e t o h of 15 km, T he o o m m e n o e m e n t of s t e a m s h i p n a v i g a t i o n in the Dan u be h a d a great deal to do w i t h B uda p e s t b e o o m i n g one of the largest h a r b o u r s in tho C a r p a t h i a n Basin, D u r i n g the last third of the 19th oentury, the city v as r eg a r d e d ös a m a j o r oentre of trade and m o n e y marketing* Crops gr o wn in the Great H u n g á r i á n Piáin x e r e t r a n s p o r t e d to Ferenc vár o s, a d i s t r i o t of the c i t y \<here the largest m i l l i n g i n d u s t r y in o o n t e m p o r n n e o u a Európa n as d e v e l o p e d to p rocess the grains. The large city oreated a s i g n i f i c a n t la b o u r p o w e r and oonsumers* markét.

B e i n g in the i n t e r s e o t i o n of eight tr unk l i n o s , the city a lsó f a v o u r e d the e s t a b l i s h m o n t of i r o n an d m e t a l N á n d u s t r y w h i o h n as o o m p l e m e n t e d b y tho m a n u f a c t u r i n g of vehioles, T h e c o m p r o m i s e of l8 6 7> c o n c l u d e d b e t w e e n Au stria a nd • Hungary, p r e p a r e d the -way tewards the d e v e l o p m e n t of our n a t i o n a l oapitai, and oreated the p o l i t i o a l oond it i o n s of u n i t i n g the tno towns Buda and Pest.

7262/Lné*

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G r o n t h of the -population /in t h o u s c n d s / in the thre.e

"core tonn^ 11 b o t v e e n the c e s s at i on of T u r k j s h rule and the u ni ó n of the tonns., / 1 6 8 6 - 1 8 7 3 Á

Year Óbuda and Buda Post T o t á l

1 7 2o 9 f6 2 ,6 1 2 , 2

1786 24 j 8 22 r 9 47,7

1 8 5 1 5o*l 127,9 1 7 8,o

1869 0 0 1

2oo,4 270,4

Af t e r the uh io n in 1872-73, B u d a p e s t becarae nő t only the

mo s t d e n s e l y p o p u l a t e d city of H u n g a r y bút a l s ó a c o m p e t i t i v e ri v al of V ienna viithin the A u s t r o - K u n g o r i a n Monarchy, ew i n g to its niuoh mo re f a v o u r a b l e position* A c o n s c i o u s l y a p p l i e d n a t i o n a l p ol io y a g a i n p r o m o t e d the e x p a n s i o n of the capital.

It took h a r d l v half a c e n t u r v f ó r tho citv ?s p o p u l a t i o n to inorease. fourfold. T h u s . B u d a p e s t b e o a m e oiío of the m o3t

rcp.idly dovolopin^: large citios of K u r o p e . At the tirae of the unión, tho c apital stood only 17th atnong the large tcwns of Europe n i t h its 28o ooo i nha b ita n ts, bút b y the turn of the c en t u r y the city a d v n n c e d to the 8t h piacé on a c c o u n t of its p o p u l a t i o n i n c r e a o i n g to more than 3/4 cf 'fNmillion, The e x p a n s i o n of B u d a p e s t i ntő a large city m a y tlierefore be a t t r i b u t o d to the pro g r e s s of H u n g á r i á n o a p i t a l i s m d u r i n g the last third of the 19th contury, This a c o o u n t s f ó r its b e c o m i n g su oh a C en t r a l Eu ro p e o n large city that sti ll b ears

the f a v o u r a b l e and u n f a v o u r a b l e marka of its po r i o d of rapid grovth. Fór that v as the tirae v h e n B u da p e s t b e c a m o nőt only

7263/Lné.

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the m o s t i m p o r t a n t i n d u s t r i a l and coramunicstion centre of H u n g a r y bút a l s ó a f o c u s of c u l t u r a l and i n t o l l e c t u a l f unotions. By tho turn of the century, the p r e v i o u s l y a g r i o u l t u r a l se t t l e m e n t s a r o u n d the city grev intő i n ­ d u s t r i a l outskirts n u m b e r i n g s e v e r a l ten th ousan ds in- h a b i t a n t s /e,g, Ú j p e s t and Kispest/.

B e f o r e the First W o r l d War, the v e i g h t of the c a p i t a l Kitti- in the C a r p a t h i a n Ba s in could still b e r e g a r d e d as a p—

p r o p r i a t e in c o m p a r i s o n to the area governed, F o l l o v i n g the loss of the v a r and the Peace T r e a t y of T r i a n o n ,

h o v ev e r, b o u n d a r y a l t e r a t i o n s came intő effeot, d i m i n i s h i n g the oo u n t r y to one third of its p rev i o u s s i z e f an d the

c a p i t a l beoarae d i s p r o p o r t i o n a t e l y large. The "Budapest

p r o b l e m w , in its a c u t e f o r m ma y be dat ed f r o m 192o, B e t w e e n the tvo W o r l d Wars, - a l t h o u g h the g r o v t h of the p o p u l a t i o n l e s se n e d *» no e s s e n t i a l m e a s u r o s v é r e taken to k e e p u n d e r o ont r ol the e x p a n s i o n of this " h y p e r t r o p i c ” capital,

A d m i n i s t r a t i v e o hanges e f fec t ed a f t e r tho Se oond W o r l d W a r and the a n n e x a t i o n of v o r k m e n ' s o u tsk irts in 195°

f u r t h e r i n o r e a s e d the u n h e a l t h y ptfedominance of the city, As a result, H un gary, in s p ito of its sm all area, bocarae one of those co untries that ex h ib i t e d the g r e a t e s t ter- r i t o r i a l d i s p r o p o r t i o n s in Europe,

7264/Lné.

- lo -

v

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Somé d e m o g r a p h i c data on Bu d apes t

Y e a r Area P o p u l a t i o n D e n s i t y of P o p u l a t i o n T o t á l popula>- /kra / /in thou- p o p u l a t i o n of B u d a p e s t tion of the

s a n d s / / i n h a b , / as p e r c e n t - fi ve pr eva i l - , 2 j age of i n g , m o s t don*-

afl • totál s e l y popul.

p o p u l a t i o n oities in oom~

p a r i s o n to tha t of the c ap i t a l B u d a p e s t e

loo %

1872 194 2 8 o f 0 l,44o 2,0 io . 95

1 9 10 194 946,5 4 ?86o 4 , 8 1o 52

1930 206 lo9 5,o 5? 3°° 12 , 5 % 45

1950 525 1 5 9 o ;o 3 f o°4 1 7 , 3 % 28

1970 525 1 9 4o ,o 3*680 1 8, 8^0 35

It f o l l o w s f r o m the h i s t o r i c o l devolopnient d o s c r i b e d ab o v e that a l t h o u g h H u n g a r y is m o r e d e n s e l y p o p u l a t e d / l l 2 / k n / p than the Eui-opean a v e r a g e and the p r o p o r t i o n of to-wn

dvíellers is modiunij the count.ry is still p o o r l y urbanized.

Out of overy fiv e toun dvollers, two live in the capital, D i s r e g a r d i n g B ud apest, only one third of the pöpulat.ion are town dwellers, Of the nő r e than e i g h t y H u n g á r i á n ’towns, n őne can be olassed as a reá l large city on a E u r o p e a n

scalo, The p o o r state of u r b a n i z a t i o n outside the capital is a d e q u a t e l y i l l u s t r a t e d b y the f a c t that in 1974 the totál p o p u l a t i o n of the f i v e "large cities", -whose nuraber

- 1.1 - 7 265 / L n é

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of i n h a b i t a n t s exo e e d e d loo thoosand - i« e, M l a k o l o /192 4 7 2 / , D e b r e c e n /l75 162/, Péos / 1 5 8 4?8/, Szeged / I34 2 5 4 / a nd Győr / ll l 838/ - vas m e r e l y 771 4o4, a m o u n t i n g to a round one third of that of the capital.

This p r o p o r t i o n is u ni q u e in Europe,

A l t h o u g h atteropts h a v e a l r e a d y bee n tnade to a l l e v i a t e the u n h e a l t h y d i s p r o p o r t i o n of the oapital, the "Budapest

pr obl e m " is still one of the most p r e s s i n g g e o g r a p h i c a 1, s ooi a l and econ o m i o q u e s t i o n of the oountry, Aotually, m u o h has b e e n done r e o e n t l y to d e c r e a s e the nutnber of

emp l oyees in the m a n u f a o t u r i n g i n d u s t r y of Bud a p e s t b y a p u r p o s e f u l i n d u s t r i a l polioy, d o o o n t r a l i z a t i o n of i n d u s t r y as -Moll as seleo t i v o and i n t o n s i v e i n d u s t r i a l development.

N o v o r t h e l e s s , thr o u g h the c o n o e n t r a t i o n of s o-c a l l e d

"quality" I n d u s t ri es , v a l u e c r ea t i o n in the oap i t a l is s til l exaggerated*

M i g r a t i o n to B u d a p e s t has b e e n red u ced b y suoh m e a s u r e s as r e s t r i o t i o n of s e t t l i n g and p r o h i b i t i o n of reál estato pur- ohases, Hoviever, this led to the ra p i d s-welling of "aggloraera- tions" b e y o n d the limits of G r e a t c r Budapest, the area of

víiich had a l r e a d y b oe n f a r too large. In our opi n i o n the

"Budapest p r o b l e m " has nőt b e e n solved, r a t h e r it has s p r e a d over a d d i t i o n a l nroas, b e o o m i n g a r é g i ó n á l mattor, Today, we m ay r i g h t l y s p o a k of a B u d a p e s t agglomoráti-O*1

Tthioh is ol osoly linkod, in its oxistorioe, ■with tho oapital, T h e l i m i t a t i o n of thoso parts oould be a r g u e d about, and

indeed inany d i s c u s s i o n s ha ve b e e n h o ld on the topio, Offioially, 4 4 se t t l e m e n t s ar o u n d tho o apita l have b e e n listod in this o o n n e c t i o n sinoe 1971*

- 12 - 7266/Lné,

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If ve o o n s i d e r the t e r r i t o r i a l d y nam i cs of changes in the n u m b e r of i nh ab it an ts , tho nafcional s i t u o t i o n is un-

f avour ab l e, B e t v e e n the last tvo oonsi /l96o-1 97o /, tho capital* s p o p u l a t i o n g r o v t h %*as 7 and its share v i t h i n the oouritry i n o r e a s e d frora 18 , 1^ to l8f8^„ This is re- l a t i v e l y modest, H ov ever, the g r o v t h of 135 000 a m o u n t o d to 36% / l / of the totál p o p u l a t i o n i nore a s e re cordod d u r i n g the a b o v e de ca de in H u n g a r y r a o ountr y of vieak d e m o g r a p h i o vita lit y , and it v a s e x o l u s i v e l y a f f o r d e d by raigration, If add to this- mor e over* an e x t e n s i v e a g g l o - raeration z o n e r the p o p u l a t i o n of v h i c h is g r o v i n g ex-

c e e d i n g l y r a p i d l y a l s ó b e c a u s o of m i g r a t i o n /70 000 in one d e c a d e/ 7 then vio m a y státe that h e r e , in the heart of H ungary, t aking up a l t o g e t h or l T8(/o of the o o u n t r y1 s totál farea,, a c o u m u l a t e d 57 of, p o p u l a t i o n g r o w t h d u r i h g one deo a de i

2, T H E F A C E OF B U D A P E S T T O D A Y

CITYSCAPE. C I T Y PHENOMENA, L A N D U S E A M D S T R U O T U R E a / Outlines of oity s t r u o t u r e and the d e v e l o p m e n t of

ci t y s c a p e

As ve h a v e m e n t i o n o d above, B u d a p e s t grev i n t ő a large oity d u r i n g the e m e r g e n o e of H u n g á r i á n capitalism^/jL87o- 1 9 2o/, as a result of f r e q u o n t l y a n a r c h i o development, T ho o h a r a c t e r i s t i o f e a t u r e s of tho d e v e l o p m e n t of spat i a l

s t r u o t u r e v i l i b e s u m m a r i z o d b e l o v c The city had a large a d m i n i s t r a t i v e area a l r e a d y at the timo of the unión. Ve m a y f o r m an a u t h e n t i o p i c t u r e of the s i t u a t i o n if v e

oo mpare B u d a p e s t v i t h o o n t e m p o r a n o o u s Paris - as d e l i m i t e d

13 7267/Lné,

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b y H a u s s m a n - the m os t thiolcly b u i l t up and m o s t d e n s e l y p o p u l a t e d large oity of the then Europe.

C o m p a r i s o n of B u d a p e s t and Paris

Area/ k m ^ / P o p u l a t i o n D e n s i t y of /in t h o u s a n d s / p o p u l a t i o n 2

/ i n h a b * / k m /

B u d a p e s t / I872/ 194 28o 144 0

Paris /1860/ 78 1538 19943

In those t i m e s , i n d u s t r i a l out s kirts i n h a b i t e d b y m o r k e r s

■were p r e t t y o lo s e l y b u i l t to the a d m i n i s t r a t i v e b o u n d a r i o s of o o n t e m p o r a n e o u s Paris, the city b e i n g a l r e o d y c o n g o s t e d Tiith b u i l d i n g s and ovorpo pu lo te d, Paris and its outskirts,

c o n s t i t u t i n g a f u n o t i o n a l unit, m o r g e d a l r e a d y at that time, a l t h o u g h a d m i n i s t r a t i v e l y they are s t i l l i n d e p e n d o n t , even today, At tho timo of the unión, vjithin the a d m i n i s t r a t i v e b o u n d a r i o s of B ud a p e s t for e s t s , v i noy a r d s , orchards, f i e l d s ond p ost u r e s a l s ó o o c u r r e d in addition. to b u i l t u p aroas.

T h e o o m p a r a t i v e l y m o r ó g e n e r o u s l y d e l i m i t e d a d m i n i s t r a t i v e area of B u d a p e s t r e s u l t e d in a t w ofold c o n s e q u e n c e •which s ti ll i n f l u e n c e s the o i t y ’s p r e s e n t - d o y s t r u o t u r e on d land uso< In one respeot,: the ó uts k i r t zone /Újpest, Kispest, P e s t o r z s é b e t and C s e p e l / vihich ol o s o l y a d h e r e d to the a d — m i n i s t r a t i v e b o u n d a r i e s of tho c a p i t a l o w i n g to land s p e c u l a - tion, s p r a n g up et a d i s t a n o e f r o m tho oity's b u i l - u p oreos,

»

A g r o o t e r port of open spoces f o l l i n g b e t n e e n tho ro- s i d e n t i o l o n d i n d u s t r i a l ar eo s of the oity ond outskir ts

"Were m o s t l y b u i l t up on ly o f t e r the S econd W o r l d War, in

- 14 - 7268/Lné.

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195°$ v h e n unión intő G r e a t o r B u d a p e s t v a s achieved* The othor p e o u l i a r o o n s e q u e n c e v a s that the oro vd ed i n n e r oity, d e n s e l y c ovored v i t h s e v e r a l - s t o r i e d h o u s e s , had a r e l a t i v e l y s ma li area in o o n p a r i s o n to the v h o l e of Budapest, It oo ou p i e d only l/6 / l / of the a d n i n i s t r a t i v e area, oraraning 4 / 6 of the p o p u l a t i o n 0 This is v e l l il-

l u s t r a t e d b y data obt a i n e d b e t v e e n the tvo W orld Wars / 1 9 3o/.

C o a p a r i s o n of d o v n t o v n d i s t r i o t s and ou ts k i r t s in B uda p est

Area A r a 2/

P o p u l a t i o n D e n s i t y of /in t h o u s a n d s / p o p u l a t i o n2

/ i n h a b * A ra / D o v n t o v n d i s t r i o t s 32 714- 22 3 12

Outs kirts 174- 381 2 353

T o t a l 2o6 lo95 5 3oo

T h u s , tho adrainistrativo aroo of tho capit al shoved tr o b l o zono o h a r a o t e r i s t i c s b e f o r o tho Second W o r l d W a r .Be tv o on tho zones of thiok l y b u i l t - u p d o v n t o v n d i s t r i o t s amd open a g r i c u l t u r a l l a n d s , i n d u s t r i a l v o r k s and stores alt e r n a t e d , a l o n g r a i l v a y l i n e s , v i t h l o o s e l y c o vered settlementLS of f r e q u o n t l y v i l l a g e - l i k e a p p e ar a nce , c o n s i s t i n g of an un- c h a n g i n g p a t t é r a of s ep or at e ho u s e s and gardens, It v as al n o s t un i qu e aniont the lar^e citios of Europe v i t h popu la- tions o x o e e d i n g one m i l l i ó n that v i t h i n the a d n i n i s t r a t i v o qrop, p r o p o r of the ca p ita l tho na/iority of dvollinre h ou s e s

v o r o still s i n g l o - s t o r i e d . The s p r a v l i n g of suoh

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r e s i d e n t i a l q uá r t e r s g r e a t l y m a g n i f i e d the prö b l e m s of c o m m u n i o a t i o n and i n f r a s t r u o t u r e } a n d sti ll r e p r e s e n t s a s o u r o e of m u o h ooneern*

Due to a d v e r s e h o u s i n g co nd it i n n s in the capitalj a great m a n y p e o p l e m o v i n g to the c ity f r o m r u r a l areas oould f i n d

only etnployment there, As f ó r a o c o m od a tion j they had to be sa t i s f i e d ■with somé s e t t l e m e n t in the o uts k i r t z o n e f and o o mmu t e d d a i l y to their p i a c é of etnployment in Budapest.

The o a p i t a i and its e nvi r o n s o o n s t i t u t e d a c l o s e l y linked f u n c t i o n a l unit a l r e a d y at that time, N e v e r t h e l e s s } the a n n e x a t i o n of the -workmen’s ”red zone" to the c a p i t a l xa s o ppo s e d b y the oi ty counoil.

A f t e r 194-5f p o l i t i c a l c o n d i t i o n s -were ripe f ó r u n i t i n g B u ­ da pes t and its en virons w h i c h ha d a l r e a d y f o r m e d an i n t e g r o l H h o l e in eoonomy. T he u nión a f f e c t e d d e m o g r a p h i o data as follousi

Th e d e v e l o p m e n t of G r e a t e r B u dap e s t as r e f l e c t o d b v ma.1o;r inrlinc^s

Area Populatio:

/ k m ^ / / in thous.-™

a n d s /

P o p u l a t i o n D e n s i t y of N u m b e r of 'in th o us~ p o p u l a t i o g d i s t r i c t s

a n d s / i n h a b , / k m / B uda p e st

b e f o r e 1 9 5<> 2o6 1 057 5 131 14

Zone of o u tsk i r t s 319 532 1 667

8

G r e a t e r B u d a p e s t 525 1 59o 3 oo4

22

16 - 727o/Lnó,

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By this G r e a t e r B ud ap es t still r e m a i n o d one of tho large oities of the o o n t i n e n t on a E u ro p o a n soale, tak ing the 8th p i a c é in 195o and the loth in 1974. Moreover, it b o - oamo the largest i n d u s t r i a l oity of C e n t r a l Europe, On the other hand, its p r o d o m i n a n c e "within tho co untry has as- sumod i n o o m m e n s u r a t e proportions,

From tho p o i n t of viev of urbanism, tho i m p o r t a n c o of the unión lios in f a o i l i t a t i n g u ni f o r m control, p l a n n i n g a nd devolop m en t . Yet, the l a r g e r area e n t a i l e d a d d i t i o n a l pro- blems, T h e s e p r e s e n t e d t hem s elv e s m o s t l y in tho v a r y i n g i n a d o q u a o y of i n f r a s t r u c t u r e and oom m u n a l sorvices in formeJr S m a l l e r B u d a p e s t and one - tim e o utskirts /nov/

p e r i p h e r a l distriots/. Somé of tho p r o b l e m s still exist at present,

Dui'ing tho fi fties, one of the most u rgont e c o n o m i o objo ct i v e s of the c o u n t r y -was to o reate a h e a v y i n d u s t r y ca pa b l e of

m a n u f a c t u r i n g p r o d u c i n g equipment. In thoso days little m o n o y could b o a l l o t t e d to h o u s i n g and o o m m u n a l i n v e s t m o n t o c

Hcrwever, the l ar ge r oa p i t a l a t t r a c t o d more po o p l o f r o m rural areas. D u r i n g the f i ft i e s , e x p a n d i n g i n d u s t r y and b u i l d i n g i n d u s t r y a l m o s t u n r o s t r i c t e d l y s n a t c h e d up a l l manpovjer

m i g r a t i n g to the capital. Bút the a v a i l a b i l i t y of alciost in- n u m o r a b l o e m p l o y n e n t o p p o r t u n i t i e s could only b o s u p p o r t e d b y v e r y m o d e s t h o u s i n g conditions, T o o h e c k the a r m y of

j ob- s o ek e rs t h r o n g i n g to the capital, cer t a i n sanc tio ns ha d to b e applied, suc h as p r o h i b i t i o n of s e t t l i n g and re- st r i o t i o n of r e á l estato purchasos. C o n s o q u o n t l y , ono could ob sor v o a proooss s i m i l a r to that taking plaoo at tho be~

g i n n i n g of the c o n t u r y - b ú t u n d o r d i f f e r o n t s o o i o - e c o n o m i c circum s ta n oes* A s i g n i f i c a n t part of p e o p l o a r r i v i n g in tho

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cap i ta l a n d f i n d i n g eraploynent there viere conp ell od to reraain b o y o n d the adniinistrative bo u n d a r i e s , •which led to a r a p i d p o p u l a t i o b sviell in the n g g l o a o r a t i o n zone a r o u n d the city, This has a l r e a d y b e e n n u m e r i c a l l y il- l u s t ra t e d in this paper, The B uda p e s t problera has b e e n n ő t solved, r a t h e r it has spread over la r g e r areas, H a v i n g de s c r i b e d the a b o v e phenonen a , vie s h a l l now atterapt to ou tli n e the f u n c t i o n a l d i v i s i o n of the capital,

b / Tho f u n o t l o n o l d i v i s i o n of Duclnpost

S i n i l a r i y to o t h e r large Eur o p e a n cities, the s p a t i a l se- p a r a t i o n of r e s i d e n t i a l and -working di s tric ts, i, o, the f u n c t i o n a l d i v i s i o n of tho city, can be cl early obs orv ed in Budapest, The n a t u r a l axis of city s truc t u r e is the Danubo, On the l e f t u b á n k p i a i n , tho g r o w t h of s p r a n l i n g Pest «a s n ő t h i n d e r é d b y n a t u r a l o b stacles and the city I f r e e l y e x te n d ö d in the d i r e c t i o n of r a d i a l l y d i v e r g i n g conraunicatidn b r t e r i é ő öt a rapid £>ace, fortning c o n c e n t r i o zonos of n e v l y c o n q u e r e d areas, Iíere one can p e r c e i v e a z o n e - l i k e p a t t e r n of r e s i d e n t i a l and "working districts,

Th e f u n c t i o n a l s t r u c t u r e of Buda, bu i l t on the v a r i e d ro- lief of the right bank, has b e e n d i s t o r t e d and i m p e r f e c t l y developod.

The h o a r t of the city is D is tri c t V. on tho Post s i d e .

This c o ntains a h i s t o r i c a l coro b o u n d e d by Stnall B o u l e v a r d on the east and a g o v e r n n e n t oentre to the n o r t h /Parliaraent, M i n i s t r i e s / in w h i c h g r eat conraercial officos and b a n k i n g h o u s e e f u n c t i o n e d at one tine, B e t n e e n these two parts one f ind s the oity of Pest, The area just d e s o r i b e d r e p r e s o n t s

18 ->

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I

the f i r s t n o r k i n g z o n e . U n d e r H u n g á r i á n oonditions. one oannot s p e a k of a o it y in a sense one viould n h e n thi nki ng of L o n d o n ? ebe o o r r e s p o n d i n g ^rea of 3 u d a p e s t b e i n g nraoh s m a l l e r and m o r e m o d e s t l y developed, A series of s p e c i a l i z e d e l égant ahops h a v e a l s ó f o u n d piacé here* We m a y state,

though,, ihat Di s t r i c t V. houses, the most i m p o r t ant of f i ces of publ.io a d m i n i s t r a t i o n ♦ economios, trade, and tourism. _in_

the o o u n t r y n City c h a r a o t e r i s t i o s are viell d e m o n s t r a t e d b y a s t ea d y f a l i in p o p u l a t i o n -whioh n u m b e r e d 67 oóo in 1960 a nd 58 300 in 1973. Alsó, in spite of the d e n s e l y b u i l t - u p

p

a r e a 7 t h e d e n s i t y o f p o p u l a t i o n / 2 2 5 0 0 / k m ”/ i s c o m p a r a t i v - e l y lo-wer* t h a n t h a t i n s u r r o u n d i n g p a r t s , V e r y h i g h i s t h e

p e r o e n t a g e of pe op le e m p l o y e d in t e r t i a r y b r a n c h e e /Q5l°/*

In the oi t y area of 2,6 k m , approxiraátely 12o~ l3o thousond 0 p e o p l e viork in a b o u t 1600 i n s t i t u t e s and 2ooo shops, Somé 5oo u a r e h o u s e s and 2oo v o r k s h o p s hav e b e e n e s t a b l i s h e d in the area, the n u m b e r of -which is thought to be r e l a t i v e l y high, An a v e r a g e of 300-350 thousand p eople v i s i t the c ity daily, i n o l u d i n g employees, p eop l e a t t e n d i n g to thoir

b u s i n e s s in the v a r i o u s offioes, s h o p p e r s , tourists a n d m én of leisure, The a v e r a g e d a y t i m e p o p u l a t i o n is half-sa- m i l l i o n c The s m a l l - t r a d i n g part of the o i t y penet rat osy a l o n g tho m a i n thr o u g h roads / R á k ó o z i ut, N é p k ö z t á r s a s á g

útja, L o n i n körút/, like feele rs, intő the t h i o k l y b u i l t - u p f i r s t r e s i d e n t i a l zone.

The Centre of the o r i g i n a l l y e X c e n t r i o a l l y sit u a t e d ca p i t a l spread a or os s the b r ó a d D anube f r o m tho íeft b a n k to tlie righé, and in this v/ay tho f ü n o t i o n a l l y a l r e a d v clo solv linK o d C.ostloj Quflrtőrs , /Dio,ti\i.ot X. A of: .B.üd,a b o o o m o a oom p l o m o n t of tho o i t y . This dis'iíiriöt has íiö-w lööi its f o r m e r f u n o t i o n of b e i n g the oontre of govern ment, tho

7273/hné,

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Ki n g *s Seat h a v i n g b e e n ceasod and the m i n i s t r i e s trans- f e r r ö d to Pest* The r e s i d e n t i a i q u a r t e r s of the Castle ha v e b e e n r e c o n s t r u o t e d in thsir o r i g i n a l beauty, Its m o n u m e n t s s i g h t s s r e s t s u r o n t s and n i g h t clubs a t t r a o t m a n y v i s i t o r s f r e n d e r i n g the dis t r i c t one of the most

s p e c t a o u l a r sites of to u ris m in Budapesté The Castle, -whioh served as the King*s r e s i d e n o e in old e n d a y s , has b e e n

o o m p l e t e l y renovatód, and now h o use s a oult u r a l centre, library, art gallery* munoura and v a r i o u s s o i e n t i f i o in-

stitutes, A l t h o u g h the r e s i d e n t i a i c h a r a o t e r of the d i s t r i o t has b e e n preservedj a f a l i in the nurnber of i n h a b i t a n t s has b e g u n in reoent years /l97og 45 l o o ? 1973* 4 4 loo/, The d e n s i t y of p o p u l a t i o n / 1 3 300/km / is rauoh Iq yer than that in the i n n e r parts of Pest*

In Pest the f i r s t -working zone is en c ir o l e d by the f i r s t r e s i d e n t i a i zone„ In c ont r a st to this, tho c o r r e s p o n d i n g seot i on of Buda is f o l l o w e d b y a long s t r i p of the f i r s t r e s i d e n t i a i area r s t r e t c h i n g a l o n g the Danufcro f ó r q u i t e a distanoe„ Bet-ween the unión of the oity and First W o r l d War, X h e n l a r g e -soale b u i l d i n g o p e rat i o n s n e r e m a d e p o s s i b l e b y b o o m i n g capitalism, these .residentiai zones c o n s i s t e d of « d e n s e l y b u i l t te nem e nt houses, i n t o r r u p t e d only b y a fen s t y l i s h a v e n u e s such as N é p k ö z t á r s a s á g útja and Nagy-körut, On the Pest s i d e y D i s t r i c t s V I0 , V l lo^ n d VIII# as M e l l as the i n n e r pqrts of D i g t r i o t s IX, and XIII, are i n O l u d e ^ in this z o n e0 The d e n s i t y of p o p u l a t i o n is v o r y high, a m o m n t 4 ^ g to m o r e than 30 oo o / k m on the a v e r a g e and e x o e e d i n g

2

50 000/ k m in the most d e n s e l y p o p u l a t e d D ist r i c t VII, In these 2 v a l u a b l e i n n e r areas, n ex t to pu b l i o b u i l d i n g s of p r o m i n e n t i m p o r t a n o e , one f in ds the "grey zone" of d u e l l i n g h ouses

•which h a v e b e e n d i l a p i d a t o d f ó r n e a r l y a h u n d r e d years.

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B e i n g n e l l on the w a y to beootning sluma, theso a r e a s re- p re s o n t b l o m i s h o s in tho to v nsoapo ond an objoot of gravo c on oern f ó r town oo u n o i l l o r s w h o s e plans ha vo a l r e a d y in—

cluded t h o i r e l i m i n a t i o n and rebuild i ng, Somé of these areas a r e q u i t e s h a r p l y d e f i n e d on the Pest side, n e ö r the outskirts. F ór e x a m p l e , one f i n d s a s u o o e s s i o n of te nement h o u s e a on the i n n n o r side of H á m a n Kató Roa d and M o z6 Imre R oad and a s eries of f a o t o r i e s r w o r k s h o p s a n d r a i l v a y ar e a s on the op p os i t e side,

Ga the Buda side, s u o h a r e a s m a y be d i s t i n g u i s h e d a r o u n d the Castle, at a o o n s i d e r a b l e elevation, e x t e n d i n g b y a nd large up to Buda Boulevard, H e r e the f i r s t r e s i d e n t i a l zone m e r g o s d i r e o t ly , ■without a n y n o t i o e a b l e b o r d é r line, int ő the

seo o nd one o o n s i s t i n g of el e g a n t s u b u r b a n v i l l á s p e r o h i n g on the h i l l side. R e s i d e n t i a l q uar t e r s in n e e d of r e b u i l d i n g a l s ó ooc u r in Óbuda,

P r o c e e d i n g f r o m the f i r s t r e s i d e n t i a l zone in an outw ard direotion, one enco u nte r s the seoond n o r k i n g zone i n o l u d i n g e s t a b l i s h m e n t s n e o e s s i t a t i n g the uso of large spaoes, s uch as f a o t o r i e s , store houses, r a i l v a y termini, hospitals, oemeter i e s, eto, A c h a r a o t e r i s t i o f e a t u r e of this zone is that its c o m p o n e n t s are r a t h e r scatterod, and it does nőt oonstitu*>o, evon in Pest, a o o m p l e t e l y olosed r i n g f o l l o n i n g the r e g u l a r o irole of the p rev i o u s zone. Parts of :M^jpenetrato in tő the b e i t of f o r m e r o u t s k i r t s in raany plaoes. Thi s i n ­

dus trial zone is i n o o m p l e t e on tho Buda side, e x t e n d i n g only in a n o r t h e r n and S o u t h e r n direction, v i t h s p o r a d i o a l l y oor o u r r i n g i n d u s t r i a l vorks. In the oa p i t a l the f o l l o v i n g mai n i n d u s t r i a l areas - v e d g e d in b e t v e e n residetttial d i s t r i o t s in m a n y p l a p es - and d o m i n a n t i n d u s t r i a l b r a n o h e s m a y bo

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d is ti n g u i s h e d :

I, N o r t h e r n Buda Óbuda / b u i l d i n g aat e r i a l , a a o h i n e i n d u s t r y /

K e l e n f ö l d / t e x t i l e industry/; L á g y m á n y o s / a a o h i n e industry/; B u d a f o k / m i s c e l - l a n e o u s /

A n g y a l f ö l d / m a c h i n e indust ry/; Újp e s t / t e x t i l e and l e a t h e r I n d u s t r i e s /

Jó z s e f v á r o s / a a o h i n e industry/; K ő b á n y a /a ao hi ne , f o o d and b u i l d i n g m a t o r i a l In du st ri e s /; K isp e s t / t e x t i l e and a a o h i n e I n d u s t r i e s /

F e r e n o v á r o s / f o o d and a a o h i n e I n d u s t ries/ ; S o r o k s á r / a a o h i n e i n d u s t r y /

M e t a l l u r g y , m a c h i n e i n d u s t r y

T h e s eoond r e s i d e n t i a l zone tífedges in b e t w e e n large i n d u s t r i a l e s t a b l i s h m e n t s on the one hand, and i n o o r p o r a t e s the r e ­

s i d e n t i a l q u a r t e r s of p e r i p h e r a l d i s t r i o t s on the other. B e i n g o o n s i s t e n t u i t h p r e v i o u s f i n d i n g s , one a g a i n can state that h o u s i n g f u n o t i o n exte n ds f a r b e y o n d the b o u n d a r i e s of G r e a t o r B u da pest, i n t ő the a g g l o m e r a t i o n beit, As d i s t a n c e i n c r e a s o s f r o m the oapitai, tho r e s i d e n t i a l s o cti o ns of those n h o d a i l y

o o mmu t e to the city s pl it in tő is l ands of houses, At still g r e a t e r d i s ta nces, s in gl e h o u s e s or f l ats in f a r - a w a y

v i l l a g e s or tonna i n d i o a t e the hornes of commuters, One of tho g u i d i n g p r i n o i p l e s a p p l i o d in the d o l i m i t a t i o n of tho B u d a p e s t a g g l o m e r a t i o n vias the e s t i n a t i o n of the p r o p o r t i p n of co mm u t e r s as oo mp a r e d to those v o r k i n g locally.

T h e second r e s i d e n t i a l zone i nol u dos a great v a r i e t y of b u i l t - u p areas, Most f r e q q o n t are tho loo s ely oov e r o d parts,

- 22 - II. S o u t h e r n Buda

III, N o r t h e r n Pest IV, E a s t e r n Pest

V, S o u t h e r n Pest 4

VI, C s e p e l Island

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c o n s i s t i n g of* su bu r b a n ho u s e s -with gardens, the i n h a b i t a n t s of -which often pra c t i s e two k i n d s of o c c u pat ion s /e,g» the Rákos distri o ts /, O o c a s i o n a l l y the zone i n c o r p o r a t e s the oe ntr e s of m o r e d e v e l o p e d s uburbs -with s e v e r a l - s t ő r i e d

i «

b u i l di ngs j p r e s e n t i n g the a p p e a r a n c e of a city /e,g, Ú j ­ pest/, In m a n y pl aóes the p i o t u r e of an a n n e x e d f o r m e r

v i l i á g é has b e e n p r e s e r v e d / e , g # Soroksár, Budafok/, It wos raostly the open spaces of this zone, un b uil t f ó r a long

tinó, that p ro v i d e d ro o m f ó r ne-w h o u s i n g e s tates in the niiddle of the 196os, Suoh neu r e s i d e n t i a l areas in Zugló* Ú j p a l o t a t K e l e n f ö l d and Őrmező p la yo d a d e c i s i v o part in t r a n s f o r m i n g the t own s oa p o d u r i n g the pást docade,

3. Q U E S T I O N S OF T H E D E V E L O P M E H T OF T H E B U D A P E S T A G G L O M E R A T I O N A » The concept and d o l i n i t a t i o n of tho B u d a p e s t agglomera_tion T h ® B u d a p e s t a g g l o m e r a t i o n . c o n s i s t i n g of the oapi tal and its s u r r o u n d i n g 4 4 settlemonts, vías a p p r o v e d b y the G o v e r n ­ m e n t as a p l a n n i n g - d e v e l o p m e n t area in 1971* Its d e l i m i t a -

tion is s t i l l a k n o t t y p r o b l o m y g i v i n g rise to m a n y a d e b a t e betrween b o t h folloviers and opponents,

\íe h a v e a l r e a d y m e n t i o n o d the size, p r e d o m i n a n o e an d at- tr ac t ive f o r c e of Budapest, u n d o u b t e d l y e x e r t i n g an

f l u e n c e on the víhole country, The "hypertr o phi o" oapit al a l s ó aff e c t s the p a t t e r n of sofcllements and the ordor of m a g n i t u d e of tovns, As d i s t a n c e in c rea s es f r o m B u d a p e s t so its a t t r a o t i o n diminish e s, and the n u m b e r of i n h a b i t a n t s of towns i n c r e a s e s p r o p o rti o nat e ly, Due to tho p r e d o m i n a n o e of the oapital, roal large oitios - d e s i g n a t e d as suoh b y

- 23 - 7277/Lné,

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a Eu ro p e a n scale - n i t h p o p u l a t i o n s e x c e e d i n g 5oo ooo oould nő t e aerge in Hungary, The H u n g á r i á n "large c i t i e s " , n h i c h h a v e b e e n f o r c e d to settle n e a r the f r o n t i e r re g i o n s of the country, h av e p o p u l a t i o n s of l o o -2oo thousands,

R e c e d i n g frora the capital, the towns c o n s t i t u t e three zones as follo-ws*

a / The imtnediate v i c i n i t y of the capital, c o v e r i n g an area of 30 kra radius, is o h e r a o t e r i z e d b y snall

tovins, n ő n e of K h i o h h av e p o p u l a t i o n s e x c e e d i n g 30 000 /e,g, Vácj S zentendre, G ö döl lő and S z á z h a l o m ­ batta/,

b / At d i s t a n c e s of 60 to loo kn, a n o d i u a tovn zone is situated, w i t h p r e d o a i n a n t l y "n e d i u n tovfns11 n u a b e r i n g 50-75 t housand i n h a b i t a n t s /e,g. Tata bá n y a , Szé kes- f e hé rvár, Dun a ú j v á r o s , K ecsk e mét , Szolnok, S a l g ó ­

tarján/.

0/ The "large c i t i e s " f s u ch as Miskolc , Debrecen, Szeged, Pécs and Győr, w i t h p o p u l a t i o n s of loo to 2oo thousand, őre in an outer zone, in the f r o n t i e r regions, at

di s t a n c e s of n őr e than loo k a f r o n the centre,

Due to the a t t r a c t i o n of the capital, •which ext e n d s ove r the

•whole oountry, al l efforts di r e c t e d to the un a n b i g u o u s d e ­ lied, tation of the "Budapest region" have failed, f ó r every raethod p r e s e n t e d had its v u l n e r a b l e spot, It is als ó beyon d a r g u n e n t that the oe n t r a l part of tho oo u n t r y ex hibits nu oh too c o n p l e x sp a t i a l s t r u o t u r e to alloví its c o n s i d e r a t i o n w i t h i n the s inple scheae of B u d a p e s t and its area of a t t r a c -

tiop. The r é g i ó n á l o r g a n i z a t i o n of oe n t r a l parts lying out-

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side B u d a p e s t oalls f ó r the d e v e l o p n e n t of a zone of s u i t a b l e nediura tonns f r o n the p r é s é n t ~ d a y i n a d e q u a t e i n n e r ring

of tonna, T h u s5 the e x p a n s i o n of M o n o r f D a b a s , R á c k e v e and B io sk e intő larger t o n n a s in a d d i t i o n to those a l r o a d y nentionoáij is d ee ne d to be h i g h l y desirable,

A s i g n i f i c a n t part of the a rea f a l l i n g b e t w e e n B u d a p e s t and the i n n e r r i n g of tonna just m e n t i o n o d f o r n s a v e r y clos e l y linked unit n i t h the c a p i t a l as regards g e o g r a p h i c a l po si- tion, populat i on* e n p l o y n e n t v h e a l t h service, e d u c a t i o n and o a l tur a l institutio ns, D e v e l o p n e n t can only be e n v i s a g e d in c o o r d i n a t i o n n i t h that of the capital. The 1960 g e n e r á l r é g i ó n á l d e v e l o n e n t plán a s s i g n e d as n a n y as 64 s o t t l o n e n t s to the a g g l o n eration * The "General T onn P l a n n i n g P r o g r a n of B u d a p e s t and its E n v x r o n s " . a p p r o v e d in 1971? d e l i n i t e d the agglonieration to 4 4 s e t t l e n e n t s ? r e l y i n g upon d e t a i l e d g e o ­ graph ica l , eoonoaic, d e m o g r a p h i c7 etc, analyses. This p r o ­ g r a n f u r n i s h o s a b a s i s f ó r pre s e n t and i ong ran gé devolopnient alike,

3. Or^a.qj.zqtlon of _spaoe.,_jn the B u d a p e s t ag/?loaeration

G e o g r a p h i c a l space n a y be r ed u o e d to the el enent s of a b s t r a c t space, Th e c o n p onent s of throo-dinerisional g e o n e t r i c a l space are tv/o d i n e n s i o n a l planesj o n o - d i n o n s i o n a l lines an d zero- d i n o n s i o n a l points* A p p l y i n g the ana log y , one n a y sta4;G that reál g e o g r a p h i c a l space is alsó co n pos e d of con cr e t e elenents

•Which can be d er i v e d f r o n those d o s c r i b e d above„ T h o s o

elenen t s n a y be b o t h n a t u r a l f e a t u r e s and so c i a l p h e j ^ n9nn«, Fór e x a m p l e r the p o t e n t i a l ce ntros of a t t r a otion ^ suoh as r e s i d e n t i a l a r e a s P p laces of o n p l o y n e n t and therraal springs,

7279A n é ,

*• 25

(27)

a p p é a r as point.s.? The .^j n e s of i^orce e o n n e c t i n g these points ee g* ooraniuni^cötion or r iv er sy'stems y r e p r e s e n t the linear e le ments of g e o g r a p h i o a l space, Finally. the areas of \J

v a r i o u s usoj e rt g„ o ul ti v a t e d latids or s ections b overed v i t h ori g i n a l v e g e í a t i o n ? r e s i d e n t i a l or i n d u s t r i a l d i s 4-

triots s i l l u s t r a t e e r e a l eletuentsr

T he i n t e r a o t i o n of stich j oi nt ly f u n o t i o n i n g b a s i o elements f o r m s a s t at i o snatial. a t r q c ture at a c e rtai n fixed point

Of time„ T h e i r to mp o r a i o h a n g o f on the o ther h a n d , gives rise to a o o n s t a n t l y d e v o l o p i n g d y n amic spat ial s t r u o t u r e .

i*

In this ooíütextp r é g i ó n á l p l a n n i n g is n o t h i n g else bút the op ti mum o o o r d i n o t i o n of these e l e m e n t s f víith due c o n s i d o r a — tion paid to b o t h ec on om ic and e c olo g io oonditions. In the follotting d e s c r i p t i o n n e shall outline the p r i n o i p l o pro- b l o m s of the d e v e l o p m e n t of suoh elements in c o n n e o t i o n

•With the B ud a p e s t a g g l o m e r a t i o n as d e f i n o d b y the 1971 program,,

a * / Th.^, .po, l a a u s 0 ^ g a 3 L s E a s a ^

T h e d e v e l o p m e n t of the oa pi ta i and that of its envir ons w e r e purstjrnÜ p r a c t i c a l l y s e p o r a t e l y until 197o# The do- v e l o p m e n t plán of B u d a p e s t was •workod out b y the Bu dap e s t Tc wn P l a n n i n g Company* U p to 1 9 7 o ; the oap itai c o n s í s ^ e d of a oity core ■which has b o e o m e overcro^öled d u r i n g spo nta - no ou s h i s t o r i o a l dovolopnionts e x h i b i t i n g all the e h a r a c t e r - istics of a large town, and a ring of p e r i p h o r a l d is-

txdots in w h i o h sorvioos u o r o f r o q u o n t l y inadoquato, Tho d e v e l o p m e n t plans of those 4 4 s e t t l o men t s that sur ro u n d tho o a p i ta i vioro* propai’ed b y a n o t h o r p l a n n i n g instit uto .

26 -

720o/Lnó,

(28)

Only tvo of theso e n v i r o n m e n t a l v i l l a g e s h a v e ó t t a i n o d the status of a tovn so far: Szentendre, a pi acé of h i s t o r i c a l a tmosphe r ey and S z á z h a lom b att a , one of our n e v e s t s oo i a l i s t tovnsj

T he city oore, v h i o h had b ee n f o r m e d in the c ourse of h i s t o r i c a l d eve l o p m e n t , v as qu i te s u ita b le io f u l f i l its f u n o t i o n of c en t r a l c o n t r o l f ó r a íong tirao, s i m i l a r l y to

o t her large E uropean oities* E f f i o i e n o y in this res peot v a s l a rg e l y due to the f o r e s i g h t of our p r e d e c e s s o r s vho,

in p r e p a r i n g the f i r s t d e v e l o p m e n t plán of B u d a p e s t a h u n d r e d y e a r s ago, had en vi s a g e d a large c i t y nurabering

tvo m i l l i ó n i n h a b i t a n t s in the long rangé, and o r g a n i z e d b a s i c equipment, i n f r a s t r u c t u r e and c o m m u n i c a t i o n n o t v o r k a co or din g ly . The d a y - t i m e p o p u l a t i o n of the cap ital r e a c h e d

that n u m b e r b y the 196os, B y then the city v a s so "filled u p ” that d i s o r d o r s b e c a m o a c ommon o c c u r r e n c e in its d a i l y s?unctions« The ef fects of o v e r c r o v d i n g shoved at sev eral

levels s

a / To k o o p a b r e a s t v i t h g e n e r á l oco n o m i o d e v e lopm ent , the o s t a b l i s h m e n t of név i n s t i t u t i o n s and o v e r - a l l eh- l a r g e m e n t of old ones could nő t be d e f e r r e d a n y longer, b / T ho g r o v i n g nurabor of i n h a b i t a n t s and r i s i n g s t a n d a r d a

of l iv ing ha vo e n t a i l o d a s i g n i f i c a n t d e v e l o p m e n t in tortiar*y branohes,

c / Tho n a r r o v stroets of the c i t y core, b u i í t to ac- c o mm o d a t e "h or se -d ra vn v e h i c l o s ”, have no v n a t u r a l l y p r ov e d to be i n a d e q u a t e f ó r m o d e r n m o t o r oar traffio and p a r k i n g faoili ti os .

7281/Lná,

- 27

(29)

d / In this akolio n a gg lo a e r a t i o n ^ d i s t a n c e s befrween re~

s i d e n t i a l aroas and p laces of enployraent h a v e in- or e ased to a c o n s i d e r a b l o extent, vihich has led to a broakdo'wn in p u b l i c t r ans p o r t and oo ngosted traf- f i c b e t K e o n the c entre and suburbs„

B ud a p e s t is o oi ty of c h o r a o t e r i s t i c a l l y n o n o o e n t r i c stru- oture„ C e n t r a l o d u i n i s t r a t i o n y trade? education, cu lt u r a l f u n c tion s , o n t e r t a i n n o n t ond to u r i s n ha v e a l l b e e n d e s i s i v e - ly c o n o o n t r o t e d in tho c i t y ooro. In order to solve the

probléma, the i n n e r port of tho c ity ous t be d eoentralized, P r o v i o u s l y those s u g g o s t i o n s p r e v a i l e d that a i n o d ot

" p r o p o r t i o n o t o l y d e v o l o p i n g a l l p o r i p h o r o l d i s t r i c t s to c o u n t e r b a l a n c e the ononnou s ci ty e o r e ö Bút this ideo f ö i l e d b o c o u s o its impleraontotion t j o uIű havo i n v o l v e d the f r i t -

toring and d i s p o r s i o n of f i n o n c i a l rosources,

Efforts m o d o in this c o n n e c t i o n since the liborotion, such os tho ostoblishrnont of d e c o n t r o l i z o d iitostitutions, ex-

t e ns i on of pu b l i c tronsportj f o u n d a t i o n of new h o u s i n g e s totes and b u i l d i n g of s u b u r b a n d o p a r t n e n t stores, hove nő t p r o ve d e ff io io nt e n o u g h to coll intő b e i n g urbon centres in outer distriots* C o n s e q u e n t l y , s uburbon poo ple hód to trovol to the c e n t r o ? evőn to o v o i l thoniselves of s e c o n d o r y sorvicos*. Tho s it uo t i o n no s s t i l l •worse in the e n v i r o n o o n t o l s e t t l e m o n t s •where, o-wing to i n c r e o s e d m i g r o tion, e l e m e n t o r y su pplios f ó r the p o p u l o t i o n viere mucii m o r e i n o d o q u o t o that those in c o u n t r y s e t t l e m o n t s of the sane r a n k f h a v i n g

i d ő n ti col n u m b e r of inhobitonts,,

Th o cornplicated tosk of r e l i o v i n g city cen tres is K e l l k n o n n in o ll lorgo cities t h rou g hou t tho \>orld bút so lutio ns moy

m 28 7282/Lné,

(30)

diffor,, d e p e n d i n g on local oonditions„ In H u n g a r y tho Bu­

da pes t T o v n P l a m i i n g Coiapany v o r k e c out u n i f o r m plans f ó r a m o r e even d i e t r i b u t i o n of servicG30 A o c o r d i n g to the s p e c i a l i s t a t there aro three p o s s i b l e w a ys of r o a l i z i n g these plansí

l / M o d e r n i z a t i o n of the city oentrej

2 / Ex t e n s i o n of the oity oentre to the detriraent of n e i g h b o u r i n g a r e a s ; and

3/ E s t a b l i s h m e n t of looal ce ntres in the suburbs

V

— • ~i r^* M o d e r n i z a t i o n of the oi ty o e n t re1 — • ~T ^T--%-.t. JTJIil "»iiw ■%;« « «» .»a«Mtu«afaiaraaK.taftCi

In 1968 plans v e r e aiade f ó r the r e c o n s t r u c t i o n of the Inner City„ T h e sö a imed at i n t e n s i v e l y d e v e l o p i n g the n a t i o n a l c e n t r e0 One of the m ai n tasks ? i n c l u d e d in the plán, vas to r e o r g a n i z o i n o s p a c i t á l o d p u b l i c t r a u sport / c o n s t r u o t i o n of a v e h i o u l a r tűnnél u n d e r the Danube, t r a n s f o r m a t i o n of the Pest b a n k intő a t v o ~ v a y a peed road v e h i c u l a r axis,

forraatiOn of a l o n g i t u d i n a l n o r t h - t o - s o u t h t r a f f i c - o o l l e o t i n g road a l o n g tho b a o k b o n e of the aroa, and b u i l d i n g of sev er- a l ~ s t o r i e d p a r k i n g s ta ti oh s and p o d o s t r i a n subways at b u s y

junotions/a The exiotirrg M o t ro linó and tvo nov ones plán- nod, a ll three laeeting u n d o r the I n n o r City, v i l i r e n d e r P u b l i c transport to and frora tho auburbs unintor rupte d. A

minimura of sovon Motx’o st at i o n s v i l i bui l t in the Inp er City, o n s u r i n g q u i o k and o o m ^ o r t a b l ó a ccoss to a n y part of tho oity c ontro frora all p o s s i b l o direotionsc Extant va o a n t lots v i l i b e used f ó r b u i l d i n g adrainistrativo centres, of- f i o e s ? coraraoroial ostablishraontsr and i n s t i t u t i o n s of h i g h e r

oduoation* From tha point of viev of t r a d e . a p e d e s t r i a n p as s a g e systora In the ínnor City,- and a sorios of h o t e l s

- 29 ~

7283/Lnép

Ábra

Fig.  1. Jaíiioí Avjíátu Ppejme^yer SZENTENDRE Pomix Cíobflnta

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